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The two primary processes of learning are?
When you correctly select among persons, places, objects, things, etc you are?
- e.g. pick right car in lot, pick right key, pick right golf club
When you select a behavior, action, emotion you?
e.g. pick right machine to use to make a phone call you don't use a coke machine you use a phone. adjust carbuerator, or slow down to the right speed when cop pass, hit a golf ball different depending on the place the ball is at.
What are reflexes?
born with them - simple behavior
Inborn patterns of activity or tendency to action common to a given biological species?
What are the clasifications rules for something to be an instinct?
- cannot be refelxes
- cannot be learned
- all members of species must exhibit the behavior
Swimming and instincts?
birthing babies in the tub. lasts about the first 6 months of a babies life they will naturally swim and blow bubbles if you take them swimming
WIndows of opportunity in which you should learn something if not taken you may not learn it (like when and how a baby develops)?
critical learning periods
WHat is imprinting?
relates to "foul" (ducks, chickens, geese)
first thing they see when hatch is imprinted on them as their mommy
What is bonding?
it is spending time with kids/people. Moms very bonded with kids, they grow and are born from them -- hold baby right after they were born. Key is to have people they're bonded too.
What causes lasting changes in behavior to occur most of the time?
actual experience -- this is the best teacher
Do lasting changes to behavior occur due to semantic experience? (someone telling you about it)
- If I tell you something will it change you; most likely no -- We don't listen
What is the Geronimo effect?
Get on the bunk bed and hurl yourself into the air and you crash to the floor or into something - you do this lots of times
Experiences that create a relatively permanent change in the learner?
What three things is learning based on?
- experience (most cases)
- produces change in the organism (most cases)
- change is relatively permanent (most cases)
A process in which repeated exposure to a stimulus, and thus results in a gradual reduction in responding?
e.g. see graphic violence for the first time we respond to it "aweful" as you see it a lot you habituate/get used to it.
What is it called when one thing leads to another?
Who discovered classical conditioning?
ivan pavlov, russian physiologist
linking stimulus and responses that occur naturally or because of learning?
When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response?
Focuses on the way in which involuntary (salivating) responses may be associated or linked with objects or events?
what is the stimulus when the "flapping thing overhead in Jackson Hole" (haven't experienced or heard before)?
- Unconditional stimulus
- presentation of food... meat powder
what is response of dropping to the ground when flapping thing flies overhead?
- unconditioned response
- a reflexive reaction...salivation
- natural reaction
How are stimulus and response typically paired together?
unconditioned stimulus ---- unconditioned response
conditioned stimulus --- conditioned response
unconditioned stimulus --- conditioned response (whirlpool example after he went through riptide example)
What is a stimulus that is initially neutral.... the bell?(taught learned)
- conditioned stimulus
- riptide example (his friends prepared him for it before it happened; familiar with it)
a reaction produced by the conditioned stimulus ... salivation? (taught learned)
- Conditioned response
- He went with the riptide and he was told and he popped back up again.
You can shape anyones behavior by doing something in same order everytime? Adding a new stimulus to a pre-conditioned response?
Higher order conditioning
Basic principles of classical conditioning?
acquisition: requires association between the CS an US
extinction: gradual elimination of a learned response when the CS is presented and US is not there
spontaneous recovery: the unlearned behavior comes back after a test period.
***The Conditioned Response (CR) is observed even though the conditioned stimulus (CS) is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition?
- *stimulus generalization
- *from 1 to many
- e.g. attacked by a german shepherd now hate all dogs
***The capacity to distinguish between similiar but distinct stimuli?
- stimulus discrimination
- pick the right one
- from many to 1
- you whistle lots of different tunes while you work and your dog just sleeps through them; you whistle a specific tune that you normally do when you feed the dog and it wakes right up.
Bad experience follows the eating of food?
- conditioned taste aversion
- garcia studied this
reinforcement from the environment?
who coined the term operant conditioning?
behavior is a function of its consequences?
- operant conditioning
- guy gets slapped for kissing a girl (no do again)
the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future?
guy kisses girl gets slapped - no do again
focuses on the way in which voluntary behavior can be linkd to rewards and punishments we receive for making the behavior?
behavior that required an organism to do something?
- instrumental behaviors
- Edward L. Thorndike
What is the Law of Effect?
behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tends to be repeated. Those behaviors that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated. Rewarded behavior is likely to recur.
root word satisfy?
In the state of want in relationship to a particular need?
Learning that results from reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior (baby steps) breaking desired behavior down in to little steps that leads to the learning of complex behaviors?
- ralph in a state of deprivation
- drop kernal each time gets within 2 inches of lever until satiated
- Rest him until next day when in deprivation
- do same until 4th day (moving closer to lever until touch - then pull)
Skinners study of learning focused on ______ and _______?
reinforcement and punishment
Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it?
Any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it?
Punisher (bad thing taken away -- he doesn't punch you out becasue you got over 90%
To make operant conditioning most effective, the following rules must be applied?
- reward must be adapted to the individual
- reward only when they perform
- mold exisiting behavior into more complex behavior (better grades more money)
something desirable is presented (get 100 bill)?
something undesireable is removed (getting knocked out is removed)?
The two types of negetive reinforcement?
- avoidance conditioning
- escape conditioning
type of negative reinforcement that you make sure it doesn't start (walk a different way so don't get beat up by kid)?
Type of negative conditioning that it starts and you get out of it? (cry and get out of ticket)
what is learned helplessness?
- forget good grades it is never good enough for you
- forget baseball it is never good enough for you
guidelines for effective operant conditioning?
- *strength of consequences
- give you 10 dollars, 200 dollars, 1000 dollars
- *timing of consequences
- immediately reinforce best
- * frequency of consequences (schedules of reinforcement)
schedules of reinforcement?
- fixed ratio schedule
- variable ratio schedule
- fixed interval schedule
- variable interval schedule
- schedules of consequences
reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses that has been made?
fixed ratio schedule
the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses ... gambling?
variable ratio schedule - doesn't know when it comes you just get on the lever and pull until it does
reinforcements are presented at a fixed time period? (set time)
fixed interval schedule
doesn't know when it will come but knows it will come?
variable interval schedule
grow up in a world where nothing you do bad is pointed out (just positive pointed out) OR nothing you do good is pointed out just the bad?
- schedules of consequences
- have to work on both ends
"I do this because it makes me happy" is what kind of motivation?
"I do this to impress you" is what kind of motivation?
Satisfy biological needs, food water shelter warmth .... what the organism really wants?
Become associated with primary reinforcers through classical conditioning... what becomes associated with primary reinforcer?
- secondary reinforcers
- I.E. sight of pavlov or bell
When the presentation of rewards cause the opposite effect: a decrease in the behavior?
when external rewards undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior?
too much reinforcement vs doing things for the intrinsic value?
over justification effect
repeating behaviors that have been accidentally reinforced?
irrational fear of something relatively harmless?
Learning takes place by watching the actions of others?
Three things to consider when discussing adult models?
- type of power of the model
- learners personality and degree of independence
- the situation
Identify the three theories of aggresstion?
- Freud's instinct theory
- social learning theory
What is an insight vs an epiphany?
- friend with new clothes you see get attention of boys - so you say hey I need those kind of clothes etc... INSIGHT
- an ah ha moment is and EPIPHANY
what behavior is it that causes us to help others in the neighborhood?
what are two types of reinforcement?
- vicarious reinforcement: doesn't happen to you; big brother gets paid for good grades and you see it so you want to get good grades.
- vicarious punishment: big brother gets bad grades and gets spanked you say I don't want to get bad grades so I don't get spanked.
Knowledge that sneaks in "under the wires"?
learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of the process or the products of information acquistion. Complex behaviors such as social rules and grammar can be learned without conscious awareness?