History 10, Exam 1

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  1. Bering Land Bridge
    • 1. Bridge that connected Asia onto the North American continent
    • 2. It allowed animals and the Paleo-Indians to pass
    • 3. The bridge was made about 15,000 years ago
    • Significance: A part of the evolution of man during the last ice age
  2. Maize
    • 1. A cereal crop grown widely throughout the world
    • 2. Explorers & traders carried it back to Europe & introduced it to other countries
    • 3. Has ability to grow in diverse climates
    • Significance: Largely used as livestock feed & as raw material for industrial products
  3. Tobacco
    • 1. A new world plant grown by Indians
    • 2. Drains the soil quickly
    • 3. Was a "hit" in England
    • Significance: Crop that saved Jamestown
  4. Columbian Exchange
    • 1. Old & New world exchange of diseases, plants, animals, & ppl (use of Bering land bridge)
    • 2. Many Paleo-Indians/their military died of disease
    • 3. Disease was one of the most tragic exports (90% died of small pox)
    • Significance: Increased pop. w/ variety of crops and livestock
  5. Powhatan Confederacy
    • 1. They would have council meetings to discuss what to do about important situations
    • 2. Both ppl & chief/leader were named "Powhatan"
    • 3. 1st major group to have contact w/ settlers at Jamestown
    • Significance: If it weren't for the Powhatan tribe, the colonists wouldn't have survived.
  6. Jamestown
    • 1. Nobody really lived there much
    • 2. Colonists needed indians who were good providers
    • 3. Settlers dining on dogs, cats, rats, & mice
    • Significance: Became tobacco company
  7. John Smith (1580-1631)
    • 1. He was one of 4 ppl responsible for Jamestown's survival
    • 2. He was an explorer and cartographer
    • 3. He was captured by Opechi Kanowa
    • Significance: He established 1st permanent English settlement in North Amer
  8. Plymouth
    • 1. It's one of the 1st English colonies in America
    • 2. Town in Massachusetts founded by Pilgrims in 1620
    • 3. Citizens fled religious persecution & searched for place to worship God as they saw fit
    • Significance: The first thanksgiving was held there
  9. Pilgrims
    • 1. Majority of them weren't all "Puritans"
    • 2. They got dumped by Mayflower's captain in Massachusetts
    • 3. They were 1st group of English colonists that came to America w/ intent to stay
    • Significance: They were escaping religious tyranny and wanted to practice freely.
  10. Squanto
    • 1. He was thought to have been assasinate by Massasoit instead of suspicious "fever" death
    • 2. He lived w/ Pilgrims for 18 months & spoke perfect English
    • 3. He was kidnapped by English slavers
    • Significance: He helped pilgrims survive after 1st winter; Seen as "Pillar of God"
  11. Anglo-Powhatan War
    • 1. Land loss brought tensions between English colonists & Powhatan Indians
    • 2. Opechi Kanuwa planned epic first attack & killed one quarter of settlement pop.
    • 3. They formed a truce & then prepared again in 1644 for bigger attack
    • Significance: The spread of English settlements onto Indian lands would lead to further wars w/ Natives
  12. Pequot War
    • 1. 1st big New England colony/Indian War
    • 2. Not much potential for Indians to push back against colonization in Connecticut
    • 3. Indians built fur trade post for goods
    • Significance: The destruction of the Pequots cleared away only major obstacle to Puritan expansion
  13. King Philip's War
    • 1. War that broke out in 1675-1676
    • 2. 5,000 Indians were killed, about 40% of pop.
    • 3. 2,500 Colonists were killed, about 5% of pop.
    • Significance: Bloodiest war in American History
  14. Bacon's Rebellion
    • 1. Nathaniel Bacon planned protest for high taxes, low tobacco prices, restrictions on right to vote & not getting any protection from gov.
    • 2. He led angry mob to burn Jamestown & Indian settlements
    • 3. Jamestown burned down, Bacon got illness, & his death ended rebellion
    • Significance: Ended w/ reduction of taxes, unifying of diff. nations & race, & giving rights back to free man
  15. Salem
    • 1. 1692 Witch trails based on supposed voodoo incidents w/ teenage girls whom acted possessed
    • 2. Adults brought in professionals to perform "special" courts
    • 3. They targeted slaves or ppl of lower class to be the "witches"
    • Significance: The judgements & persecutions ppl made & the hysteria it led to for those who questioned diff ppl or those who believed differently
  16. The Great Awakening
    • 1. They celebrated generalized idea of Protestant Christianity
    • 2. People would camp out in tents & have dramatic meetings w/ preachers, like a religious Woodstock
    • 3. They deemed it acceptable to Christianize your slaves
    • Significance: Movement that tended to encourage separation of church & state
  17. French and Indian War
    • 1. Overwhelmingly fought by Indians
    • 2. First shots were from the Indians towards the French colony's "Fort Necessity"
    • 3. It allowed British to attain dominant position in N. Amer., the West Indies, & subcontinent of India
    • Significance: Re-evaluation of Colonial relationship between Amer. Colonies & Mother country
  18. Proclamation Line of 1763
    • 1. No English-speaking settlers could go West of Applachian Mountains
    • 2. Thousands went westward beyond boundary line drawn by British
    • 3. British thought it was proper method for protecting its colonial empire & making colonies pay costs for protection
    • Significance: It was 1st of a series of acts by the British gov that were met w/ anger & resistance in colonies
  19. Boston Tea Party
    • 1. Rebelled that tea was too cheap
    • 2. It started from rage against British East India Company which controlled nearly all commerce to & from N. Amer. w/ subsidies & special dispensation from Brit. crown
    • 3. 116 protestors dumped 90,000 lbs of tea
    • Significance: Britain realized that more control was needed in the colonies which resulted the Intolerable Acts & Quebec Act.
  20. George Washington (pre-president)
    • 1. He never learned French, so he was unaware of statement he signed confessing to murder of Jumonville
    • 2. He had a long streak of bad luck & learned from mistakes
    • 3. He spoke against Britain's policies & became leader in Association
    • Significance: He led Continental Army during American Revolution
  21. *Date Columbus bumped into Bermuda*
    Founded in 1492
  22. *Date Jamestown founded*
    Founded in 1607
  23. *Date Plymouth founded*
    Founded in Dec 21, 1620
  24. Narrative
    the storyline
  25. Primary source
    • source that was created in the period of time of which it set occurred; it is what it is
    • Ex: a letter from the Civil War
  26. Secondary source
    • Pre-digested history
    • Ex: History book; taking primary sources & put it all in one source; newspapers
  27. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
    • Hero vs. Villian
    • Took continent that was separated from the known world & brought them back together again.
    • Didn't exactly "discover" America
  28. Martin Luther (1517)
    • Father of Protestant Reformation
    • He had crisis w/ a fundraiser for a church, which drove him to Christianity
  29. Roanoke (1585)
    • Part I (Fail): Base for English Pirates
    • Part II: Brought down men who ticked off the Indians
    • Part III: Pilots of ship were interested in hobby = to go on freelance pirating expeditions
  30. Recipe for success (Roanoke colony)
    • Family-based colony
    • Men, women, & children
    • They succeed more because they MULTIPLY
    • They followed this idea, but had bad timing during Spanish Armada
  31. Spanish Armada (1588)
    • Let Spain come in w/ all of their goods & then Francis Drake took all of their belongings & brought it to Queen Eliz I
    • England won
  32. Conquistadors would...
    kill, rape, steal, do anything as a "soldier" to drive away any of those who had different beliefs
  33. Spanish Chase Moors out of Spain in Reconquista (1492)
    • Finished that year
    • Spanish had big expansion of Islam
  34. The Tiano
    Also known as Arrawak
  35. Joint Stock Company
    You have a bunch of investors that buy a piece of an expected colony
  36. Algonquian (or Algonkian)
    • language family
    • cluster of different types of Indians
  37. Algonquian ppl of Atlantic Seaboard
    • Lived on a miz of horticulture, fishing, hunting, & gathering
    • Gender roles in food production: Men=hunted smoked tobacco, & provided tribute, Women=farmed
    • English colonists misunderstood Indians as lazy
  38. Algonquian leader: sachem
    • "sachem" or "sagamore"
    • Usually a lesser chief than sachem, translates to "commander"
    • Combined roles of healer, priest, counselor, & conjurer
  39. Paramount chief
    highest-level tribal political leader in a region
  40. Powhatan didn't do...
    charity. Job was only to provide & protect his ppl
  41. John Smith & Powhatan had type of relationship where:
    To keep ur friends close, but enemies closer
  42. John Smith agreed to leave Powhatan in...
    Jan 1, 1608
  43. What happened to John Smith in Oct 1609?
    Was forced to leave Jamestown for medical care after gunpowder bag exploded in his lap
  44. The Starving Times in Winter (1609-1610)
    • Tensions were high after Smith's Departure in Jamestown
    • Led civilians to dine on rats, cats, mice, dogs
    • Even stirred themselves up to dig dead corpses out of graves
  45. Capture of Pocahontas
    • Converted to Christianity
    • Powhatan thinks twice about attacking "Rebecca"
    • Married John Wolfe (1614-1617)
    • Survived off of bacon
  46. Chesapeake Bay
    • Area offered harbors, navigable rivers, & a more fertile land
    • They would settle on James River
  47. Burgess
    one having all rights of a citizen
  48. House
    Burgesses in the HOUSE (church)
  49. House of Burgesses
    • Representative
    • Ppl vote for members
  50. Legislative
  51. Assembly
    group made up of 22 members elected by land owners over 17
  52. Headright systems
    if you're paying your own way, they're gonna reward you w/ some land; so acres for just showing up & not dying
  53. Indentured servitude
    contract where someone else pays your way over; give some of your own land, but not treated well
  54. Three P's
    • Protestant = Not Catholic
    • Puritan = Radical Protestant (purify faith)
    • Pilgrim = (Half of those on the Mayflower)
  55. Werawacomoco
    Main settlement of the Powhatan
  56. Opechi Kanuwa
    Leader of Powhatan Confederacy
  57. Church of England
    • Protestant church
    • The King was at head of it & got to say who Arch Bishops would be
  58. Headright System
    After 1618, every settler who paid own way got 50 acres
  59. Mercantilism
    Philosophy that colonies exist for benefit of mother country
  60. 1619
    • Beginning of slavery
    • America's Democratic Institutions
    • virginia Taxpayers Organized House of Burgesses: Colonial America's 1st elected legislature (only eligable voters were white, male landowners)
  61. Date Pilgrims landed on Plymouth?
    Dec, 1620
  62. Building Common House on Plymouth
    • Extremely freezing weather
    • Quietly buried dead to not come off as weak to Indians, Even tho they still had not come in contact w/ them
  63. Samoset
    1st Native American to make contact w/ Pilgrims (March 16, 1621)
  64. Massasoit & Gov. Carver Sign Treaty
    (March 1621)
    • For trading rights
    • Lasted about 40 years
Card Set:
History 10, Exam 1
2013-10-15 00:18:09
History 10 Exam

History 10, Exam
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