PBJ 301 midterm
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What is an organization?
organizations are structured along three dimensions: structure, purpose, ans activity
The concept of management
Organizations are managed through a process but management functions are not limited to a specific office within an organization
Concept of leadership
Organizations are led through vision, motivation, and inspiration
The public context to both management and leadership
Criminal justice organizations operate within the contexts of a public status and are constrained and directed, in part, by civil service protections and union contracts. Criminal justice management and leadership must be aware of this public context in order to be effective.
Criminal Justice organizations both affect and are affected by key elements of their environments. Unlike close-system theory, which emphasizes key operational components of an organization, open-system theory hypothesizes that criminal justice organizations are malleable and influenced deferentially by elements of the environment.
The importance of complex goals to criminal justice administration
Criminal justice organizations have many goals and many compete with one another for limited resources.
The complex environment of criminal justice administration
criminal justice agencies have varied and complex environments that make criminal justice administration more complex. Criminal justice organizations are evaluated, in part, by the perceptions of what various environments expect of them.
Complex internal constituencies and criminal justice administration
Criminal justice organizations are influenced by many internal groups, such as line personnel, support staff, and others who perform the work. These internal groups have become more powerful over the years, but their power is now being challenged due to budgetary concerns.
A situation in which an organization faces many competing and conflicting demands from turbulent external sources
A situation in which an organization faces many competing and conflicting purposes.
Complex internal constituencies
A situation in which criminal justice organizations have multiple and conflicting internal personnel, each striving to achieve their own interests and objectives.
A process that helps to direct and mobilize people and their ideas, with an emphasis on the creation of a vision and inspiring people
A process where elements of a group are coordinated, integrated, and utilized effectively and efficiently achieve organizational objectives
An approach to understanding organizations as being influenced by their environments
an entity defined by structure, purpose, and activity objectives
The context within which criminal justice administrators function.
three major differences between open and closed systems
closed systems are hierarchical, formal, and mechanistic. open systems are organic in nature, rely on professionalism, and are informal
Hierarchical and Organic
Hierarchy refers to an agency's chain of command. The term organic is used to describe the loose structure of professional organizations.
The major differences between centralized and decentralized organizations
In centralized organizations, authority and decision making are generally performed by top level executives. In decentralized systems, authority and decision making are generally found at lower levels of an agency's hierarchy.
The basics of agency budgeting
Public agencies submit requests for funds to operate from the political entities they serve. Budgets need to be approved, implemented, and audited for compliance
the difference between the formal and informal structure of an organization
Formal structure refers to purpose, goals, and activities that are sanctioned by legal mandates and organizational executives. Informal structure refers to purpose, goals, and activities that evolve in organizations and are not officially acknowledged or approved by executives.
The role of administration in promoting agency ethics
Agency administrators have the duty to operate ethically and indoctrinate agency members with organizational ethics.
Agencies through the four-frame perspective
Viewing organizations through structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frames provides a unique analytical perspective for agencies.
The process of allocating funds within an agency to various hierarchical levels and subunits
Centralized v. Decentralized
The level withing a hierarchy at which decision are made. Keeping decision making at the top of the hierarchy describes a centralized system and vice versa.
High to low formalization is a function of the number of rules, regulations, and procedures personnel are expected to follow
hierarchy/chain of command
The structure of authority and positions. In a police department, the chief sits at the top of the hierarchy and is highest in the chain of command. Patrol officers sit at the lowest level of hierarchy and are at the end of the chain of command.
The unofficial goals and activities, communication networks, beliefs, and leadership that emerge within a formal organization
Agencies' purpose and overriding objectives and goals. Provides agency principles and values- the prescribes basis for ethical decision making- serves as the agencies anchor
Vertical complexity describes agencies with a high number of levels in the chain of command. Horizontal complexity describes agencies with a high number of subunits.
a conceptual way of viewing organizations to identify problems and find solutions. Also an innovative method to understand organizations.
Based on the mission, providing a statement of purpose for agency units. What a subunit is supposed to do.
Step-by-step directions on how a policy is to be carried out
Span of Control
the number of employees reporting to a supervisor. The span of control depends on the agency size, the tasks of personnel, and the skill level of employees.
The extent to which tasks are divided into smaller units. High task specialization means employees perform a narrow range of duties. Performing a wide variety of activities describes low task specialization.
Asking through court action to redress grievances. Many charges in the system are the result of civil litigation against criminal justice agencies.
Civil rights act of 1964
Federal Law making it illegal to discriminate against citizens based on their race, gender, or religious preference.
Environmental forces are heterogeneous and large in number
Organization within which staff who work in the field- patrol officers, correctional officers- operate with definitions that are different from the organization's executive definitions.
Rapidly changing over time and unpredictable
Conditions, forces, and circumstances external to organizations that affect the organizations mandate and constraints
Complex and dynamic environments are highly uncertain. Simple and stable environments are relatively certain
May be simple or complex, and static or dynamic
watching for changes in environmental forces
Demands and constraints imposed on organizations by government bodies, courts, public groups, or general cultural shifts
Viewing legislation, government regulations, and court decisions as overlapping subsystems
Environmental forces are homogeneous and few in number
Environmental factors are stable over time
Symbolism and Theater
Creating policies or programs primarily to create public satisfaction and quiescence
Work process staff
Pertaining to agency employees, such as patrol officers or correctional officers who work in the field with street-level clients
5 steps of the communication process
- Selecting a medium or channel
8 barriers to communication
- preconceived ideas
- denial of contrary information
- use of personalized meanings
- lack of motivation or interest
- non-credibility of source
- lack of communication skills
- poor organizational climate
- use of complex channels
How communication and information flow through chain of command
- hierarchical organization- communication and information flow downward from superior to subordinate and upward from subordinate to superior.
- multileveled chain of command- top managers do not communicate directly with field workers and vice versa. Reports flow upward and directions flow downward. Horizontal communication facilitates coordination.
Informal communication networks in the workplace
- form on their own and communicate face to face
- individuals who are part of that network share information with each other and not with workers who are not part of the network
gestures and facial features can reveal honesty or deceit, enthusiasm or boredom, or the extent to which a communication recipient understands the message
Communication v. Info
- Communication: process that sends a message
- Information: is message
Exchange theory and exchange networks
- Exchange network: members communicate regularly and exchange info for info
- Information becomes a commodity similar to a product purchased in exchange for money
Linking Pin theory
- groups are bound together by individuals who are members of two or more groups
- linking pin individuals make an effort to be part of one or more groups
an idea, data, or info expressed in a recognizable symbol
barriers to communication
personal, psychological, or emotional conditions of a receiver of communication that prevents him/her from decoding the message accurately
communicating with the environment
the criminal justice system sends messages to society to create a perception of safety
rate and complexity of communication inputs
the receiver of a message interprets and determines its meaning
denial of contrary info
rejecting a message that conflicts with our personal beliefs
an idea, data, or info that is distributed throughout a system
a sent message using appropriate symbols
lack of communication skills
lacking the ability to encode or decode messages, such as poor speaking, listening, or writing skills
lack of motivation or interest
interest in the message or motivation to receive the message must be present to create a successful communication process
individual who is a member of two or more work networks and who coordinates efforts among the work groups
non-credibility of source
a sender who is not believable
poor organizational climate
an organization or social system that discourages or impedes communication
receiver hears what he or she want to hear
- sender conveys his or her message through a medium
- ex) a phone call
use of complex channels
the more gates a message passes through the more complex the channels
both a psychological construct as well as an organizational construct
organizational theory and motivation from a historical perspective
the motivation process can be defined and must be understood as evolving over a long period of time
the relationship between physical and psychological needs and the work environment. This theory stressed that if human needs not met, employees not motivated to work
The belief that in order to motivate employees they must be rewarded, punished,persuaded, controlled, and directed toward activities and tasks specified by management
the belief that higher order needs- ego needs, social needs, and self-fulfillment needs- must be addressed by management in order to achieve higher organizational objectives and goals. Management is central to addressing these needs in the work setting
motivation is predicted on high achievement, and people achieve success through their own efforts, through work on projects that are challenging but not impossible, through receiving feedback on their work, and through avoiding situations where their level of achievement is in question
a rational theory of motivation that posits that a certain amount of work will result in a calculated outcome
a theory of motivation that is based on perceived fairness among the employees regarding treatment in the workplace
- a holistic theory of motivation that looks beyond the organization. By focusing, for example, on family needs and school needs, the organization attempts to address major concerns of the employee such that attention can be focused on the work environment
- the motivation of criminal justice employees requires recognition that employee needs, abilities, and opinions are critical
Prescriptions for cj mgt regarding motivation
2 prescriptive models of employee motivation tested in cj orgs: quality circles and mgt by objectives
An integrated model of motivation
an integrated model of motivation that incorporates many different theories may be the most beneficial to cj admins
people, such as Fredrick Taylor, Henry Fayol, and Mary Parker Follett, who stressed that a motivating environment was not as important as the self-motivation of workers
human relations school
a school of though that emphasized the importance of employee needs and the role supervisors in motivating employees
behavioral school of mgt
this school stressed the importance of manager and leader behavior in the creation of a motivating environment for employees
the integration of motivation, leadership, and job design in the creation of a positive environment for employees. It is also concerned with building organizational leaders and designing the best possible way to organize large numbers of people to accomplish organizational goals
quality circle programs
small groups of employees, usually not mgt employees, who meet regularly to identify, analyze, and recommend solutions to organizational problems
mgt by objectives (MBO)
a process whereby mgt and employees identify goals and work toward their completion and receive evaluation in a specified period of time
integrated model of motivation
- a model of motivation that incorporates various theoretical and practical ideas directed toward the completion of organizational objectives and goals. It is composed of six ideas:
- personal motives and values
- use of incentives and rewards
- specific and clear goals
- sufficient personnel and material resources
- interpersonal and group processes that support members' goals
the deliberate and purposeful planning of the job including all of its structural and social aspects and their effect on the employee
the early importance of engineering and efficiency to job design
- application of basic scientific principles to job design
- 20th century = tech improvements and efficiency of labor
- assume workers are motivated my money and leisure
Named after Fredrick Taylor who emphasized the application of scientific principles to job design, most notably the division of labor, time- motion studies, and pay as a primary incentive for workers
The application of Taylorism to criminal justice
Utilizing Taylor's principles, criminal justice work is designed to maximize the control of employees and enhance efficiency
relationship between job satisfaction, job stress, and job burnout and job design
job design is critical to reducing burnout, relieving work stress, and elevating job satisfaction among employees
Job design theory
- has moved past Taylorism to include an examination of job enlargement and job enrichment
- how jobs are structures does matter regarding organizational perfomance
job redesign programs and application to criminal justice organizations
- an attempt to alter jobs so employees have more of a say in how jobs are accomplished
- there have been numerous examples of redesign efforts within criminal justice orgs
the relationship between job design and the community
job design efforts are no longer limited to organizational settings and must include community concerns
the "new criminal justice" and its relation to job design
- focuses on the systematic collection of information and collaboration with other agencies and community groups
- will enforce administrations to consider change in a number of ways they do business, in particular the following areas:
- and ongoing development activities for employees
the increase in productivity of workers due to the attention given them by mgt
items such as job satisfaction, job burnout, and job stress that are directly affected by job design
efforts made to alter the conditions of work leading toward enrichment for employees and enhanced production. Examples of such efforts include flextime, allowing workers to schedule their own hours; job sharing, the sharing of work responsibilities among employees on an agreed upon schedule; and telecommuting, allowing employees to work at home
Employees are motivated by two sets of factors. The first are hygiene factors that are external to the work, such as pay, supervision, physical conditions, and interpersonal relations. The second are motivator factors, such as responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for achievement and growth. The former factors affect satisfaction levels among employees, while the latter factors affect motivation.
new criminal justice
an approach to increase the effectiveness of criminal justice organizations through the reliance on systematic data collection and the collaboration with other agencies and community groups
later job design
increase core job dimensions affects personal and work outcomes ~Hackman & Oldham (1987)
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