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What is the definition of poultry
Domesticated birds whose products (usually eggs or meat) are marketed
What are the usual poultry products
Meat and Eggs
What is another name for the study of birds
Describe the interaction between Poultry, beef and pork consumption in Canadians
Beef and pork consumption is decreasing, and poultry consumption is increasing.
Poultry consumption is now the highest consumed meat in Canada
What is an umbrella term that encompasses the herd/flock and humans and safety
What is the name of a chicken
Gallus gallus domesticus
What were the three original uses of birds
Meat, eggs and fighting
What year was mechanical processing first used
When was the first antibiotic used in the broiler industry
When were corn-soy diets introduced to the broiler industry
What year were chicken wings marketed
When did selection for breast muscle start?
What is another term for white meat
What are two laying hen breeds?
- Single Comb White Leghorn
- Brown Leghorn
What are two Dual purpose birds?
- Barred Plymouth Rock
- Rhode Island Red
What are two broiler (meat-type) breeds
What is another name for a large white turkey?
Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo
How many primary breeders are there in the world
Less than 10
Briefly describe the breeding pyramid of broilers
- Pedigree pure lines
- Great Grand Parents (Best recycled for next generation pedigree)
- Parent Stock
- End product meat birds
What is the replication factor of one Great Grand Parent bird?
1 Great grand parent stock = 200 000 broilers
What is a hybridization scheme?
Taking qualities from different grand parents (and parents) to have a current generation that has multiple selected traits.
What is a difference between the hybridization scheme of layers and broilers?
The hybridization of broilers has 4 different grand parents, while only 3 different grandparent lines are used for layers. (Likely egg laying in female side)
What is the purpose of having mating schemes?
In meat production? Egg production?
- Deal with negative genetic correlations and
- prevent unintended consequences?
- In meat: growth rate and number of offspring
- In egg: Egg numbers and egg size
What is a genetic limit? What are the types of genetic limits?
When there is no further response to genetic selection.
- True genetic limit, which is the end of genetic variability
- Biological limit (egg can not physically be any bigger or will harm layer)
What is the sex chromosomes for males and females in poultry?
What are 6 qualities that have been improved through genetic selection (in order of % change per year)
- 42 day live weight
- Feed conversion
- Egg production
- Chick production
- % Breast meat
- % Eviscerated yield
Why did the % of drum/live weight decrease after 1977?
Strong selection for breast meat
What is the average current %Weight of drums/live weight for drums? breast?
What is the market body weight of a broiler
What is the term that describes giving antibiotics to prevent infection?
Prophylactic antibiotic use
What is going to be banned in 2014 that will have large implications
Category 1 antibiotic use
What types of infections are currently prevented with antibiotics
- Coccidiosis control
- Necrotic enteritis control
What are the three/four major industry issues
What are some health issues in the industry (3)
- Avian influenza
- Antibiotic use
What are some environmental issues in the industry
- Runoff (Phosphorous: phytase; Nitrogen: Amino acids)
- Water (Quality and Quantity)
What are some issues with welfare (2)
- Alternative housing
- Stocking density
What does FCR stand for
Feed conversion rate
What is the FCR of broiler chickens? Turkeys?
What is controlled in an incubator (three)
- Rotation of eggs
What happens to late hatching chicks?
They have a lower viability
Why are navals of chicks looked at when they have been hatched
To see if there is any residual yolk. The navals should be closed
What does CFIA say about unhatched birds?
They should all be humanely euthanized before disposal
How do you feather sex chicks? How is this done?
When there is a shorter feather it is a female. It is a sex-linked gene that is used for sex determination.
What enables chicks to survive transport without food?
Internal yolk sac
What is the most essential thing a chick should receive after transport?
What are the three methods of injection
- Intramuscular (in muscle)
- Subcutaneous (under skin)
- Intraperitoneal (abdomen)
What vein is often used for blood collection
What are the 3 + 1 r's in animal welfare
- Reduction, Refinement, Replacement
- + respect
What does CCAC stand for and what is its purpose
- Canadian Council of Animal Care
- quality assurance and control
What are non experimental variables (4)
Microbe, chemicals, physical, animal related factors
What is the most common animal-related factor in experimentation
Describe how stress can have physical effects on yield
Cortisol is released because of stress. It has a catabolic effect preventing muscle lay down. Reduces body weight
What does OHS stand for
Occupational Health and Safety
What type of pet poses the largest risk of disease introduction into the barn?
What product have we reached a limit on through selection?
Describe how the breast muscle has changed in birds over the last 50 years
- In 1957 the breast comes to a point with small pectoralis major
- In 1977 the proportion between pec minor and major changes and today there is cleavage at the keel as a result of large pectoralis major
What is BCR?
Breast conversion ratio (to feed)
What does nutrigenomic mean
Nutrition and genetics. Nutrition can change things in the genome that alters things later
Why is feed conversion rate important?
It considers efficiency and cost reduction by feeding less feed.
What is a nutrient requirement
The level of a nutrient that maximizes growth.
What is an essential amino acid
A nutrient that the bird cannot synthesize and must be supplied in the required level in the diet.
Describe the law of diminishing returns in terms of food.
What is another name for this?
The more food you add to the diet, the more growth you get. (until a certain point, then the return is less and less)
What is a nutrient requirement? What is its focus?
Growth or other anabolic response to a measured increment of a nutrient.
What is a nutrient response? What is its focus
The theoretical point where adding additional levels of a nutrient does not result in increased growth.
Describe the balanced protein approach
Providing amino acids in ratios in a proportion to each other to simultaneously meet levels of all amino acids required by an animal.
What is phase feeding and why is it important?
Phase feeding is when birds are fed different diets at different ages. This is important because nutrient requirements change.
Describe phase feeding.
- Birds are fed different feeds depending on age. The different phases are
- Prestarter (0d)
- Starter (0 to 10 d)
- Grower (10 to 25 d)
- Finisher (4 wk +)
What is the optimum ratio of protein in a diet?
A link between the environment and progeny. DNA may not be affected, but methylated cysteine may be affect an environmental queue that can affect the queue.
Describe how weight gain changes as the bird ages
At a young age weight gain is added in the muscle using amino acids and at an old age weight is often added as fat.
What is a disadvantage of feeding a mash diet? How can this be solved?
Feeding a mash diet decreases feed intake. The food will need to be concentrated.
Describe how the limiting amino acids are calculated as the bird ages.
Percentage of all amino acids increases relative to lysine.
What is the main limiting amino acid for poultry
When has an animal eaten enough food?
When is has consumed adequate amounts of feed to satisfy the requirement of the first limiting nutrient.
What is an example of a fixed cost of a producer?
What is the relationship between inputs and variable costs.
As input increases, so does variable cost
What is the break even point for a producer
When income covers the cost of production
Describe net loss of a producer
When income is less than the total cost
Describe net profit of a producer
When income is higher than the total cost
What is the cut up market? Whole bird market?
Which one is more profitable?
When breasts, legs, wings are being sold separately. Value added, so more profit.
Whole bird market is selling a whole bird.
What is the immediate effect of vaccines on growth?
They reduce growth because energy is being diverted to the immune response
How much does the residual yolk sac weigh in a newly hatched chick
Up to 10%
What is the yolk sac? What is it high in?
Yolk from egg is internalized and used as energy for the chick in the early days of life. It is high in lipids.
How can the yolk sac be an indicator of how well a chick is doing?
The yolk sac should be used as soon as possible. In case of infection, the yolk sac will not be absorbed by the bird.
What is another name for yolk sac infection? What is it often caused by?
Oomphalitis is often caused by an E. Coli infection
What are two ways to gaining weight through muscles?
Large muscle cells, or lots of muscle cells.
What are the constraints that affect feed intake (6)
- Feed nutrient density
- Immune response
- Feed form
- Feed composition
What is the effect of early nutrient density on bird body weight. Where is this effect seen?
Early nutrient density increases body weight of the bird. There is significant different in the pectoralis major and overall breast size.
What is the effect of early nutrient density on FCR?
Lower FCR with high density later on in life.
Why is early feeding important? (5)
- Embryos obtain nutrients from egg yolk
- chicks obtain nutrients from feed
- chick has to absorb the yolk into the circulatory system and the gut within 2-3 days
- Feed in the guy stimulates yolk secretion into small intestines and triggers uptake of fat soluble nutrients
- Yolk utilization is slower in chicks that have not eaten
What is the precursor of muscle cells?
How does early feeding affect breast meat yield?
Early access to feed increases proliferation of satellite cells, and can increase yield by 4-10% at processing days.
How does delayed feeding effect gut structure? (3)
- Decreases villus height and width.
- Number of cells per crypt and number of crypts per villus are decreased
- enzymatic secretions will be decreased until the birds are fed.
What is the effect of a 15 hour delayed feeding of a chick in regards to the bird at four days of age and market weight, in grams?
A delayed bird will weigh 80 grams lighter at body weight, and 20 grams lighter after 4 days
What is the target weight for a seven day bird?
160 grams. It is often exceeded
What is the importance of 7 day weight?
7 day weight is a tool to measure the effectiveness of brooding management.
Describe how extra weight on a 7 day old chick will impact market weight?
For every 10 grams of extra BW at day 7, there is an additional 50 to 70 grams of BW on the 42 d broiler
What is market age of a broiler
What weight for a 7-day chick is considered to be a concern
Less than 130 grams
What are the 6 factors in 7 day weight? Which three are most in producer control?
Brooding management, nutrition (density and quality), temperature and humidity of the environment are most in the producer control.
Parent source flock age, disease challenge/vaccination and hatchery management are other factors.
What is important to consider regarding litter when expecting new chicks?
The litter needs to be preheated so it is warm all the way to the bottom.
What behavior do birds express that help them learn? Provide an example.
Birds often mimic one another. This can be seen with watching each other drink from water nipples.
Describe R2. How does it change with 7 day weight and bird age?
Goes from 0 to 1 and gives the percent of variation explained by the variable of interest.
The R2 becomes smaller as the bird ages. There is more variation.
What are the most important biological indicators? (7)
- Body weight
- Feed intake
- Feed conversion rate
- Egg production
What is a better indicator of a problem, growth or body weight? Why?
Growth is a better indicator because there will be a negative growth. Body weight will often plateau.
What are three different type of feed ingredient listed in his notes?
- Soybean meal
- Fish/fish meal
What is soybean meal often used for?
Protein supplementation in a diet
What is something to consider with corn
- grain size.
- Check for mycotoxins
What is often a result of using cheaper feed? What needs to be considered?
reduced performance. The economics need to be considered. (cost and revenue differences)
Describe how feeding a higher quality feed impacts revenues and costs.
- As nutrient level increases, feed cost per bird increases.
- Due to improved performance, the revenue from the birds increases.
- The margin over feed cost (feeding a better diet) is improved and yields more.
What are two things that a producer will look at to maximize profits?
- Minimum cost
- Maximum margin
What feed ingredient is most linked to profitability?
Describe where the maximum margin zone is
What is the effect of pelleting feed?
It improves body weight gain and feed efficiency.
Improves feed intake
What is the effect of poor feed form
Inhibit feed intake and have a negative impact on growth rate
What influences pellet quality? (3)
- The raw materials of the diet
- dietary fat inclusion
- dietary particle size
What is the effect of dietary fat in a chick diet?
It is not highly digestible for chicks because they do not have the enzyme system to deal with it.
Fats also oxidize and become rancid decreasing quality of feed even if they have the same kcal/g
What are good attributes of a high quality pellet? (2)
- High pellet durability (ability to remain intact during handling and transportation)
- and few fines
What is a good binder for pellets? A poor binder?
Wheat and wheat by-products are good binders while corn is a poor binder.
Fat over what amount reduces pellet quality?
over 2% of the diet.
How can fat be added into the diet?
In the post-pelleting procedure so the pellet quality is not affected.
Do birds prefer a coarse or a fine diet?
A coarse diet because it increases feed intake
What is a disadvantage of very fine feeds? very coarse feeds?
Consumption of very fine feeds may result in wastage and increased energy requirement
Consumption of very coarse feeds may result to imbalanced intake due to diet selection
What is the correlation of lysine and body weight uniformity?
Deficiency of lysine, as well as other aa's induce poor growth and as a result there is a larger coefficient of variation within the flock
What are the three most significant factors on poor flock uniformity in order of effect?
- Health problems in the 1st week
- Poor brooding conditions
- Health problems at the end of the growth period
What are two types of additives in feed?
Drugs and Non-drugs
What are the three example of drug additives in feed?
- Therapeutic drugs
- Prophylactic drugs
- Antibiotic growth promoters
What are five examples of non-drug additives?
- Organic acids
- Mold inhibitors
- Pellet binders
What is the calcium requirement (%) of a growing broiler diet?
What is the calcium : phosphorous ratio
What can occur, in terms of reproductive tract, if a bird is selected for protein?
Large non functioning right oviduct (can affect bird weight!)
What is the name of the non-functioning oviduct in hens?
Cystic right oviduct
What are the parts of the oviduct, in order?
- Shell gland
Why is it better to gradually increase the photoperiod in a hen?
Because sometimes the bird does not recognize to successive large jumps in photoperiod, only as one.
When do follicles start to grow?
In response to photostimulation
What are the chalazae? How are they formed?
The chalazae form when the egg rotates on its axis as it comes down the magnum of the oviduct. It holds the yolk to the two opposite ends of the egg, and keeps it in the middle and prevents it from sticking to the sides of the shell.
What is a 'perfect 10 ovary' ?
Nice number of follicles, evenly spread out
What is POF?
Post ovulatory follicle. Often white.
What is a primary follicle?
A follicle that is 1cm or larger in size.
What is the prevoulatory hormone in chickens?
What do we call a follicle that is under 1cm in size?
What colour is a follicle in its final stage of yolk deposition?
What is atresia? How is it useful?
Reabsorption of the follicle if it is not used. This is really good if the bird is feed restricted and can use nutrients from yolk.
What is molting?
Stopping a chickens reproductive system to have a chicken come into lay faster, better and stronger. Very stressful.
What is internal ovulation?
The follicle drops into the body cavity. Often not caught by the infundibulum.
What is internal oviposition?
Internal laying. The egg will come back up the oviduct and go into the body cavity, or will enter body cavity through a tear in the oviduct.
What is the ideal number of large follicles at the start of lay?
What remains once a follicle has been ovulated?
The granulosa and theca.
What are the parts of an egg?
What are the three levels of hormonal control of egg laying?
- Anterior pituitary
Where are yolk forming tissues obtained from?
Where are albumen forming tissues obtained from?
Where are shell forming tissues obtained from?
- Skeletal system
- Oviduct (shell gland)
Describe the hormone system of the reproductive tract in a hen
- Hypothalamus releases Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone
- This affects the anterior pituitary which release luteinizing hormone
- LH affects the ovary which releases androgens and estrogens and progesterone.
- Progesterone feeds back on hypothalamus
What is ovulation, and when does it occur?
Ovulation is the process which occurs when a mature follicle is released from the ovary.
Ovulation takes place during a defined period of the day known as the open period for LH release
When is a follicle considered to be mature?
When is produces progesterone
What is the open period for LH release?
- A 6 to 8 hour period in the day in which chickens ovulate
- The anterior pituitary hormone LH is only released during this period.
- The mature follicle secretes progesterone which further increases LH release
What is oviposition?
The process of laying an egg.
How long after ovulation does oviposition occur?
What are the two types of layers? Which one is a chicken?
- Determinant layers (a set number of eggs and stops)
- Indeterminate layer (lays an undetermined number of eggs if the eggs are taken away) Chicken
What is a laying sequence? What is it sometimes referred to as?
Sometimes referred to as a clutch, it is a period of 1 or more days of consecutive egg laying. Each egg in a sequence occurs slightly later each day. Each sequence is separated by a period of 40-44 hours
What is a prime sequence?
- longest laying sequence of a hen
- usually occurs about the time of peak production
What is the typical prime sequence length for an egg-type hen? a broiler breeder?
What are the symptoms of having not enough follicles? what are some causes?
- Normal peak production
- Poor persistency
- Inadequate light stimulation
- high incidence of atresia
- normal decline in follicle number with age
What are the symptoms of too many follciles
- Excellent peak production
- Poor persistency (short sequences)
- Poor shell quality
- High incidence of double-yolked eggs
- Birds fed aggressively coming into egg production
- Light stimulation problems
What are sources of energy in a diet?
- -Canola (oils)
- -Tallow (animal source fats)
- -restaurant grease (trans fats - not good)
What are two high protein ingredients?
What are two types of feed that are antinutritional for chickens?
- fish meal
- bone meal
- (lots of fat)
What happens if there is too much energy provided in a diet?
- Fat production
- Increase in heat and increased feed conversion rate = inefficiencies
What happens if there is too little energy provided in a diet?
- Deamination of nitrogen sources for energy.
- Decrease in growth (less ADG), reduced yield
What is another term for growth
Average Daily Gain ADG
What should not be fed to chickens in a hot environment? why?
Excess proteins should not be fed. If there is too much protein in the diet, deamination will occur and there will be heat production.
What should be fed to chickens in a hot environment?
More energy from a fat source than CHO because there is less heat production
What is the yield paradox of breast muscle?
- Breast yield of females is higher than males
- Breast weight in males is higher than in females
What is correlated with antinutritional properties?
What is the water to feed ratio in chickens?
What is another term for 'money that you pocket'
What is a margin in terms of economics?
revenue - specific cost
What are the two main breeders?
Aviagen and Tyson
Why are there so few primary breeders?
Because lots of the smaller companies have been absorbed by larger companies
What are the roles of the primary breeder? (4)
- Development of male and female breeding stock for poultry industry through genetic selection
- Customers include integrated poultry companies in the US and around the world
- Provide product technical support for broilers and broiler breeders
- Ensure quality and good health status of products
What is integration? is it common?
Integration is when the hatchery, mill, processor etc is often owned by the same company. It is common in USA but not in Canada
Why did the cut-up market evolve?
- Families were changing
- Hard to sustain a whole bird, quality market (because of carcass quality during processing)
- Further developed into a breast market (chicken nuggets)
Why don't broilers grow as well as the great grand parent stock?
Because broilers have a more intense environment.
What is sib selection?
Looking at siblings for selection purposes
How long does it take for change in selection pressure to show in the field (broiler level)
How has genetic selection criteria changed?
- We used to only select for liveweight
- Now we select for FCR, Cardiovascular fitness, skeletal integrity, eggs, hatchability, wings, breast meat, heat quality, immune response and growth profile
How is meat yield selected for today?
- Using fleshing
- Carcass evaluation
Combined index leading to better selection decisions and hence more progress up to 0.5% breast yield per year
What is an oximeter?
A noninvasive method of measure o2 levels.
What is a lixiscope
A low intensity x ray imaging scope that looks at bones and joints
What is another way of looking at feed conversion
how much feed It takes to make 1 kg of meat. The lower the number, the better
How is swallowing achieved in chickens? How is it different than humans
Swallowing is assisted by gravity. The neck is stretched and closes off trachea preventing food from entering.
It is different because they do not have a soft palate
What is the primary function of saliva?
Lubrication of feed
What are the functions of the tongue (3)
- Collecting food
- Manipulating food
Describe the esophagus
- It has external longitudinal and internal circular muscles
- Abundant mucous glands
- Peristaltic contractions
- -motility under involuntary nervous control, and depends on hunger state and feed in crop
What is the purpose of the crop?
Storage for feed. Impaction can occur from bulky or dry feed.
Why does the size of the crop vary between species?
The size varies by species and is related to feeding habits
What is the gizzard made out of?
Primarily muscle. Made out of cartilage (why it shines)
Why is coprophagia and litter bad?
Because it can block the GIT and the bird will have a hard time breaking it down
How does the gizzard change depending on diet?
A bird eating soft food will have a flaccid gizzard, while a bird eating harder food will have a thickened muscle tunic.
What is the gizzard lined with
- Protein secreting chief cells
- Koilin layer = hardened protein membrane lining lumen
What is the Koilin layer?
It is in the gizzard and is a hardened protein membrane lining lumen
What do most nutrients from the stomach and small intestine pass through to get to the liver?
The portal vein
What is the hepatic region? What does it aid in?
The hepatic region is the liver, gallbladder and bile duct.
It aids in excretion of waste products
What are waste products of the hepatic region?
Cholesterol and by-products of hemoglobin degradation.
What is the primary role of the liver in digestion?
Bile which facilitates solubilization and absorption of fat
What are the roles of the liver? (8)
- Bile production and secretion
- Detoxification of harmful compounds
- Metabolism of protein, carbs and lipids
- Storage of vitamins
- Storage of carbs
- Destruction of red blood cells
- Formulation of plasma proteins
- inactivation of polypeptide hormones
What are the three parts of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum and ileum
How does the small intestine of the chicken compare the mammal?
it is shorter relative to mammals and has a shorter transit time
How does food move through the small intestine (3)
- Pendular movement (forward/back)
- Segmentation (alternating ring contraction)
- Peristalsis (forward movement of contents)
What are the ceca of the chicken?
- Two blind- end sacs that arise from the colon and the ileal-cecal junction
- vary greatly depending on feed type
What type of feed leads to bigger ceca?
What is the purpose of the large intestine?
What two movements can be seen in the large intestine? What do they do?
- Peristaltic to empty guy and
- antiperistaltic to fill ceca
What is the cloaca and what are its three parts?
- Large intestine (coprodeum)
- Urinary tract (uric acid; urodeum)
- Reproductive tract (eggs or semen; urodeum)
Final chamber is the proctodeum where there are continuous peristaltic movements
What is the final chamber of the cloaca?
What are carbs stored as?
What is the function of glucagon?
A hormone that the pancreas releases to release glycogen from liver as glucose.
What we not been able to change with selection?
Incubation of egg to chick has not been able to be changed from 21 days
What is the average body weight of a day old chick?
What does in ovo mean
In the egg (In the embryo because the egg contains cells, tissues, organs and systems)
What are the five basic parts of a chicken embryo in an egg?
- Air cell
- Yolk sac
Why was in ovo invented?
As an alternative for the conventional method of vaccinating against Marek's disease
What is Marek's disease?
A herpes virus in poultry
What are the benefits of in ovo inoculation? (5)
- Stress free
- Less labour intensity
- Earlier immunity
- Contamination free
- uniform delivery
What is done to ensure embryos are not traumatized by in ovo inoculation?
What are the three crucial factors?
Automated injection needles is used in making a precise target depth of 2.49 cm into the amnion of each embryo between day 17.5 and 19 of incubation
- Injecting needle dimension size
- site of injection
What happens if injection of a nutrient during in ovo goes into any other site other than the amnion?
- Wastage of injected nutrient
- Traumatizing the embryo if it is penetration
Why do in ovo injections occur during days 17.5 and day 19
Because at day 17.5 the amnion is at its max size and is regressed by day 19.
What is the difference between the type 1 and type 2 multi egg injector?
The type 1 was built to inject 50 000 eggs an hour
The type 2 is newer and injects 70 000 eggs in an hour. It can candle eggs as well
What is in ovo vaccination
The process of enacting early immunity in poultry embryos through inoculation of the amnion with vaccines containing killed, live and attenuated pathogen like virus with the use of in ovo injection technology
What vaccines can be administered in ovo
- Marek's disease herpes virus
- Infectious bursal disease virus
What is pre-hatch nutrition
A pre-hatch (in ovo) feeding which is accomplished through the use of the adopted innovative technology in introducing nutrients into the amnion of a developing avian embryo to supplement the nutrients transferred into the eggs from the mother hen
When are the tissues, organs and entire systems involved with immune response, digestion, nutrition and renal activities fully functional?
- The least time of in ovo
- 17.5 days of incubation
What are advantages of in ovo (8)
- Improved digestive capacity
- Improved hatchability
- Increased growth rate and feed efficiency
- Recued post-hatch mortality and morbidity
- Improved immune response to enteric agents
- reduced incidence of developmental skeletal disorders
- increased muscle development and breast meat yield
What are the two things in ovo is used for
- Pre-hatch nutrition
How many grower facilities are there for maple leaf?
How do hatcheries obtain breeding stock?
Place an order 12-18 months ahead
How long are pullets grown for in hatcheries?
How long are pullets in the lay barn?
For 22-24 weeks until the end of lay
When do hens come into lay?
At around 27 weeks
What is the minimum egg size
What are some issues for hatcheries?
- Floor eggs
- Fertility issues
- Hatch residue break outs
Where does heat in the incubators come from?
Why are floor eggs an issue?
They are a source of contamination
When is the fertility program started in hatcheries?
Around 30 weeks of age
When are males introduced into hatcheries? Why?
They are introduced at 45-50 weeks to help with hatchability
How often are eggs picked up from hatcheries?
twice a week
How many eggs are hatcheries allowed to import?
a maximum of 17.43%
What is something to consider with incubation of different strains?
Different strains have different incubator environment optimums and hatch at slightly different speeds
Describe how a chick hatches
A chick will use its egg tooth to cut a circle around the egg. Should be a perfect circle. Chick pushes out of the egg
What are red hocks associated with?
Moisture loss in an egg
What is an issue with having too much moisture in an incubator?
The air cell will be smaller and the chicks will need to cut the egg higher up
What is the moisture loss impact at hatch
What drives the meat market?
The demand for meat
How are orders placed from hatcheries?
5 weeks before hatch and the demand is driven by kill requirements 10 weeks in advance
What is important for hatcheries to monitor?
- 7-day mortalities in particular, and all hatch drops by 2% or more
What is the plant target weight and market day(maple leaf hatchery)
- 2.15 kg
- with 36-38 days until market weight (average = 37.3)
What is the significance of having an open market in Alberta?
Producers can move between processors easily (19 week notice to change)
What are the challenges of the hatchery (7)
- Balance of egg supply
- Chick quality
- Hatch of fertile
- Producer engagement for improvement
- Skilled labor
- Mixing of egg pack/incubation flow
- Alignment of set/hatch/kill - schedule
Why is it hard to make changes to the hatchery system/incubation?
Because of the five week delay phase.
Describe natural incubation
- Temperature is obtained by body heat
- Hen turns the egg some times in a day
Do all hens display brooding behaviour?
What is the eyelid test of artifical incubation?
Place egg against eye to see if it is warm
How does the incubation time vary between Altricial and Precocial?
Precocial has a longer incubation period
Name three precocial poultry species
Name two altricial poultry species
What is the incubation period of chickens? Turkeys?
Are most domestic poultry species altricial or precocial
What is the purpose of the infundibulum?
How long does the ovum spend here?
- Recieves yolk from ovary
- Fertilization occurs
- 15 minutes
What is the purpose of the magnum?
How long does the ovum spend here?
- Shell membranes fromed
- Water and salts added
- 3 hours
What is the purpose of the isthmus?
How long does the ovum spend here?
- Albumen layered around yolk
- 1 hour
What is the purpose of the uterus in a chicken? What is another name?
How long does the ovum spend here?
- Also called shell gland
- More water added, shell formation
- 21 hours
What are the parts of a hens reproductive tract? (8)
- Shell gland
What is the site of fertilization in an egg
What is another name for germinal disk?
What are the two parts of the blastoderm? What is their function?
- Area pellucida: will form the embryo
- Area opaca: extraembryonic membranes
What are the four main parts of an egg? What are their functions?
- Shell: Protection and calcium for bone development
- Albumen: protection, water and protein source
- Yolk: Main source of nutrients for embryo
- Air cell: breathing space during hatch
What is the ideal storage time of fertilized eggs? What is the maximum time?
- Ideal: 7 days
- Max: 21 days
What is the ideal temperature of fertilized egg storage (before hatchery?)
What else is important other than temperature? why?
- A low temperature of 20 degrees or lower is important because it stops embryonic development
- A high humidity is important in avoiding excessive water loss
What is canding? When is it done?
- Candling is done before and during incubation.
- The purpose of it is to shine a light through an egg shell to look for shell defects before incubation, and check embryo development during incubation.
What are the five key components to artificial incubation?
What is the ideal temperature of incubation? What happens at the end of the incubation period?
What does improper incubation cause?
The ideal temperature is 37.5. At the end of incubation there is an increase in temperature as a result of embryonic metabolic heat
A higher or lower incubation temperature can affect hatching time and alter embryo mortality and chick quality.
When does embryonic metabolic heat start to play a factor in incubation?
At around day 9
What is the ideal humidity range of chicken incubation? What does humidity control?
- The ideal humidity range is 40-60%.
- Humidity controls water evaporation loss from the egg
What affects the egg water loss? (3)
- Environmental humidity
- Number of pores
- Shell thickness
What determines the shell thickness?
What is the purpose of turning eggs during incubation? (3)
What happens when there is no turning? (old and young embryo)
- Prevent adhesion of embryo to shell membranes
- Reduce embryonic malpositioning
- Better albumen utilization by the embryo
- No turning: Young embryo (mortality) older embryo (delayed hatch)
Where is the air cell located during incubation
The air cell is on the top
What is the purpose of ventilation during incubation
- To maintain CO2 at an ideal concentration
- Help dissipate heat
- Lower albumen pH
Why are multistage incubators hard to control temperature?
Because embryos are at different ages, and there is metabolic heat produced.
What are the four extraembryonic structures?
- Yolk sac or vitelline membrane
Describe the yolk sac. What is another name?
- It is also referred to as the vitelline membrane
- it is the first extraembryonic structure to develop
- A main source of nutrients for the embryo
- Visible at 3 days of incubation
Describe the amnion
- Sac filled with fluid
- Protects the embryo from shock or dehydration
- Absorbed by embryo before hatch
Describe the chorion
- Develops close to the interior shell membrane
- helps embryo with gas exchange through shell pores (With allantois)
Describe the allantois
- Blood supply for extraembryonic annexes
- transfer minerals from the shell
- storage of metabolic waste
What is a major developmental step that occurs at day three of incubation
Heart beats, blood vessels visible
What is a major developmental step that occurs at day six of incubation
- Appearance of beak
- Voluntary movements begin
What is a major developmental step that occurs at day 10 of incubation
- Egg tooth prominent
- Toe nails
What is a major developmental step that occurs at day 13 of incubation
- Appearance of scales
- Body covered lightly with feathers
What is a major developmental step that occurs at day 20 of incubation
- Yolk sac drawn completely into body
- Embryo becomes a chick
- Internal and external pipping
When are eggs moved from the incubator into the hatcher?
At day 18
Describe the hatching process of a chick
- The chick points head towards air cell
- Egg tooth pecks at shell then makes a hole and breaths
- Chick rests and then pips. It takes 2-5 hours
What are the two types of sexing methods? Describe them
- Vent sexing: males have a small bump
- Feather sexing: slow feathering males and fast feathering females
What is often looked at when a chick is hatched?
- Chick weight
- Beak and hock
What are some consequences of a not healed navel of a newly hatched chick? (3)
- More susceptible for infections
- More energy fighting infections (less growth)
- Increase in mortality
What are the mortality determination of chicks (the age groups that they are separated into)
- Early-dead embryo (1-7)
- Middle dead embryo (8-14)
- Late-dead embryo (15-21)
- Pipped eggs
What are causes of early mortality of a chick embryo?
- Poor handling and temperature changes
- moisture loss
- long storage
What are causes of intermediate mortality (days 8-14) during incubation of a chick embryo?
Nutritional and genetic problems
What are causes of late embryo mortality (15-21) of chick embryos?
- Long storage
- Poor incubator ventilation
What is performance a result of?
A balance of genetics, nutrition and management.
Describe growth rate of birds today than in 1957
3.8 times faster
How is market body weight changing?
0.5-1 day less per year
How is the importance of first week changing?
Because birds take less tor each market body weight, the first week of life is a higher percentage of bird life
What are broilers, in terms of temperature regulation?
What are the important events that occur during the first 2 weeks of a chicks life (4)
- Passive immunity
- Digestive tract maturation
- Skeletal system development
What are the brooding fundamentals? (6)
- Pre-placement preparation
- Temperature management
- Feed management
- Water management
- Air Quality and ventilation
- Light management
Describe partial house brooding
Start of having a brooding area a smaller percentage of whole barn, then increase the size as chicks age. This will reduce the amount of space and allow for heat conservation. Chicks will also be closer to feed, water and heat
What must litter be? (5)
- Free of pathogens
What is the ideal litter depth? Why is uneven litter bad?
- Depth 8-10 cm
- Uneven bedding material can restrict access to feed and water
What is the ideal temperature of a chick during the first week of life? What happens if it is higher or lower?
- Hyperthermia if too warm (dehydration, reduced feed intake and bwg)
- Hypothermia if too cold (pulmonary hypertension, heart weight increase, ascites)
How long before placement should temperature and relative humidity be established?
Where are brooding temperature conditions based upon?
What is the difference between spot brooding and whole house brooding?
- Spot brooding: The heat source is local so chicks can move away from warm areas
- Whole house: Heat source is more widely spread
What is the best indicator of correct brooder temperature?
What is the effect of delayed feeding on the GIT of a chick
- decrease weight and intestinal morphology
- Delayed feed increases cell death
What is the main feeding goal of a day seven chick?
To have the body weight increase four times (40 to 160)
What are some benefits of chick paper?
How much of the brooding area should it cover?
- Paper at least 25% of the brooding area
- Helps to recycle some nutrients (feces)
How are chicks encouraged to eat from the automated food dispensers when they start with chickpaper?
Move feed trays closer and closer to system and then take them away
What is a test that can be done to see whether the chicks are eating?
Feel the crop of the bird
What does water restriction reduce?
What is the purpose of ventilation during the brooding period?
- Maintain temperature and relative humidity at correct level
- Allow air exchange to prevent accumulation of harmful gases and dust
Name three harmful gases that may build up in a barn
What are some consequences of high ammonia in the barn?
- Food pad burns
- Eye burns
- Breast blisters/skin irritations
- Decreased performance
- Poor uniformity
- Respiratory disease
What is a difference between green and blue light on broiler performance?
Green light increased BW and muscle growth at the early stage, while blue light increases growth at the later stage
What is the ideal light lux?
How should the light be modified in warm weather?
Decrease the darkness
What sells for more, whole birds or cutup birds?
Cutup market has more income.
What is a model?
A representation of something else
What is the growth model?
- The Gompertz equation
How much of the cost of production does feed account for
How does the rate of maturing and mature weight change between male and female broilers
Females have a higher rate of maturing while males have a higher mature body weight.
What is Huxley's Dickuation?
- It measures weight of a body part using body weight and a coefficient
What is the first law of thermodynamics
- Energy can be changed from one form to another but it cannot be created or destroyed
- Energy is conserved
What are the four energy systems?
- Gross energy (remove fecal energy to get:)
- Digestible energy (urinary and gaseous energy)
- Metabolizable energy (Heat increment)
- Net energy
- Net energy for maintenance and production
When do energy requirements for the immune system reach a peak?
6 weeks of age
What is efficiency
- Amount of resource to produce amount of product
- Energy output/energy input
What affects efficiency (5)
- Growth rate
- Lean:fat ratio
- Reproductive output
- Nutrient supply
How has the measure of efficiency changed?
It moved from FCR to RFI: Residual feed intake
What are the two main requirements for sexual maturity?
- Carcass traits
- Hypothalamic Maturation
What occurs during sexual maturation of a hen?
- Yolk lipid synthesis in liver
- Bone calcium mobilization
- Pubic symphysis relaxation
- Oviduct development
- Comb growth
Where does mechanism of light stimulation occur?
What are the functions of photostimulation?
- Promote vigorous start in brooding
- Inhibits sexual development in all birds in flock
- Create conditions for long sequences
- Cue sexual maturity in all birds at right time
- Discourage floor laying
- Stimulate proper development of males relative to females
How does age of photostimulation affect days to first egg?
The longer the age at photostimulation, the shorter the number of days to the first egg.
How does age of photostimulation effect carcass fat content
Later photostimulation has a higher fat content
What is largely an indicator of uniformity in sexual development?
- Peak egg production
- More important than uniform body weight.
What is a high peak in egg production?
- When all hens are doing their personal best at the same time
- Affected mostly by management
What is low peak in egg production?
When few of the hens are doing their personal best at the same time
What is the relationship between allocating nutrients during rearing and laying?
A bird that is over-fed during the rearing period will be under-fed during laying.
What is a common rearing practice in north America regarding sex?
Why is ad libitum feeding for the first 2 weeks of rearing done?
To ensure vigorous start and variations in chick weight
What occurs to body weight prior to sexual majority?
There are major gains in body weight
What is a difference between immature and mature pullets prior to sexual maturity?
- Immature pullets will grow body mass
- Mature pullets will develop sexually
What might be a result in poor flock uniformity for layers? What can be done to help with flock uniformity
- Low peak production
- Pre-plan a feed withdrawal plan
What is a critical period of feed allocation in layers? Why?
- Approaching peak production
- The decline in increasing egg production results in an increase in body weight gain unless feed is removed
Why is it too late to reduce feed allocation when there is a reduction in egg production
Because it is too late - the birds are already too heavy
Why can egg weight not be used to feed withdraw layers?
Because it is not that well understood
When should feed withdrawal be done in layers? Why?
When there is a larger increase in weekly BW than anticipated. This is good because birds are just starting to partition less energy to the ovary and are instead gaining weight
What are the principles of breeder management (4) and what are the three key principles
- Know your genotype well
- Know flock well
- Avoid sudden large increases in feed intake
- Make feed increases as small and as frequent as possible
- Stimulate sexual maturity by changing daylength (NOT FEED)
- Support the necessary body weight gain needed with feed
- Don't let the bird's metabolism know that the feed allocation has been changed
What is a broiler
A type of chicken raised for meat only
What is the definition of organic
A specialty chicken produced under strict criteria determined by the standards council of Canada and certified by a registered certifying body
What are the three main housing systems?
What does the term poultry signals refer to
Referring the signals that poultry give off to recognize the normal and abnormal
What are the keys to flawless management
- Lighting programs
When does a slowdown in weight occur later in the growth period?
It should NEVER happen
What gives a sensitive measure to catch a growth-related problem in broilers?
What is a result of too bright lights?
What is a result of long day length in broilers?
What is the traditional understanding of daylength and light intensity?
- More daylength = more growth
- More intensity = less growth
What is the optimum amount of daylight for feed:gain ratio and body weight?
How is welfare affected by an increase in daylength?
A high daylight decreases dust bathing time and decreases
What is the target water:feed ratio
1.8 : 1
What should water temperature be ideally?
What is the recommended number of birds/nipple
How should bell type drinkers be aligned?
It should be aligned with the bird's back
How does the angle change with nipple drinker height as a bird ages
There is less water waste with a steeper angle in older birds
How can litter conditions be controlled?
A combination of ventilation, heat and drinker pressure/height.
What might be a cause of no feed intake late in life
Water issues/no water/decreased water intake
What is a high pressure flush?
A high pressure flush performed at regular intervals to prevent sediment and biofilm buildup
What requirements increase during a fever?
Energy and essential AA requirement go up due to increased basal metabolic rate
What is the difference between morbitity and mortality
What are the signs of morbidity (4)
- Impaired performance
- Reduced well-being
- Poor uniformity, pigmentation
- Increased susceptibility to other diseases
What is the maximum stocking density? When is another limit set
The max stocking density for birds is 31 kg/m2 under basic certification, but under full certification the density may be 38kg/m2
What are possible sources of contamination for poultry
- Watery gut contents
- Broken down intestinal lining
- Cecal contents
What is very important for food safety?
- Clean birds
- Feed withdrawal
What are the windows for processing after feed withdrawal (
- 8-12 hours (High gut integrity)
- 18-22 hours (lower intestinal contents)
- Between 14 to 16 hours guts are gassy: high risk of contamination
What are the two key points of domestication?
- Animals can't negotiate their side of the deal so humans must do justice to both sides
- Updates and renegotiation are critical
What is animal welfare
- Respect for animals
- Right thing to do
- Decreased welfare = decreased performance/product
What is a risk with decreased animal welfare?
Consumer trust and social license
What are the five freedoms
- Freedom from hunger and thirst
- Freedom from discomfort
- Freedom from pain injury and disease
- Freedom for fear and distress
- Freedom to perform natural behaviours
What are the four I's of animal suffering. Explain
- Ignorance: not knowing what to do
- Inexperience: Knowing what to do but not knowing how to do it
- Incompetence: inability to do it
- Inconsideration: Not caring
What are some welfare conflicts in chickens? turkeys? egg?
- Battery cages, beak trimming, lameness, growth rates
- Reproduction in turkeys
- Destruction of embryonic and day old chicks
What poultry things are supply managed?
- Alberta chicken producers
- Egg farmers of alberta
- Alberta hatching egg producers
Does Canada eat a lot of turkey compared to other countries?
Yes - but not more than USA
What is the name of a juvenile turkey?
Name the three female turkey classes by size, and then the males
- Broiler, Hen, Super hen
- Tom, Heavy tom
How old are turkey breeders when they reach maturity
28 weeks of age
How old are turkey eggs in the incubator for? How much do they weigh
What is the critical time period for poults
What is recommended regarding feed with poults at placement?
Recommended to add an extra 100grams extra feed per poult at placement
How old are turkeys when they are marketed? What is different compared with chickens other than age?
- Turkeys are marketed between 11 and 17 weeks of age depending on market requirements
- Chickens are marketed at an almost exact age (35d)
What is the upper ammonia limit for turkeys?
What is a test that can be done on litter to see if it is too wet
The litter ball test: it should not make a ball when squeezed => it should crumble
What is aspergillus
It is a mold that can be found in litter
What was the main cause in mortalities in turkey industry in Alberta?
- High crate stocking density
- Usually when stocked by producers themselves
What is a scooter?
Farm talk for pullet (flighty)
What is a double hierarchy
When a hen produces double the amount of follices
What is the goal of precision feeding
To eliminate under and over feeding
What is better for uniformity, sorting or scatter feeding, or skip-a-day feeding?
Sorting was best for uniformity
What is the theory behind skip-a-day feeding
All birds will eat to fill crops
What is the broiler breeder mating cycle length? Describe it a bit.
- 64 week cycle
- 0-20 rearing
- 20-23 photo stimulation
- 56-60wk slaughter
What are different feeding schedules for broiler breeder management?
- Every day
- Skip a day
What is the bullwhip effect?
It is when the gain is not consistent and changes from week to week.
What is fertility?
# fertile eggs/fertilized eggs
What is hatchability?
# of chicks hatched from eggs layed
what is hatch of fertile?
# of chicks hatched from fertilized eggs
What is an exploder?
Floor egg that bursts during incubation
Which type of light is better for photostimulation?
- Red light because it penetrates the skull the easiest
- Blue is the best, but can not penetrate skull
What does a bird in a positive energy balance prioritize nutrients towards?
What is important when decreasing post-peak feed allocations?
Keep birds growing on target
What are roosters fed for good fertility?
Low nutrient requirements = too much feed = extra breast meat deposition (incomplete mating)
What might be necessary for males when mating?
Increasing feed because males will become very active and may lose weight
What is the most critical management mistake?
Failure to maintain positive growth profile
What behavior is a problem during the rearing phase for males?
Can disrupt feed access for other males
What is an issue with males during the breeding phase?
They get hormonal and may battle for dominance, disrupt others mating and ward off males from hens.
Why does fertility decline with age?
- Hormonal control of reproduction gets less efficient and hormone production gradually declines
- Hens need to be mated more often to sustain same level of fertility
- Rooster less interest
When should intervention occur in a flock regarding fertility? What are some solutions
- Post 40-wk flock must intervene to maintain flock fertility
- May have to add young roosters (spiking)
What is the typical spiking program? What is something to consider?
- Add 2% 28 week old males to a flock of 40-45 wk of age?
- Requires careful biosecurity?
What is the goal of workplace health and safety
Eliminate workplace and public hazards through education, training, inspections and investigations
Is agriculture a high risk for OHS?
Yes, number 5
What is ACGIH?
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
- Private non-for-profit non-governmental corporation
- Members dedicated to the promotion of health and safety in the workplace
What is a TLV?
It is a threshold limit value. Concerns airborne concentrations of substances under which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed
What is -TLV-TWA?
Time weighted average of a threshold limit value
What is TLV-STEL?
Short-Term exposure limit of a threshold limit value. A 15 minute time weighted average
What is TLV-C
The ceiling: the concentration that should not be exceed during any part of the workday.
What are contaminants in agricultural workspaces?
What are the different types of dust? (3) in order of large to small
- Inhalable dust
- Thoracic dust
- Respirable dust
What is an endotoxin
- Inherent component of cell wall of gram negative bacteria
- Can induce brocho-restriction (reduced lung function)
What are the three types of respiratory protection designations?
- N: No oil present in air
- R: Oil is present but only single 8h shift
- P: Oil is present
When did supply management start?
What are the three pillars of supply management ?
- Production control
- Price control
- Import controls
What are the pros of Supply management
- Provides consumers with a consistent supply of high quality products at steady prices
- Gives farmers a predictable income
- No safety-net programs
What are the cons of SM
- Inflates the prices for processors and consumers
- High cost of quota limits
What are the egg sizes? What is the ideal?
- Extra Large
- Start at 42 grams, + 7 each
What dictates egg size?
When is maximum pullet growth?
9 to 14 weeks
What is the best thing to maintain eggshell quality
Dietary calcium increased during each phase
How is egg size controlled
- Reduce dietary protein
- Reduce available phosphorus
- Reduce methionine
Prior to 2009 organic producers were certified using what
- USDA organic standard
- in 2009 Canadian organic standards became mandatory
What is organic
- CFIA Organic standards
- Verification Bodies
- Certification bodies
What are the challenges with organic farming
- Meeting demand
- Apparently learning to get someone decent to make a presentation.
What is new York dressed?
On are the two ways to remove feathers?
Where are containers held when they arrive at a processing facility
Climate-controlled laiarge area
What type of light is used at processing plants to reduce stress
Blue light like the tardis!
What are the two types of common stunning
Electrical and gas stunning
What are the benefits with gas stunning
- Less stress
- Less carcass defects
What is scalding
heating to 49-52 degrees to remove feathers
What is the processing chilling thingy
- Frozen storage