Background on Infectious Disease

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Author:
smourer
ID:
239559
Filename:
Background on Infectious Disease
Updated:
2013-10-08 16:25:54
Tags:
Medical Microbiology immunology infectious disease entry exit transmission
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Description:
Terms and concepts related to the background of infectious disease.
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  1. 6 obligatory steps for microorganisms
    • Attachment with or without entry into the body
    • Logal or general spread within the body
    • Multiplication
    • Evasion of host defenses
    • Shedding from the body (exit)
    • Cause damage in the host
  2. What is the main reason that microbes are always a step ahead of the host's immune system?
    Microorganisms are evolving at a much faster rate compared to most host organisms.

    They multiply quickly due to very short generation time.

    They also have horizontal gene transfer including antibiotic resistance genes.
  3. 4 main types of infection classified by characteristics of the microbe.
    • Microbes with mechanisms for invading host body surfaces. - Viruses, certain bacteria.
    • Microbes transferred via biting arthropods. - malaria, plague, typhus, yellow fever.
    • Microbes transferred via skin wounds or animal bites. - Clostridia, rabies
    • Microbes that are opportunistic and are only able to attack when the host's defenses are down.
  4. 4 main steps in Koch's postulates
    • 1. The suspected pathogen should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy animals.
    • 2. The suspected organism must be grown in pure culture.
    • 3. Cells from a pure culture are introduced in to a healthy animal.
    • 4. The suspect organism must be reisolated and shown to be the same organism.
  5. Exceptions to Koch's Postulates
    • Some microbes cannot be cultured in the lab - Treponema pallidum, viruses
    • For some microbes there are no susceptible nonhuman hosts.

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