A&P Lab Muscles Test

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A&P Lab Muscles Test
2013-10-24 21:12:41
Vet Tech

Lab Test 2 Muscles
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  1. 4 major tissues of the body
    • 1.Connective
    • 2.Nervous
    • 3.Epithelial
    • 4.Muscle
  2. The 3 types of muscle
    • 1. Skeletal
    • 2. Cardiac
    • 3. Smooth
  3. the muscle that we eat and treat
  4. only in the heart
  5. composing system of no control
  6. refers to muscle generally
  7. more specifically refers to muscle cells.
  8. the study of muscles
  9. inflammation of muscle tissue
  10. the cytoplasm of a muscle cell
  11. pyo-
  12. when a cell gets smaller
  13. When a cell multiplies
  14. When a cell changes shape
  15. What is the "A" band (dark)
  16. When we talk about "muscles," we are referring to well-defined organs composed of groups of skeletal muscle cells surrounded by a layer of _____.
    Fibrous connective tissue
  17. what is the thick, central portion of a muscle called
  18. Most muscles attach to bones at both ends by tough, fibrous connective tissue bands called ___
  19. Instead of bandlike tendons, some muscles are attached by broad sheets of fibrous connecive tissue called _____ to bones or to other muscles.
  20. The prominent aponeurosis is the ______ that runs lengthwise between the muscles on the animals ventral midline.
    Linea alba
  21. One of the muscle's attachment sites is generally more stable than the other. This more stable site is called the ____ of the muscle.
  22. The site that undergoes most of the movement when a muscle contracts is called the _____ of the muscle and is more distal on the appendage than the origin.
  23. When stimulated by a nerve impulse, a muscle ______.
    contracts (shortens)
  24. is used to describe a muscle or muscle group that directly produces a desire movement.
    Prime Mover (agonist)
  25. is a muscle or muscle group that directly opposes the action of a prime mover.
  26. a muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover and assists it in carrying out its action.
  27. a muscle that stabilizes joints to allow other movements to take place.
  28. 6 ways of muscle naming.
    • 1.Action
    • 2.Shape
    • 3.Location
    • 4.Direction of Fibers
    • 5.Number of heads or division
    • 6.Attachment sites
  29. _____ muscles occur in the superficial fascia between the skin and the deep fascia covering the skeletal muscles.
    Cutaneous muscles (under the skin)
  30. 3 functions of abdominal muscles
    • 1. Support the abdominal organs
    • 2. help flex (arch) the back
    • 3. assist in various functions of straining
  31. difference between vomiting and regurgitation
    • vomiting-uncontrolled
    • regurgitation-controlled
  32. Name the Abdominal muscles from the Outside in.
    • 1. External abdominal oblique muscle
    • 2. Internal abdominal oblique muscle
    • 3. Transversus abdominis muscle
    • 4. Rectus abdominis muscle
  33. aponeurosis that extends from the xiphoid process to the cranial brim of the pelvis.
    Linea alba
  34. fibers run in a caudo-ventral oblique direction.
    External Abdominal Muscle
  35. Fibers run in the opposite oblique direction, that is, cranio-ventral.
    Internal Abdominal Muscle
  36. form the floor of the muscular abdominal wall. It consist of two strap-like muscles on either side of the linea alba that run from the ribs and sternum back to the brim of the pubis.
    Rectus Abdominis Muscle
  37. the deepest of the muscle as its fibers run directly downward in a ventral direction to insert on the linea alba
    Transversus Abdominis
  38. The muscles of the thoracic (front) limb function  mainly in _____.
  39. a broad triangular muscle that extends from the spinal column down to its insertion on the humerus
    Latissimus dorsi Muscle
  40. Latissimus dorsi Muscle- Origin and Insertion
    • Origin-Spinal Column
    • Insertion- Humerus
  41. Four Pectorals that extend from the sternum to the humerus and act as adductors of the front leg, helping to keep the legs under the animals
    • 1. Descending superficial pectoralis
    • 2. Transverse superficial pectoralis
    • 3. Deep pectoral
    • 4. Xiphihumeralis
  42. ___ muscle (both portions) are triangular shaped and extends from the lateral portion of the scapula down to the humerus. These muscles abduct and flexes the shoulder joint.
    Deltoids- (Spinodeltoid and Acromiodeltoid)
  43. Deltoids- Spinodeltoid and Acromiodeltoid-Origin and Insertion
    • Origin-Scapula
    • Insertion-Humerus
  44. Muscle has two heads; Action is to pull the limb forward and extend the shoulder
    • Brachiocephalicus
    • a. Cleidocephalicus
    • b. Cleidobrachialis
  45. Cleidocephalicus: origin and insertion and Action
    • Origin: Skull
    • Insertion: Clavicle Tendon
    • Action: pull limb forward and extend the shoulder
  46. Omotransversarius: origin and insertion and Action
    • Origin: Wing of atlas
    • Insertion: Scapula
    • Action: to advance the limb
  47. A very thin triangular muscle
  48. Trapezius: origin and insertion and Action
    • Origin: Spine from the Atlas
    • Insertion: Thorax
    • Action: to elevate and abduct the forelimb
  49. holds the dorsal border of the scapula to the body. This muscle has 3 heads with a common insertion.
  50. the 3 heads of Rhomboideus
    • a. Rhomboideus capitis
    • b. Rhomboideus cervicis
    • c. Rhomboideus thoracis
  51. Rhomboideus capitis: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Occipital bone
    • Insertion: Scapula
    • Action: Elevate formula
  52. Rhomboideus Cervicis: Origin, Insertion, action
    • Origin: Cervical Vertebrae
    • Insertion: Scapula
    • Action: Elevate Forlimb
  53. Rhomboideus Thoracis: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Thoracic Vertebrae
    • Insertion: Scapula
    • Action: Elevate Forelimb
  54. this muscle acts like a sling to support the body between the forelegs. This muscle has two heads.
    Serratus Ventralis
  55. Serratus Ventralis: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion: Scapula
    • Action: Support the trunk
  56. The muscles of the neck help support the head and allow the head and neck to ___, ___, and ________.
    Flex, extend and move laterally
  57. muscle in the cheek area of the skull is the most powerful of the chewing muscle.
  58. Two of the main muscles that extend the head and neck.
    • 1. Splenius
    • 2. Trapezius
  59. Another muscle that extends the head and neck and also pulls the front leg forward.
    Brachiocephalic muscle
  60. Neck ____ muscles are located on the ventral portion of the neck.
  61. Muscle is a smaller, straplike muscle that extends from the sternum to the base of the skull and acts to flex the head and neck.
  62. Masseter: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Zygomatic arch
    • Insertion: Mandible
    • Action: Elevate mandible when chewing
  63. largest muscle found on the lateral and dorsal aspects of the skull.
  64. Temporalis: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Parietal bone, temporal, frontal and occipital
    • Insertion: Mandible
    • Action: Elevate mandible when chewing
  65. this muscle has two heads. The major importance of this muscle is that it forms along with the brachiocephalicus, the jugular groove.
  66. Sternocephalicus: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Sternum
    • Insertion: Occipital bone
    • Action: Depress and draws the head and the neck to the side
  67. the major cutaneous muscle of the neck and head
  68. Platysma: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Cervical Vertebrae
    • Insertion: Fibers around the lips
    • Action: to draw the commissures of the lips caudally; helps the cat to smile
  69. Deltoids: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Scapula
    • Insertion: Humerus
    • Action: Flexes the shoulder
  70. this muscle fills the infraspinous fossa caudal to the spine of the scapula
    Infraspinatus muscle
  71. Infraspinatus Muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Scapula
    • Insertion: Humerus
    • Action: Flex the shoulder joint
  72. fills the supraspinous fossa cranial to the spine of the scapula and is wider and longer than the infraspinatus muscle
    Supraspinatus Muscle
  73. Supraspinatus Muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Scapula
    • Insertion: Humerus
    • Action: Extends the shoulder joint
  74. This muscle occupies the subscapular fossa on the medial aspect of the scapula
    Subscapularis muscle
  75. Subscapularis muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Scapula
    • Insertion: humerus
    • Action: adducts the limb at the shoulder and rotates the leg medially
  76. Lies caudal to the subscapularis muscle, and its tendon of insertion joins that of the latissimus dorsi muscle
    Teres Major Muscle
  77. Teres Major Muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Scapula
    • Insertion: humerus
    • Action: Flexes the shoulder
  78. this muscle is located on the craniomedial aspect of the humerus. It has only one head in animals.
    Biceps Brachii muscle
  79. Biceps Brachii muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Scapula
    • Insertion: Below Elbow
    • Action: Flexes the elbow and extends the shoulder
  80. is located on the lateral side of the humerus. It twists laterally and cranially toward its insertion on the medial side of the proximal radius and ulna
  81. Brachialis: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Humerus
    • Insertion: Below elbow
    • Action: Flexes the elbow
  82. this mass is on the caudal aspect of the humerus. It is made up of 3 heads
    Triceps Brachii Muscle
  83. Triceps Brachii: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Long head scapula; others humerus
    • Insertion: Elbow
    • Action: Extends the elbow and flexes the shoulder
  84. extends the carpus and is located over the radius
    Extensor carpi radialis muscle
  85. which flexes the digit and is located down beneath some of the other digital flexor muscles.
    Deep digital flexor muscle
  86. The two primary antagonistic set of muscles in the pelvic limb
    quads and hamstrings
  87. The large gluteal muscles and the hamstring muscle group are ____ muscles of the hip joint.
  88. are three muscles located on the back of the thigh region.
    Hamstring muscles
  89. Name the 3 Hammies
    • 1. Biceps Femoris
    • 2. Semimembranosus muscle
    • 3. Semitendenosus muscle
  90. a collection of 4 muscles that are located on the front of the hind legs
    Quadriceps Femoris
  91. Name the Quads
    • 1. Rectus femoris
    • 2. Vastus lateralis
    • 3. Vastus medialis
    • 4. Vastus intermedius
  92. a triangular muscle that aponeurosis into a long, thin but wide tendon (the fasciae latae) that is commonly used by surgeons to make cuts and strips to replace the anterior cruciate ligaments during repair.
    Tensor Fasciae Latae
  93. Tensor Fasciae Latae: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Ilium
    • Insertion: Lateral femoral fascia
    • Action: flexes the hip joint and extends stifle
  94. small triangular muscle lies over the middle gluteal muscle
    Superficial Gluteal muscle
  95. Superficial Gluteal muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Sacrum and coccygeal vertebrae
    • Insertion: Femur
    • Action: Abducts the limb and extends the hip
  96. a large egg-shaped muscle lies cranial to the superficial and caudal to the tensor fascia latae.
    Middle Gluteal Muscle
  97. Middle Gluteal Muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Ilium
    • Insertion: Femur
    • Action: abducts the limb and extends hip
  98. the fan-shaped muscle is totally covered by the middle gluteal.
    Deep Gluteal muscle
  99. Deep Gluteal muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Ilium
    • Insertion: Femur
    • Action: Abducts and extends hip
  100. the largest and widest muscle of the thigh and covers its entire caudolateral aspect.
    Biceps femoris muscle
  101. Biceps Femoris muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Ischiatic tuberosity of the pelvis
    • Insertion: Patella
    • Action: Extends hip
  102. lies medial to the Biceps femoris and lateral to the Semimembranosus.
    Semitendinosus muscle
  103. Semitendinosus muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Ischiatic Tuberosity
    • Insertion: Tibia
    • Action: extends the hip
  104. not as long as the semitendinosus but is slightly larger in section. It can be identified since it lies beside the medial to the semitendinosus wedged between the biceps femoris, gracilis, and adductor muscles.
    Semimembranosus muscle
  105. Semimembranosus muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Ischiatic tuberosity
    • Insertion: Femur
    • Action: Extends the hip
  106. has two distinct betties in the dog but is undivided in the horse and cat
    Sartorius Muscle
  107. Sartorius: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Ilium
    • Insertion: Patella
    • Action Flexes hip, flexes stifle
  108. this wide flat muscle covers the caudo-medial surface of the medial thigh.
    Gracilis muscle
  109. Gracilis: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Pelvic Symphysis
    • Insertion: Tibia
    • Action: Adducts the limb
  110. a very small spindle-shaped muscle located on the medial aspect. used to sever this muscle first in relieving pain in dogs with chronic hip dysplasia.
    Pectineus Muscle
  111. Pectineus: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Prepubic tendon
    • Insertion: Femur
    • Action: Adduct the limb
  112. a large pyramid-shaped muscle consists of two muscles. It is found between the semitendinosus and the semimembranosus.
    Adductor muscle
  113. the two heads of Adductor muscle.
    • -Adductor Magnus- the larger
    • -Adductor Longus- the smaller
  114. Adductor muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Pelvic Symphysis
    • Insertion: Femur
    • Action: adduct the limb
  115. this group consist of 4 muscles with a common tendon
    Quadriceps Femoris muscles
  116. Name the 4 muscles of the Quads
    • 1. Rectus femoris- most cranial head
    • 2. Vastus lateralis
    • 3. Vastus medialis
    • 4. Vastus intermedius
  117. Quads: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Rectus femoris- ilium
    • other three- proximal femur
    • Insertion: Tibia
    • Action: Extends the stifle
  118. is the most cranial muscle of cranio-lateral muscles of leg group
    Cranial Tibial muscle
  119. Cranial Tibial muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Tibia
    • Insertion: Proximal Metatarsus
    • Action: Flexes the tarsal joint
  120. this is lateral to the cranial tibial muscle and is partly covered by it.
    Long Digital Extensor muscle
  121. Long Digital Extensor muscle: Origin, Insertion, Action
    • Origin: Femur
    • Insertion: Distal phalanges
    • Action: Extends digital joints
  122. this muscle lies caudal and lateral to the long digital extensor
    Peroneus Longus muscle
  123. Peroneus Longus muscle: Origin, insertion
    • Origin: Tibia
    • Insertion: Fourth tarsal bone
  124. this is the most superficial muscle of the caudal leg muscles and consists of two heads, each of which has a sesamoid bone embedded near its origin.
  125. Gastrocnemius: Origin, Insertion
    • Origin: Femur
    • Insertion: Tuber calcanei
  126. this muscle consists of a lateral head and a much smaller medial head
    Deep Digital Flexor muscle
  127. Deep Digital Flexor muscle: Origin, Insertion
    • Origin: Tibia
    • Insertion: Distal phalanges
  128. this muscle is covered by the gastocnemius and superficial digital flexor
    Popliteus muscle
  129. Popliteus muscle: Origin, Insertion
    • Origin: Femur
    • Insertion: Tibia
  130. is a heavy band of connective tissue that inserts on the tuber calcanei. It is aka the Achilles tendon in humans and is made up of five different muscles. Name the muscle; Name the 5 that make it
    • Common Calcanean Tendon; 1.Gastrocnemius
    • 2. superficial digital flexor
    • 3. semitendinosus
    • 4. gracilis
    • 5. biceps femoris
  131. The muscles of _____ increase and decrease the size of the thoracic cavity to draw air into and push air out of the lungs.
  132. Drawing air into the lungs is called ___
  133. the muscles that increase the size of the thoracic cavity when they contract are called ____ muscles
    Inspiratory muscles.
  134. Name the 2 main inspiratory muscles
    • 1. Diaphragm
    • 2. External intercostal muscles (intercostalis externus)
  135. is a thin, dome-shaped sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
  136. Intercostal means between the ribs. The fibers are directed in an oblique direction so that they contract, they rotate the ribs upward and forward. this increases the size of the thoracic cavity and causes air to be drawn into the lungs
    External Intercostal Muscle
  137. does not require as much effort as inspiration because mechanical forces, such as gravity, and the elastic nature of the lungs help collapse the rib cage and push air out
  138. Two expiratory muscles
    • 1. Internal Intercostal Muscles
    • 2. Abdominal muscles
  139. the fibers of the internal intercostal muscles run at right angles to those of the external intercostal muscles. When these contract, they rotate the ribs backward, which decreases the size of the thorax and pushes air out of the lungs
    Internal Intercostal Muscles
  140. the four heads simply contract reducing the space of the peritoneal cavity
    Abdominal muscles
  141. micrometer abbreviation
  142. 1 um = ? millimeter
    0.001 millimeter
  143. Skeletal ____ are usually called skeletal muscle fibers due to their overall threadlike of fiber-like shape
    Skeletal muscle cells
  144. extend from the sarcolemma down to the protein filaments
    Tranverse or T tubules
  145. The ____ that make up the muscle fiber (cell) are composed of thousands of tiny, contracile protein filaments known as ___ filaments and ___ filaments.
    Myofibrils; Actin and myosin
  146. The area from one Z line to the next Z line is called ____
  147. the basic contraction unit of skeletal muscle
  148. Each ____ is made up of many sarcomeres line up end to end.
  149. When all the sarcomeres of each myofibril is stimulated to contract, they will contract to ___ their size
    1/2 their size
  150. The sites where the ends of motor nerve fibers "connect" to muscle fibers are called ____ ____.
    Neuromuscular junctions
  151. If a skeletal muscle's nerve supply is interrupted for a lengthy period as a result of injury, the  muscle will shrink down through a process called___.
  152. Within the end of the nerve fiber in a neurmuscular junction are tiny sacs called ____
    Synaptic vesicles
  153. Synaptic vesicles that contain the chemical neurotransmitter ____
  154. The effect of the acetylcholine on ites receptor is very short lasting. An enzyme in the synapse space called _____
  155. _____ quickly removes the acetylcholine molecule from its receptor and splits it apart. This then ends the effect of that nerve impulse.
  156. THe number of muscle fibers per nerve fiber determines...
    how small a movement will result from a nerve stimulus
  157. a term used to describe one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it innervates
    Motor Unit
  158. Muscles that must make very small, delicate movements, such as the muscles that position the eyes, may only have a ___ muscle fibers per nerve fiber in each motor unit.
  159. Each individual skeletal muscle fiber is surrounded by a delicate connective tissue layer composed of fine reticular fibers called the ____
  160. Groups of skeletal muscle fibers, called ____ are bound together by a tougher connective tissue layer, called the ____, which is composed of reticular fibers and thick collagen fibers.
    Fasicles, perimysium
  161. Groups of muscle fascicles are surrounded by _____, a fibrous connective tissue layer composed largely of tough collagen fibers.
  162. When a nerve impulse comes down a motor nerve fiber and reached the end bulb at the neuromuscular junction, ______ is released into the synaptic space.
  163. The ______ molecules bind to receptors on the surface of the _____ (cell membrane) of the muscle fiber, which starts an impulse that travels along the _____ and through the ______ to the interior of the cell.
    acetylcholine, sarcolemma, sarcolemma, T-tubules
  164. The three connective tissue layers that are continuous with the tendons or aponeuroses that connect the muscle to bones or other muscles
    Epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
  165. the connective tissue layers of a muscle contain the blood vessels and nerve fibers that supply the muscle fibers, they also contain varying amounts of adipose tissue. The fat deposits are often visible grossly in meat and are called the "____" of the meat.
  166. As mentioned the impulse travels along the _____ and through the ____ to the interior of the cell.
    Sarcolemma, T tubules
  167. When the impulse reaches the __________, it causes the release of stored calcium ions into the sarcoplasm.
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum
  168. Almost as soon as the _________ releases its Ca++ into the ____, it begins pumping it back in again.
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum; sarcoplasm
  169. Pumping the Ca++ back into the __________ requires energy, which is also supplied by ATP molecules.
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum
  170. the amount of calcium in the muscle fiber is determined largely ....
    by the level of calcium in the blood stream
  171. The concentration of ATP in skeletal muscle is relatively ___; it supplies only the energy necessary to maintain contraction for a ___ period of time
    low; brief
  172. The presence of ATP is required for what?
    Relaxation, or detachment of the myosin from the actin, and also for the return of calcium ions to the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  173. Muscle contraction is ____% efficient in regard to the accomplishment of work. The non work portion is dissipated as heat.
  174. The combined shortening of all the end-to-end sarcomere in a muscle fiber results in what we call a ______.
    muscle contraction
  175. An individual muscle fiber either contracts completely when it receives a nerve impulse or it does not contract at all. What is this know as?
    All or none principle
  176. We know this is not true of whole muscles; so how does the body produce movements that vary in range and strength when individual muscle fibers are doing all or nothing?
    It does so by carefully controlling the number of muscle fibers it stimulates for a particular movement
  177. A single muscle contraction
    a twitch contraction
  178. what are the 3 phases of a single muscle contraction and how long are each.
    • 1. Latent phase- 0.01 seconds
    • 2. contraction phase- 0.04 seconds
    • 3. relaxation phase- 0.05 seconds
  179. How long is the entire muscle contraction?
    The entire cycle takes about 1 second, so maximum contraction efficiency occurs if nerve impulses arrive about 0.1 seconds apart.
  180. Muscle shortening can occur in the absence of action potentials. This type of shortening is referred to as what?
    Rigor or physiologic contracture
  181. Difference between Physiologic contracture and rigor mortis?
    PHysiologic contracture is rigor, rigor mortis is rigor after death. Rigor lacks the ATP to relax the muscle keeping it in a contracted state
  182. Contraction strength varies and is achieved by what 2 ways?
    • 1. Multiple motor unit summation
    • 2. Wave summation
  183. The summation of one motor unit causes a weak contraction, whereas the stimulation of a large number of motor units develops a strong contraction. What is this known as?
    Motor unit summation
  184. All gradations of contraction strength are possible, depending on the ___ of motor units stimulated.
  185. increasing the strength of contraction by wave summation occurs when the frequency of contraction is increased.
    Wave summation
  186. When a muscle is stimulated to contract before the muscle has relaxed, the strength of the subsequent contraction is ___.
  187. When the frequency is sufficient such that the individual muscle twitches become fused into a single prolonged contraction, the strength is at a maximum; this condition is known as...
  188. a bacterial disease caused by a potent neurotoxin elaborated by the organism Clostridium tetani.
  189. Once Clostridium tetani reaches the CNS and prevents the release of an inhibitory transmitter called ____.
  190. Tetanus has been called "____" because the masseter muscles that close the mouth are stronger than the muscles that open it.
  191. Muscle seems to "warm up" to a maximum contraction state. This can be shown by applying stimuli of equal intensity a few seconds apart to muscle. Each successive muscle twitch has slightly more strength that the previous one, until optimal contraction strength is reached. This is called ___.
    Treppe or Staircase phenomenon
  192. the 2 main compounds involved in the catabolism of nutrient molecules.
    • 1. Glucose
    • 2. Oxygen
  193. the sugar that is the primary energy source for most body cells, including the muscle cells
  194. Glucose is stored in the fibers in the form of _____, and oxygen is stored attached to large protein molecules called ____.
    glycogen, myoglobin
  195. As long as the oxygen supply is adequate to keep up with the energy needs of the fiber, the process is known as _______, and the maximum amount of energy is extracted from each glucose molecule.
    aerobic metabolism
  196. is not as efficient as aerobic metabolism and results in lactic acid formation as a byproduct of incomplete glucose breakdown.
    Anerobic metabolism
  197. If heat production exceeds body needs, the excess must be eliminated by mechanisms such as _____.
    panting or sweating
  198. Under cold conditions, the body may need to increase the production of heat to avoid _____. It often does this by producing the small, spasmodic muscle contractions we know as ____.
    Hypothermia; shivering
  199. What is Cardiac muscle aka?
    Involuntary striated muscle
  200. What 2 things does cardiac muscle have that skeletal and smooth does not?
    Intercalated disks, perkinjie fibers
  201. Cardiac muscle cells are ______ than skeletal muscle cells and have ____ nucleus per cell.
    much smaller; only one nucleus per cell
  202. 2 facts about cardiac muscle contractions
    • 1. It contracts without the external stimulation
    • 2. Groups of cardiac muscle cells adopt the contraction rate of the most rapid cell in the group
  203. The impulse that starts each heart beat begins in the heart's "pacemaker",  or the ________ located in the wall of the right atrium.
    sinoatrial (SA) node
  204. Smooth muscle is found in two main forms:
    • 1.Visceral smooth muscle
    • 2.Multiunit smooth muscle
  205. Large sheets of cells in the walls of some hollow organs
    visceral smooth muscle
  206. Small, discrete groups of cells
    multiunit smooth muscle
  207. are small and spindle shaped with a single nucleus in the center.
    Smooth muscle cells
  208. _____ stimulation decreases visceral smooth muscle activity, and _____ stimulation increases it.
    Sympathetic, parasympathetic
  209. Where visceral smooth muscle is large and relatively powerful, multiunit smooth muscle is _____.
    small and delicate.
  210. Multiunit smooth muscle is made up of
    Individual smooth muscle cells or small group cells
  211. Contractions of multiunit smooth muscle are _____. They require impulses from autonomic nerves to contract.
    not automatic
  212. The actions of multiunit smooth muscle are...
    specific and carefully controlled
  213. small iris
  214. dilated iris