Card Set Information

2013-10-08 15:24:47
communications test

communications test 1
Show Answers:

  1. What
    is Human Communication?
    • ¡“A transactional process in which
    • people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages
    • in specific contexts, influenced by individual and societal forces and embedded
    • in culture” (p. 9)
  2. what are the building blocks of
    • “Messages are the building blocks of
    • communication” p. 10
  3. what is encoding
    • ¡When
    • we convert our ideas into messages, we are encoding
  4. what is decoding
    Receiving a message and interpreting its meaning is referred to as decoding
  5. whema re our messages symbolic
    When we communicate– verbally or nonverbally– our messages are symbolic
  6. what do we mean when we say that communication is symbolic?
    • “when we say communication is symbolic, we are describing the fact that
    • the symbols we use– the words we speak and the gestures we use– are arbitrary,
    • or without any inherent meaning”
  7. what is the goal of exchanging symbols
    • The goal of exchanging symbols is
    • to create meaning
  8. what does denotative mean
    • Denotative– concrete meaning, ex.
    • definitional
  9. what does connotative mean
    • Connotative– suggested or associated
    • meaning, ex. professor
  10. what influences communication
    • -individual force
    • -societal force
    • -culture
    • -context
  11. what is a paradigm
  12. A way of knowing; a worldview
  13. What’s the difference between a paradigm
    and a theory?
    paradigm- belief system that represents a particular world view

    theory- a set of statements that explains a particular phenomenon
  14. Why do we need to understand paradigms?
    • -How we choose to study communication
    • depends on our paradigm assumptions 

    • -Articles will be different, depending on
    • the research paradigm
  15. What are “quantitative” methods?
    • “researchers convert their
    • data into numerical indicators, and then analyze these numbers to establish
    • relationships among concepts”
  16. What are “qualitative” methods?
    • researchers “asses the
    • quality of communication interactions” usually in  naturally occurring communication
  17. What paradigm(s) uses quantitative
    -social science approach
  18. What paradigm(s) use qualitative
    • -interpretive approach
    • -critical approach
  19. Social Science/Behaviorism
    -Systematic- following clear, known procedures

    • -Repetitive- making careful observations, over and over, to ensure findings are
    • verifiable

    -Generalizable-findings can be applied to a larger group

    -Objective- rational, no personal feelings

    -Human Behavior: External and describable

    -G HORSE
  20. Methodologies Used for social approach


    • ¥Historical Case
    • Studies

    ¥Conversational/Content Analysis

    ¥Interview/Focus Group
  21. INTERPRETIVE/humanism paradigm
    • ¥Description- thick description;
    • broad range
    • of sources

    • ¥Contextualization- importance
    • of context

    • ¥Reflexivity- acknowledging the role of the
    • researcher

    ¥Multiple Perspectives- reflects many perspectives without valuing one over another

    ¥Human Behavior: Creative and voluntary

  22. interpretive paradigm methodologies used
    ¥Discourse Analysis

    • ¥Narrative, metaphoric, dramatism
    • and fantasy rhetorical criticism


    ¤Participant Observation

    ¤In-depth interviewing


    ¥Focus Groups
  23. critical paradigm
    • ¥Power: 
    • research hierarchies and power structures

    ¥Reflexivity: acknowledging the role of the researcher

    • ¥Contextual: 
    • focusing not only on current contexts, but also cultural and historical
    • context

    • ¥Change: 
    • leading to social change, in favor of those without power

    ¥Human Behavior: Resistive

  24. critical methodologies used
    ¥Critical Ethnography

    ¥Feminist Criticism

    ¥Cultural Studies

    ¥Queer Criticism

    ¥Interviews/Focus Groups

    ¥Postmodern Criticism

    ¥Postcolonial Criticism
  25. What is “identity”
    • “who a person is; composed of
    • individual and social categories a person identifies with, as well as the
    • categories that others identify with that person”
  26. individual
    at the individual (personal identity) level, we are concerned with our differences from other individuals and the things that make us unique as people
  27. social
    at the collectice (social Identity) level, we are concerned with our group's differences from other groups, and the things that make our group unique.
  28. primary identities
    • ¤Most consistent and enduring impact on
    • our lives

    -primary identities (race, sex, age)

    -constructed between individual and social forces and what society communicates about those identities.
  29. secondary identities
    ¤More fluid and dependent on situation

    -occupation, marital status
  30. primary and secondary
    • -fixed and dynamic
    • -created through interaction
  31. what is fixed and dynamic
    some identities that are stable like being make can change over time and therefore the meaning of what it means to be male changes over time to as he goes from infant to boy to teenager to man.
  32. what reflects how we see ourselves
    • “The relationships, experiences, and communication interactions we share with others
    • shape how we see ourselves”
  33. reflected appraisal
    • Reflected Appraisals– “people’s self-images arise primarily from the ways that others view them and from the many messages they have
    • received from others about who they are” (p. 58)
  34. Social Comparisons
    Social Comparisons– “the generalized other becomes the basis for our understanding of which characteristics are valued” (p. 60)
  35. what is stereotype threat
    • Stereotype Threat– “process in which reminding individuals of stereotypical expectations regarding important identities can
    • impact their performance”
  36. ¥Why is it important to realize the
    impact of social interactions on our identities?
    -self-fulfilling prophecy
  37. what is self esteem and how do we get it
    • Self-esteem– “part of one’s self-concept; arises out
    • of how one perceives and interprets reflected appraisals and social
    • comparisons”
  38. what is performance of identity
    • “Performance of identity refers to
    • the process or means by which we show the world who we think we are”
  39. how do we enact those identities
    • ¥We enact our identities by performing
    • “scripts” that we think are proper for that identity– or by resisting those
    • scripts
  40. what is a sub-field within communications discipline that deals with how we present ourselves to the world?
    ¥Performance Studies:  A sub-field within Communication Discipline
  41. ¥Racial Identity/Multi-Racial Identity–
    identification with a particular racial group, or more than one racial group
  42. ¥Ethnic Identity
    • ¥Ethnic Identity– identification with
    • national or tribal affiliation, religious beliefs, language and/or cultural
    • origins and backgrounds
  43. ¥Gender Identity
    • ¥Gender Identity– how and to what extent
    • one identifies with the social construction of masculinity and femininity
  44. ¥Sexual Identity
    • ¥Sexual Identity– which of the various
    • categories of sexuality one identifies with
  45. ¥Social Class Identity
    • ¥Social Class Identity– an informal
    • ranking of people based on their income, occupation, education, dwelling,
    • child-rearing habits, and other factors
  46. ¥Disability
    • ¥Disability– identification with physical
    • or mental impairment that substantially impact everyday life
  47. ¥Age Identity
    • ¥Age Identity– a compbination of self-perception of age along with
    • what others understand that to mean
  48. ¥Religious Identit
    • ¥Religious Identity– aspect of indentity
    • defined by one’s spiritual beliefs
  49. Functions of Language
    • Instrumental–
    • we use language to obtain what we need or
    • desire
  50. Functions of Language
    • Regulatory–
    • we use language to control or regulate
    • the behavior of others
  51. Functions of Language
    • ¥Inform– we use language to communicate
    • information or report facts
  52. Functions of Language
    • ¥Heuristic– we use language to acquire knowledge or
    • gain understanding
  53. Functions of Language
    • ¥Interactional– we use language to establish and define
    • social relationships in both interpersonal and group settings
  54. what is Inter-languagediscrimination
    • Inter-language
    • discrimination: “when people are treated
    • differently because of the languages that they speak”
  55. what is Intra-language discrimination
    • Intra-language
    • discrimination: “when people are treated
    • differently because they speak in a way that is not considered “proper” or the
    • dominant language”
  56. ¥What is hate speech?
    • Hate Speech: “The use of verbal cmmunication to attack others based upon some social
    • category”
  57. what are discomfirming comments
    • Disconfirming
    • Comm: “comments that reject or invalidate a
    • positive or negative self-image of our conversational partners”
  58. what are confirming comments
    • Confirming
    • Comm: “comments that validate positive
    • self-images of others
  59. What is the difference between hate
    speech and disconfirming communication?
    -hate speech-use of verbal communication to attack others based upon some social category

    -disconfirming communication rejects or invalidate a positive or negative self image of our conversational partner
  60. what is nonverbal communication
    • Nonverbal
    • Communication:  All the messages that people transmit
    • through means other than words– “the sending and receiving of information
    • through appearance, objects, the environment and behavior in social settings”
  61. What are nonverbal behaviors
    all the nonverbal actions that people perform
  62. What is proxemics?
    • The study of how people use spatial
    • cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space
    • relationships, to communicate
  63. ¤Public Distance
    ¤Public Distance: 12-25 feet
  64. ¤Social Distance:
    ¤Social Distance: 4-12 feet
  65. ¤Personal Distance:
    ¤Personal Distance: 18 inches to 4 feet
  66. ¤Intimate Distance:
    ¤Intimate Distance: 0-18 inches
  67. Haptics
    • Haptics: The study of the communicative function
    • of touch
  68. ¥Professional Touch/Functional Touchp
    • ¥Professional Touch/Functional Touch: least intimate type of touch– used
    • within certain jobs such as dentists, medical, hairstylists, etc.
  69. ¥Social-Polite Touchp
    • ¥Social-Polite Touch: part of daily interaction; still
    • impersonal
  70. ¥Friendship Touchp
    • ¥Friendship Touch: conveys warmth, closeness and caring
    • (non-romantic/sexual)
  71. ¥Love-Intimate Touchp
    ¥Love-Intimate Touch: used with romantic partners and family
  72. ¥Demand Touch
    ¥Demand Touch: used to establish dominance and power
  73. what is listening and how is it different from hearing
    • “The process of receiving,
    • constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages” 

    -with hearing you are just picking up the sound waves
  74. listening style
    • Listening
    • Style: “a set of attitudes, beliefs, and
    • predispositions about the how, where, when, who, and what of the information
    • receiving and encoding process”
  75. action oriented listening style
    • ¥Action-Oriented: preference for error-free and
    • well-organized speaking; focus on content, not the speaker
  76. informative listening
    • ¥Informational Listening– useful for action-oriented listening
    • style
  77. content oriented listening style
    • Content-Oriented:
    • interest in detailed and complex
    • information, simply for the content itself; focus on details and quality of
    • speech
  78. critical thinking
    • ¥Critical
    • Listening: understanding multiple perspectives

    listening skills that are useful in a wide variety of situations- particularly those involving pervasive speaking
  79. ¥People-Oriented listening style
    • ¥People-Oriented: associated with friendly, open comm.;
    • focus on establishing ties and relationships with others
  80. supportive listening style
    • ¥Supportive
    • Listening: focused on understandings and “listening”
    • to others’ feelings
  81. time oriented listening style
    brief concise speech and focuses on time. don't want to waste time or give complex details
  82. challenges that affect listening
    ¤Physical appearance

    ¤Vocal cues


    ¤Nonverbal behaviors
  83. culture
    • “Learned patterns of perceptions,
    • values, and behaviors shared by a group of people”
  84. diaspora
    • “A Group of immigrants, sojourners,
    • slaves or strangers living in new lands while retaining strong attachments to
    • their homelands”
  85. co-cultural group
    • “A significant minority group
    • within a dominant majority that does not share dominant group values or
    • communication patterns”
  86. Dichotomous thinking
    • Dichotomous thinking: “things are
    • perceived as “either/or”
  87. Dialectic Approach
    • ¥Dialectic Approach: “recognizes that
    • things need not be perceived as “either/or” but may be seen as “both/and”
  88. ¥Cultural/Individual
    this diaelectric emphasizes that some behaviors, such as ways of relating to others, are determined by our culture, while some others are simply idiosyncratic, or particular to us as an individual.
  89. ¥Personal/Contextual
    focuses on the importance of context or situation in intercultural communication. bot the individual and the situation are simultaneously important. how you talk about a group of peoploe when there or not htere
  90. ¥Differences/Similarities
    poeple from differwent countries that view things the same
  91. ¥Static/Dynamic
    • while some cultural patterns remain relatively stable and static for years, they also can undergo dynamic change. it requires us to recognize both traditional and contemporary realities of a culture. 
    • -indians pocahontas un huts and urban
  92. ¥What is the role of power in
    intercultural communication?
    • “The more powerful groups in
    • society establish the rules for communication, and others usually follow these
    • rules or violate them at their own peril”