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What is the study of behavioral ecology? What 4 questions are asked in the study of behavioral ecology?
- Behavioral ecology-how animal behavior is controlled
- - how behavior develops, evolves, and contributes to survival and reproductive success
- Four Questions in BE-Causation: what is the mechanistic basis of the behavior, including chemical, anatomical and physiological mechanisms?
- -Development: how does development of the animal, from zygote to mature individual influence the behavior?
- -Function: How does the behavior contribute to survival and reproduction(fitness)?
- -Evolution: What is the evolutionary history of the behavior?
Contrast proximate and ultimate causes of behavior. Give examples of each for the following behaviors: Fixed action pattern, imprinting.
- Fixed Action Pattern
- -behavior affected by daily circadian rhythm (rest and activity)
- -seasonal cues affect behavior (reproduction and migration)
- a.daylight/darkness seasonal cues
- b.lunar cycles and tidal volumes
- -migrating animals can orient themselves using:
- a.position of the North Star
- b.Earth's magnetic field
- c.solar compass
- Imprinting-parent-offspring bond is formed by imprinting
- -requires only a brief exposure but its effects are strong and long-lasting
- -ie. female goats who lick and nuzzle their young for 10 minutes so that they will be able recognize her later
How does the environment interact with an animal's genetic make up to influence the development of behaviors?
- Influence of Environment- environment, interacting with an animal's genetic makeup, influences the development of behaviors
- -quality of diet on mate choice (e.g. Drosophila)
- -Nature of social interactions (e.g. aggressive behavior)
- -opportunities for learning (modification of behavior based on specific experience)
Describe the following learned behaviors: habituation, spatial learning, associative learning, problem solving.*
What is animal communication? What is the benefit of complex signaling?*
- -animal communication are animal behaviors that can evolve into systems of information exchange
- -pheromones, acoustic signals, visual signals, mechanosensory signals
How is cross-fostering used by behavior ecologist?
- Cross-Fostering-study places young from one species in care of adults from another species
- -studies help to identify contribution of environment to animal's behavior
Can behavioral traits evolve by natural selection? Explain
- Behavioral traits by Natural Selection-behavior can affect fitness by influencing:
- b.mate choice
- -natural selection favors behaviors that increase:
- b.reproductive success
- - natural selection can result in the evolution of behavioral trains in populations
What is the optimal foraging theory?
- Optimal Foraging-a theory that compromises between
- b.cost of obtaining food
- a.energy cost and benefit
- b.risk of predation
What influences on parental behavior?
- -genes and environment influence development of behavioral phenotypes
- -innate behavior
- -developmentally fixed
- -under strong genetic influence
- -ie directed movement, communication, mating and parental behavior
How is male polymorphism related to game theory?
- Game Theory-evaluates alternative strategies where outcome depends on each individual's strategy and strategy of other individuals
- Polymorphism in Male Uta stansburiana-orange-throat--most aggressive, defend large territories
- -blue-throats--defend small territories
- -yellow-throat--nonterritorial, mimic females, use "sneaky" strategies to mate
Compare intersexual and intrasexual selection.
- Intersexual-members of one sex choose mates on the basis of particular characteristics
- Intrasexual-involves competition among members of one sex for mates
What is altruism and how is inclusive fitness and kin selection related to it?
- Altruism (selflessness)-reduces individual fitness, but increases fitness of others
- -3 key variables in altruistic act:
- a.benefit to recipient
- b. cost to altruist
- c. coefficient of relatedness
- -inclusive fitness
- a.increase individuals genes and close relatives
- -kin selection is natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives
Describe the 4 steps of the developmental process.
- Developmental Process-determination
- a. sets fate of cell
- a. process by which different types of cells arise
- b. changes in gene expression affect
- a. organization and spatial distribution of differentiated cells
- b. affected by spatial differences in gene expression
- a. increase in body size by cell division and expansion
What is involved in the process of fertilization in sea urchins? Mammals? How is polyspermy prevented?
- Fertilization Steps-acrosomal reaction when sperm meets egg -> releases hydrolytic enzymes that digest material surrounding egg
- -gamete's plasma membrane fuses and depolarizes egg cell membrane and spem nucleus enters
- -leads to rise in Ca++ in egg's cytosol
- a. increase cellular respiration and protein synthesis
- b. release of cortical granule contents -> formation of fertilization envelope (blocks polyspermy)
For embryo development describe cleavage, gastrulation, and organogenesis.
- Cleavage-period of rapid cell division without growth
- -partitions cytoplasm of one large cell into smaller cells (blastomeres)
- Gastrulation-blastula -> 3 layered embyro (gastrula)
- -3 layers = embryonic germ layers
- a. endoderm
- b. mesoderm
- c. ectoderm
- Gastrulation in Reptiles-gastrulation occurs in a flat disk of cells called the blastodisc
- -some cells enter a fluid space between the blastodisc and yolk and form hypoblast which will contribute to extraembyronic membranes
- -overlying cells form the epiblast which becomes the embryo
- -3 embryonic germ layers -> rudiments of organs
- a. initiation of nervous system
- b. occurs in early organogenesis
- c. body segmentation develops
- - somites
- a. form from mesoderm on either side of neural tube
- b. produce vertebrae, ribs, muscles, lower skin layer
How is polarity defined in the egg/zygote? Compare meroblastic and holoblastic cleavage
- - gray crescent
- a. oppsite site of sperm entry (ventral surface)
- b. marks dorsal surface
- c. location of first cleavage division
- -in most animals (except mammals), egg/zygotes have polarity
- -polarity defined by yolk distribution
- a. vegetal pole (most yolk)
- b. animal pole (least yolk)
- Cleavage-Meroblastic cleavage:
- a. incomplete division of egg
- b. yolk-rich eggs (reptiles,birds)
- -holoblastic cleavage
- a. complete division of egg
- b. littler of moderate yolk (sea urchin, frogs)
What germ layers are involved in neurulation and somite production?
- Germ Layers in Neurulation and Somite-3 layers = embryonic germ layers
- a. endoderm
- b. mesoderm
- c. ectoderm
How do simple cells give rise to complex organisms?
- Morphogenesis-cell movement
- -cell adhesion
- -cell death
What are some methods of asexual reproduction?
- Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction-Fission
- a. separation of a parent into 2+ individuals of approximately the same size
- a. new individuals arise from outgrowths of existing ones
- a. breaking of body into several pieces, some or all of which develop into complete adults by the regrowth of lost body parts (regeneration)
What are the advantages of hermaphroditism? Sequential hermaphroditism?
- Hermaphroditism-each individual has a male and female reproductive system
- -advantage is never having to find a mate
- Sequential hermaphroditism-individuals reserves its sex during its lifetime
- -advantage can change sex when needed during its lifetime *
What are advantages/disadvantages of asexual/sexual reproduction?
- Sexual ReproductionAdvantages
- -genetic diversity
- -greater genetic pool
- -need to find mate
- -need to have advantageous characteristics
- Asexual ReproductionAdvantages
- -no need to find mates
- -no natural selection
What reproductive organs are involved in the production and transportation of gametes?
- -internal organs:
- a. pair of gonads
- b. system of ducts and chambers that carry gametes
- -chambers that house embryo and fetus
What are the steps in human oogenesis and spermatogenesis?
- Oogenesis-cytokinesis is unequal, most cytoplasm monopolized by a single daughter cell (secondary oocyte
- -long "resting" periods
- -female has about 450 menstrual cycles and releases on ovum each time until meopause
- Spermatogenesis-produces sperm in uninterrupted sequence and continuously throughout a male's life
- -man produces over 100 million sperm per day
Where does fertilization occur in humans?How is the developing embryo protected and nourished?*
- -fertilization occurs in the female gamete (upper region of the oviduct
- a.sperm moves in this order: vagina, cervix, uterus, and then oviduct
- -nourished by the maternal circulatory system or can feed on its own.
Compare/contrast menstrual and estrous cycles.
- Menstrual- occurs in human and primates
- -endometrium shed from uterus in a bleeding (menstruation)
- -sexual receptivity not limited to specific time frame
- Estrous-non-primate mammals
- -endometrium reabsorbed by uterus
- -sexual receptivity limited to a "heat" period
- Bothovulation occurs when endometrium started to thicken in preparation for implantation
Describe the complex integration of human female reproductive cycle (focus on changes in the uterus and the ovaries, and hormones involved--estrogen, progesterone, LH, FSDH, GnRH).
- Human Female Reproductive Cycle- the female reproductive cycle is integrated cycle involving two organs (uterus and ovaries)
- -cyclic secretion of GnRH from hypothalamus and FSH/LH from anterior pituitary orchestrates female reproductive cycle
- -five kinds of hormones participate in elaborate scheme involving positive and negative feedback
- Female Hormones- FSH- follicle stimulating hormones
- - LH- stimulate follicle to synthesize estrogen
- -Estrogen- promotes endometrium growth
- a. +/- effect on LH and FSH
- -progesterone released by CL, promotes endometrium growth/maintenance
What hormones are involved in childbirth and what is their function?*
-Progesterone inhibits and estrogen stimulates contractions of uterine muscle. Toward the last month of pregnancy, the estrogen–progesterone ratio shifts in favor of estrogen. The onset of labor is marked by increased secretion of the hormone oxytocin—a powerful stimulant of uterine muscle contraction—by the posterior pituitaries of both mother and fetus