Exercise Physio LAB 1.txt

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Exercise Physio LAB 1.txt
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  1. What is electromyography (EMG)?
    recording of the electrical events of muscular contraction (i.e, the muscle action potential)
  2. What does EMG activity reflect? How does EMG activity relate to muscle contraction?
    An electromyogram generates two recordings of the electrical events of muscular contraction.

    One recording is a raw response in terms of amplitude (size of EMG response) and frequency. An increase in the amplitude of an EMG reflects an increase in recruitment of more motor units during muscular contraction; it may also reflect to a certain extent a recruitment of larger motor units. An increase in the frequency of an EMG reflects the more frequent firing of motor units.

    The second EMG recording is an integrated response combining amplitude and frequency. As amplitude and/or frequency of the raw EMG response increases, the slop of the integrated response will become steeper reflecting an overall increase in EMG activity and hence, an increase recruitment and firing of motor units.
  3. EMG response and relationship to motor recruitment patterns during increaseing workloads without fatigue
    The raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as the slope of the integrated EMG response should increase with the increasing work as more motor units are needed to increase force production.

    • EXAMPLE:
    • Initially, slow-twitch (SO) motor units may be used to produce 10 kg of force followed by the addition of fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG) motor units to produce 20 kg and 30 kg of force; eventually, as maximum force production capabilities are approached at 30 kg and reached at 40 kg of force, fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) motor units will also be recruited in addition to SO and FOG motor units.
  4. EMG response and relationship to motor recruitment patterns during maximal effort across time with fatigue occuring
    Force production will begin to decrease as fatigue occurs. However, during the initial stages of fatigue, the raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as the slope of the integrated EMG response will not change as local muscle fatigue (e.g, depletion of phosphagen stores, adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate, or lactic acid accumulation) generally precedes neurological fatigue.

    However, as force production due to local muscle fatigue continues to decrease over time, the raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as the slope of the integrated EMG response will eventually decrease as neural fatigue (e.g, depletion of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine) begins to occur.
  5. EMG response and relationship to motor recruitment patterns during submaximal effort across time using a constant resistance with fatigue occuring
    Eventually, the raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as the slope of the integrated EMG response should increase as fast-twitch motor units are recruited to replace the fatiguing slow-twitch motor units.

    Since local muscle fatigue (e.g., depletion of phosphagen stores or lactic acid accumulation) generally precedes neurological fatigue, the neural activity of slow-twitch motor units will probably continue to exist and hence, the EMG activity associated with the recruitment of the fast-twitch motor units is added on to the raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as the slope of the integrated EMG response combined with the EMG activity of the slow-twitch motor units.
  6. EMG response and relationship to motor recruitment patterns during a comparison of two individuals using the same absolute workload who have different maximal strength values
    Person B (the weaker person) will have a greater raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as steeper slope of the integrated EMG response than Person A, as Person B is required to recruitment of greater proportion of total motor units to perform the same absolute submaximal work.
  7. Does local muscular fatigue or neural fatigue usually occur first? Explain
    Local muscle fatigue (depletion of phosphagens-ATP and CP- and accumulation of lactic acids) PRECEDES neural fatigue.
  8. How does force production relate to the cross-sectional area of muscle?
  9. How does force production relate to the distribution of fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle mass?
  10. How does force production relate to the speed of movement?
  11. How does force production relate to motor unit recruitment?
  12. Characteristics of isokinetic strength
    Involves maximal overload throughout the entire range of motion at a controlled, constant speed of movement as a muscle contracts; force is greater than the resistance and consequently, movement is in the direction of the force vector.

    The controlled, constant speed of movement is achieved by the concept of "accommodating resistance."

    An isokinetic machine will accommodate or give back a resistance necessary to control the speed of movement during muscle contraction at a constant, predetermined speed.
  13. Isokinetic strength response during single effort
  14. Isokinetic response during peak contractions at various speeds of movement
  15. Isokinetic response during repeated contractions across time at a moderate speed of movement
    The sprinter will initially generate greater force than the endurance individual, as the sprinter has a higher distribution of FT motor units which tend to have a greater density of actin and myosin contractile protein.

    However, across time as fatigue occurs the endurance athlete will have less of a decrease in force production, as the endurance individual has a higher distribution of ST motor units which have greater capillarization and higher intramuscular concentrations of myoglobin, mitochondria, and oxidative enzymes (note: the ability of muscle tissue to continue to contract and maintain force production over extended periods of time is fundamentally based on the ability of muscle tissue to oxidatively (i.e., aerobically) recycle or regenerate adenosine triphosphate).
  16. How do these responses relate to motor unit recruitment patterns?
  17. How are anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and fatigue index measured calculated?
  18. What physiological attributes or characteristics do these anaerobic work indices represent?
  19. How do these anaerobic work indices relate to athletic ability and fitness level?
  20. How would body composition and distribution of muscle fibers type affect these anerobic work indices?
  21. What are the electrical and mechanical events of the cardiac cycle?
  22. What are the electrical and mechanical events of the electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern?
  23. How do you measure heart rate for both regular and irregular heart rates?
  24. What are the 12-leads for an ECG? Where is the positive electrode located?
    6 Limb Leads:

    • (3 Bipolar Leads)
    • - Lead 1 = left arm - right arm negative
    • - Lead 2 = left foot - right arm negative
    • - Lead 3 = left foot - left arm negative

    • (3 Unipolar Leads)
    • - Augmented Voltage Right (AVR) - right arm
    • - Augmented Voltage Left (AVL) - left arm
    • - Augmented Voltage Foot (AVF) - left foot

    • (6 Chest Leads)
    • - V1 = right sternal border, 4th intercostal space
    • - V2 = left sternal border, 4th intercostal space
    • - V3 = equally spaced between V2 and V4
    • - V4 = midclavicular line, 5th intercostal space
    • - V5 = anterior axillary line, 5th intercostal space
    • - V6 = midaxillary line, 5th intercostal space
  25. Should the QRS complex should be positive or negative?
    6 Limb Leads:

    • (3 Bipolar Leads)
    • - Lead 1 = left arm - partially pos./neg.
    • - Lead 2 = left foot - positive
    • - Lead 3 = left foot - positive

    • (3 Unipolar Leads)
    • - Augmented Voltage Right (AVR) - negative
    • - Augmented Voltage Left (AVL) - negative
    • - Augmented Voltage Foot (AVF) - positive

    • (6 Chest Leads)
    • - V1 = negative
    • - V2 = negative
    • - V3 = positive or negative
    • - V4 = positive
    • - V5 = positive
    • - V6 = positive
  26. What is the normal range of resting heart rate?
    60-100 b/min
  27. What does bradycardia and tachycardia mean?
    Bradycardia exists if resting heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute (b/min)

    Tachycardia exists if resting heart rate is greater than 100 beats per minute (b/min)
  28. What are the inherent pacemaker rates of atrial, atrialventricular (AV) node, and ventricular pacemaker sites?
  29. Which of the 12-leads of an ECG can pick-up approximately 80% of all ECG abnormalities?
  30. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a normal ECG pattern
  31. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a premature ventricular contraction
    An irregular rhythm characterized by a QRS complex that is greater than 3 mm wide or 0.12 seconds in duration with a distorted, bizarre shape

    A PVC that occurs regularly every other beat is called bigeminy, every third beat is called trigeminey, and every fourth beat is called quadrigeminy

    PVC's may be either unifocal (same site in ventricle triggers PVC's) or multifocal (different sites in ventricles trigger PVC's)

    A PVC which falls on a T wave is particularly dangerous as the ventricle is contracting at the same time that it is filling with blood and hence, stroke volume and cardiac output are severely reduced

    Uncontrolled PVC's may progress into ventricular flutter, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular asystole.
  32. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a ventricular flutter
    Produced by the rapid firing of a single ventricular ectopic site at a rate of 200-300 b/min

    The overall ECG pattern is characterized by a smooth wave appearance
  33. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a ventricular fibrillation
    Characterized by an unsynchronized, totally irregular heart rate of 300-500 b/min

    Multiple ectopic ventricular firings produce no distinct QRS complexes, P waves, or T waves; dissimilar V Fib waves are present which are bizarre in shape and range in size from 1-10mm
  34. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a ventricular asystole
    heart rate, rhythm, P-R interval, and QRS complexes are all absent

    An isoelectric line is present on the electrocardiogram
  35. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a myocardial ischemia
    Characterized by a symmetrically inverted T wave, which indicates lack of blood flow and oxygen to the cardiac tissue.
  36. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of acute myocardial injury
    Characterized by ST segment elevation, which indicates an acute (fresh) injury to the myocardial tissue
  37. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a myocardial infarction
    Characterized by significant Q waves that are more than 1 mm wide (0.04 seconds) or more than one-third the size of the QRS complex

    Indicates that a myocardial infarction has occurred.
  38. How does exercise affect heart rate responses?
  39. How does training effect resting, submaximal and maximal heart rate responses?
  40. What does systolic blood pressure represent?
    Systolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles
  41. What does diastolic blood pressure represent?
    Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries during relaxation of the ventricles
  42. Which of the korotkoff sounds are used to detect systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
  43. What are the normal ranges for systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
    The normal range for systolic blood pressure is:

    100-140 mmHg

    The normal range for diastolic blood pressure is:

    60-89 mmHg
  44. Systolic and/or diastolic blood pressures above what level would be considered a high risk of having or developing coronary heart disease?
    Systolic blood pressure equal to or greater than 160 mmHg.

    Diastolic blood pressure equal to or greater than 90 mmHg.
  45. How does exercise affect systolic and diastolic blood pressures?
  46. How does training affect blood pressure in hypertensive normotensive (normal) individuals?
    Long-term training has minimal effects on resting blood pressure in individuals with normal blood pressure.
  47. How can oxygen uptake rate (VO2) and carbon dioxide producation rate be converted from mL/min to L/min and L/min to mL/min?
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of oxygen uptake rate (VO2) in L/min:

    • VO2 L/min = VO2 ml/min / 1000
    • VO2 L/min = 1500 ml/min / 1000
    • VO2 L/min = 1.500 L/min

    Calculation of carbon dioxide production rate in L/min:

    • VCO2 L/min = VCO2 ml/min / 1000
    • VCO2 L/min = 1225 ml/min / 1000
    • VCO2 L/min = 1.225 L/min
  48. What is the equation and calculation for determining the respiratory exchange ratio (RER or R value)?
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of RER (respiratory exchange ratio) or R value:

    • RER or R Value = VCO2 / VO2
    • RER or R Value = 1.225 L/min / 1.550 L/min
    • RER or R Value = 0.79
  49. What is the equation and calculation for determining kilocalories expended per minute?
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of kcal/min (kcal expended per minute):

    • kcal/min = (kcal/liter of VO2) x VO2 L/min
    • kcal/min = 4.74 kcal/liter of VO2 x 1.550 L/min
    • kcal/min = 7.347 kcal/min
  50. What is the equation and calculation for determining the percentage of fuel utilization and kilocalories obtained from carbohydrate and fat during rest and exercise?
  51. What is the equation and calculation for converting body weight in pounds to body weight in kilograms?
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of BW kg (body weight in kilograms):

    • BW kg = BW lb / 2.2
    • BW kg = 176.0 lb / 2.2
  52. What is the equation and calculation for converting oxygen uptake in liters per minute to mililiters per kilogram of body weight
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of VO2 (oxygen uptake rate) in ml/kg/min (ml of oxygen used per kilogram of body weight per minute):

    • VO2 ml/kg/min = (VO2 in L/min x 1000) / BW kg
    • VO2 ml/kg/min = (1.550 L/min x 1000) / 80.0 kg
    • VO2 ml/kg/min = 1550 ml/min / 80.0 kg
    • VO2 ml/kg/min = 19.4 ml/kg/min
  53. What is the equation and calculation for determining the metabolic equivalents (METS)?
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of METS (metabolic equivalents):

    • METS = (VO2 in ml/kg/min) / 3.5 ml/kg/min
    • METS = 19.4 ml/kg/min / 3.5 ml/kg/min
    • METS = 5.5 METS
  54. What is resting metabolic rate (RMR)?
  55. How does RMR differ from basal metabolic rate?
  56. What factors affect resting metabolic rate?
  57. What is meant by the term "oxygen debt?"
  58. What is meant by the term "oxygen deficit?"
  59. What is meant by the term "steady state?"
  60. What do the previous terms physiologically represent?
  61. What are the two phases of oxygen debt and what do they physiologically represent?
  62. Why is oxygen debt greater than oxygen deficit?
  63. How do you calculate oxygen debt and deficit?

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