ANSC 471

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ANSC 471
2013-12-10 20:21:21

ANSC 471 poultry productions
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  1. What is the definition of poultry
    Domesticated birds whose products (usually eggs or meat) are marketed
  2. What are the usual poultry products
    Meat and Eggs
  3. What is another name for the study of birds
  4. Describe the interaction between Poultry, beef and pork consumption in Canadians
    Beef and pork consumption is decreasing, and poultry consumption is increasing. 

    Poultry consumption is now the highest consumed meat in Canada
  5. What is an umbrella term that encompasses the herd/flock and humans and safety
  6. What is the name of a chicken
    Gallus gallus domesticus
  7. What were the three original uses of birds
    Meat, eggs and fighting
  8. What year was mechanical processing first used
  9. When was the first antibiotic used in the broiler industry
  10. When were corn-soy diets introduced to the broiler industry
  11. What year were chicken wings marketed
  12. When did selection for breast muscle start?
  13. What is another term for white meat
    Breast muscle
  14. What are two laying hen breeds?
    • Single Comb White Leghorn
    • Brown Leghorn
  15. What are two Dual purpose birds?
    • Barred Plymouth Rock
    • Rhode Island Red
  16. What are two broiler (meat-type) breeds
    • Cornish
    • White Rock
  17. What is another name for a large white turkey?
    Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo
  18. How many primary breeders are there in the world
    Less than 10
  19. Briefly describe the breeding pyramid of broilers
    • Pedigree pure lines
    • Great Grand Parents (Best recycled for next generation pedigree)
    • Grandparents
    • Parent Stock
    • End product meat birds
  20. What is the replication factor of one Great Grand Parent bird?
    1 Great grand parent stock = 200 000 broilers
  21. What is a hybridization scheme?
    Taking qualities from different grand parents (and parents) to have a current generation that has multiple selected traits.
  22. What is a difference between the hybridization scheme of layers and broilers?
    The hybridization of broilers has 4 different grand parents, while only 3 different grandparent lines are used for layers.  (Likely egg laying in female side)
  23. What is the purpose of having mating schemes?

    In meat production? Egg production?
    • Deal with negative genetic correlations and
    • prevent unintended consequences?

    • In meat: growth rate and number of offspring
    • In egg: Egg numbers and egg size
  24. What is a genetic limit?  What are the types of genetic limits?
    When there is no further response to genetic selection. 

    • True genetic limit, which is the end of genetic variability
    • and
    • Biological limit (egg can not physically be any bigger or will harm layer)
  25. What is the sex chromosomes for males and females in poultry?
    • Male: ZZ
    • Female: ZW
  26. What are 6 qualities that have been improved through genetic selection (in order of % change per year)
    • 42 day live weight
    • Feed conversion
    • Egg production
    • Chick production
    • % Breast meat
    • % Eviscerated yield
  27. Why did the % of drum/live weight decrease after 1977?
    Strong selection for breast meat
  28. What is the average current %Weight of drums/live weight for drums? breast?
    • 8.8
    • 17.9
  29. What is the market body weight of a broiler
    1.8 kg
  30. What is the term that describes giving antibiotics to prevent infection?
    Prophylactic antibiotic use
  31. What is going to be banned in 2014 that will have large implications
    Category 1 antibiotic use
  32. What types of infections are currently prevented with antibiotics
    • Coccidiosis control
    • Necrotic enteritis control
  33. What are the three/four major industry issues
    • Health/nutrition
    • Environment
    • Welfare
  34. What are some health issues in the industry (3)
    • Avian influenza
    • Biosecurity
    • Antibiotic use
  35. What are some environmental issues in the industry
    • Runoff (Phosphorous: phytase; Nitrogen: Amino acids)
    • Water (Quality and Quantity)
  36. What are some issues with welfare (2)
    • Alternative housing
    • Stocking density
  37. What does FCR stand for
    Feed conversion rate
  38. What is the FCR of broiler chickens? Turkeys?
    • 1.9
    • 2.4
  39. What is controlled in an incubator (three)
    • Temperature
    • Humidity
    • Rotation of eggs
  40. What happens to late hatching chicks?
    They have a lower viability
  41. Why are navals of chicks looked at when they have been hatched
    To see if there is any residual yolk.  The navals should be closed
  42. What does CFIA say about unhatched birds?
    They should all be humanely euthanized before disposal
  43. How do you feather sex chicks?  How is this done?
    When there is a shorter feather it is a female.  It is a sex-linked gene that is used for sex determination.
  44. What enables chicks to survive transport without food?
    Internal yolk sac
  45. What is the most essential thing a chick should receive after transport?
  46. What are the three methods of injection
    • Intramuscular (in muscle)
    • Subcutaneous (under skin)
    • Intraperitoneal (abdomen)
  47. What vein is often used for blood collection
    Brachial vein
  48. What are the 3 + 1 r's in animal welfare
    • Reduction, Refinement, Replacement
    • + respect
  49. What does CCAC stand for and what is its purpose
    • Canadian Council of Animal Care
    • quality assurance and control
  50. What are non experimental variables (4)
    Microbe, chemicals, physical, animal related factors
  51. What is the most common animal-related factor in experimentation
  52. Describe how stress can have physical effects on yield
    Cortisol is released because of stress.  It has a catabolic effect preventing muscle lay down.  Reduces body weight
  53. What does OHS stand for
    Occupational Health and Safety
  54. What type of pet poses the largest risk of disease introduction into the barn?
    Pet birds
  55. What product have we reached a limit on through selection?
    Egg production
  56. Describe how the breast muscle has changed in birds over the last 50 years
    • In 1957 the breast comes to a point with small pectoralis major
    • In 1977 the proportion between pec minor and major changes and today there is cleavage at the keel as a result of large pectoralis major
  57. What is BCR?
    Breast conversion ratio (to feed)
  58. What does nutrigenomic mean
    Nutrition and genetics.  Nutrition can change things in the genome that alters things later
  59. Why is feed conversion rate important?
    It considers efficiency and cost reduction by feeding less feed.
  60. What is a nutrient requirement
    The level of a nutrient that maximizes growth.
  61. What is an essential amino acid
    A nutrient that the bird cannot synthesize and must be supplied in the required level in the diet.
  62. Describe the law of diminishing returns in terms of food.
    What is another name for this?
    The more food you add to the diet, the more growth you get. (until a certain point, then the return is less and less)

    80/20 rule
  63. What is a nutrient requirement? What is its focus?
    Growth or other anabolic response to a measured increment of a nutrient.

    Optimal growth
  64. What is a nutrient response? What is its focus
    The theoretical point where adding additional levels of a nutrient does not result in increased growth.

    Maximum growth
  65. Describe the balanced protein approach
    Providing amino acids in ratios in a proportion to each other to simultaneously meet levels of all amino acids required by an animal.
  66. What is phase feeding and why is it important?
    Phase feeding is when birds are fed different diets at different ages.  This is important because nutrient requirements change.
  67. Describe phase feeding.
    • Birds are fed different feeds depending on age. The different phases are
    • Prestarter (0d)
    • Starter (0 to 10 d)
    • Grower (10 to 25 d)
    • Finisher (4 wk +)
  68. What is the optimum ratio of protein in a diet?
    18.25 kcal/g
  69. Describe epigenetics
    A link between the environment and progeny.  DNA may not be affected, but methylated cysteine may be affect an environmental queue that can affect the queue.
  70. Describe how weight gain changes as the bird ages
    At a young age weight gain is added in the muscle using amino acids and at an old age weight is often added as fat.
  71. What is a disadvantage of feeding a mash diet? How can this be solved?
    Feeding a mash diet decreases feed intake.  The food will need to be concentrated.
  72. Describe how the limiting amino acids are calculated as the bird ages.
    Percentage of all amino acids increases relative to lysine.
  73. What is the main limiting amino acid for poultry
  74. When has an animal eaten enough food?
    When is has consumed adequate amounts of feed to satisfy the requirement of the first limiting nutrient.
  75. What is an example of a fixed cost of a producer?
  76. What is the relationship between inputs and variable costs.
    As input increases, so does variable cost
  77. What is the break even point for a producer
    When income covers the cost of production
  78. Describe net loss of a producer
    When income is less than the total cost
  79. Describe net profit of a producer
    When income is higher than the total cost
  80. What is the cut up market? Whole bird market?

    Which one is more profitable?
    When breasts, legs, wings are being sold separately.  Value added, so more profit.

    Whole bird market is selling a whole bird.
  81. What is the immediate effect of vaccines on growth?
    They reduce growth because energy is being diverted to the immune response
  82. How much does the residual yolk sac weigh in a newly hatched chick
    Up to 10%
  83. What is the yolk sac?  What is it high in?
    Yolk from egg is internalized and used as energy for the chick in the early days of life.  It is high in lipids.
  84. How can the yolk sac be an indicator of how well a chick is doing?
    The yolk sac should be used as soon as possible.  In case of infection, the yolk sac will not be absorbed by the bird.
  85. What is another name for yolk sac infection?  What is it often caused by?
    Oomphalitis is often caused by an E. Coli infection
  86. What are two ways to gaining weight through muscles?
    Large muscle cells, or lots of muscle cells.
  87. What are the constraints that affect feed intake (6)
    • Feed nutrient density
    • Environment
    • Management
    • Immune response
    • Feed form
    • Feed composition
  88. What is the effect of early nutrient density on bird body weight.  Where is this effect seen?
    Early nutrient density increases body weight of the bird.  There is significant different in the pectoralis major and overall breast size.
  89. What is the effect of early nutrient density on FCR?
    Lower FCR with high density later on in life.
  90. Why is early feeding important? (5)
    • Embryos obtain nutrients from egg yolk
    • chicks obtain nutrients from feed
    • chick has to absorb the yolk into the circulatory system and the gut within 2-3 days
    • Feed in the guy stimulates yolk secretion into small intestines and triggers uptake of fat soluble nutrients
    • Yolk utilization is slower in chicks that have not eaten
  91. What is the precursor of muscle cells?
    Satellite cells
  92. How does early feeding affect breast meat yield?
    Early access to feed increases proliferation of satellite cells, and can increase yield by 4-10% at processing days.
  93. How does delayed feeding effect gut structure? (3)
    • Decreases villus height and width.
    • Number of cells per crypt and number of crypts per villus are decreased
    • enzymatic secretions will be decreased until the birds are fed.
  94. What is the effect of a 15 hour delayed feeding of a chick in regards to the bird at four days of age and market weight, in grams?
    A delayed bird will weigh 80 grams lighter at body weight, and 20 grams lighter after 4 days
  95. What is the target weight for a seven day bird?
    160 grams. It is often exceeded
  96. What is the importance of 7 day weight?
    7 day weight is a tool to measure the effectiveness of brooding management.
  97. Describe how extra weight on a 7 day old chick will impact market weight?
    For every 10 grams of extra BW at day 7, there is an additional 50 to 70 grams of BW on the 42 d broiler
  98. What is market age of a broiler
    42 days
  99. What weight for a 7-day chick is considered to be a concern
    Less than 130 grams
  100. What are the 6 factors in 7 day weight?  Which three are most in producer control?
    Brooding management, nutrition (density and quality), temperature and humidity of the environment are most in the producer control.

    Parent source flock age, disease challenge/vaccination and hatchery management are other factors.
  101. What is important to consider regarding litter when expecting new chicks?
    The litter needs to be preheated so it is warm all the way to the bottom.
  102. What behavior do birds express that help them learn? Provide an example.
    Birds often mimic one another.  This can be seen with watching each other drink from water nipples.
  103. Describe R2. How does it change with 7 day weight and bird age?
    Goes from 0 to 1 and gives the percent of variation explained by the variable of interest. 

    The R2 becomes smaller as the bird ages.  There is more variation.
  104. What are the most important biological indicators? (7)
    • Body weight
    • Feed intake
    • Liveability
    • Yield
    • Growth
    • Feed conversion rate
    • Egg production
  105. What is a better indicator of a problem, growth or body weight? Why?
    Growth is a better indicator because there will be a negative growth.  Body weight will often plateau.
  106. What are three different type of feed ingredient listed in his notes?
    • Soybean meal
    • Fish/fish meal
    • corn
  107. What is soybean meal often used for?
    Protein supplementation in a diet
  108. What is something to consider with corn
    • grain size. 
    • Check for mycotoxins
  109. What is often a result of using cheaper feed?  What needs to be considered?
    reduced performance.  The economics need to be considered.  (cost and revenue differences)
  110. Describe how feeding a higher quality feed impacts revenues and costs.
    • As nutrient level increases, feed cost per bird increases.
    • Due to improved performance, the revenue from the birds increases.
    • The margin over feed cost (feeding a better diet) is improved and yields more.
  111. What are two things that a producer will look at to maximize profits?
    • Minimum cost
    • Maximum margin
  112. What feed ingredient is most linked to profitability?
    Amino acids
  113. Describe where the maximum margin zone is
  114. What is the effect of pelleting feed?
    It improves body weight gain and feed efficiency. 

    Improves feed intake
  115. What is the effect of poor feed form
    Inhibit feed intake and have a negative impact on growth rate
  116. What influences pellet quality? (3)
    • The raw materials of the diet
    • dietary fat inclusion
    • dietary particle size
  117. What is the effect of dietary fat in a chick diet?
    It is not highly digestible for chicks because they do not have the enzyme system to deal with it. 

    Fats also oxidize and become rancid decreasing quality of feed even if they have the same kcal/g
  118. What are good attributes of a high quality pellet? (2)
    • High pellet durability (ability to remain intact during handling and transportation)
    • and few fines
  119. What is a good binder for pellets? A poor binder?
    Wheat and wheat by-products are good binders while corn is a poor binder.
  120. Fat over what amount reduces pellet quality?
    over 2% of the diet.
  121. How can fat be added into the diet?
    In the post-pelleting procedure so the pellet quality is not affected.
  122. Do birds prefer a coarse or a fine diet?
    A coarse diet because it increases feed intake
  123. What is a disadvantage of very fine feeds? very coarse feeds?
    Consumption of very fine feeds may result in wastage and increased energy requirement

    Consumption of very coarse feeds may result to imbalanced intake due to diet selection
  124. What is the correlation of lysine and body weight uniformity?
    Deficiency of lysine, as well as other aa's induce poor growth and as a result there is a larger coefficient of variation within the flock
  125. What are the three most significant factors on poor flock uniformity in order of effect?
    • Health problems in the 1st week
    • Poor brooding conditions
    • Health problems at the end of the growth period
  126. What are two types of additives in feed?
    Drugs and Non-drugs
  127. What are the three example of drug additives in feed?
    • Therapeutic drugs
    • Prophylactic drugs
    • Antibiotic growth promoters
  128. What are five examples of non-drug additives?
    • Enzymes
    • Prebitoics
    • Probiotics
    • Organic acids
    • Absorbents
    • Antioxidents
    • Mold inhibitors
    • Pellet binders
    • Preservatives
  129. What is the calcium requirement (%) of a growing broiler diet?
  130. What is the calcium : phosphorous ratio
  131. What can occur, in terms of reproductive tract, if a bird is selected for protein?
    Large non functioning right oviduct (can affect bird weight!)
  132. What is the name of the non-functioning oviduct in hens?
    Cystic right oviduct
  133. What are the parts of the oviduct, in order?
    • Infundibulum
    • Magnum
    • Isthmus
    • Shell gland
    • Vagina
    • Cloaca
  134. Why is it better to gradually increase the photoperiod in a hen?
    Because sometimes the bird does not recognize to successive large jumps in photoperiod, only as one.
  135. When do follicles start to grow?
    In response to photostimulation
  136. What are the chalazae? How are they formed?
    The chalazae form when the egg rotates on its axis as it comes down the magnum of the oviduct.  It holds the yolk to the two opposite ends of the egg, and keeps it in the middle and prevents it from sticking to the sides of the shell.
  137. What is a 'perfect 10 ovary' ?
    Nice number of follicles, evenly spread out
  138. What is POF?
    Post ovulatory follicle.  Often white.
  139. What is a primary follicle?
    A follicle that is 1cm or larger in size.
  140. What is the prevoulatory hormone in chickens?
  141. What do we call a follicle that is under 1cm in size?
  142. What colour is a follicle in its final stage of yolk deposition?
  143. What is atresia?  How is it useful?
    Reabsorption of the follicle if it is not used.  This is really good if the bird is feed restricted and can use nutrients from yolk.
  144. What is molting?
    Stopping a chickens reproductive system to have a chicken come into lay faster, better and stronger.  Very stressful.
  145. What is internal ovulation?
    The follicle drops into the body cavity.  Often not caught by the infundibulum.
  146. What is internal oviposition?
    Internal laying.  The egg will come back up the oviduct and go into the body cavity, or will enter body cavity through a tear in the oviduct.
  147. What is the ideal number of large follicles at the start of lay?
  148. What remains once a follicle has been ovulated?
    The granulosa and theca.
  149. What are the parts of an egg?
  150. What are the three levels of hormonal control of egg laying?
    • Hypothalamus
    • Anterior pituitary
    • Ovary
  151. Where are yolk forming tissues obtained from?
    The liver
  152. Where are albumen forming tissues obtained from?
  153. Where are shell forming tissues obtained from?
    • Skeletal system
    • Oviduct (shell gland)
  154. Describe the hormone system of the reproductive tract in a hen
    • Hypothalamus releases Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone
    • This affects the anterior pituitary which release luteinizing hormone
    • LH affects the ovary which releases androgens and estrogens and progesterone. 
    • Progesterone feeds back on hypothalamus
  155. What is ovulation, and when does it occur?
    Ovulation is the process which occurs when a mature follicle is released from the ovary. 

    Ovulation takes place during a defined period of the day known as the open period for LH release
  156. When is a follicle considered to be mature?
    When is produces progesterone
  157. What is the open period for LH release?
    • A 6 to 8 hour period in the day in which chickens ovulate
    • The anterior pituitary hormone LH is only released during this period.
    • The mature follicle secretes progesterone which further increases LH release
  158. What is oviposition?
    The process of laying an egg.
  159. How long after ovulation does oviposition occur?
    24-28 hours
  160. What are the two types of layers?  Which one is a chicken?
    • Determinant layers (a set number of eggs and stops)
    • Indeterminate layer (lays an undetermined number of eggs if the eggs are taken away) Chicken
  161. What is a laying sequence?  What is it sometimes referred to as?
    Sometimes referred to as a clutch, it is a period of 1 or more days of consecutive egg laying.  Each egg in a sequence occurs slightly later each day.  Each sequence is separated by a period of 40-44 hours
  162. What is a prime sequence?
    • longest laying sequence of a hen
    • usually occurs about the time of peak production
  163. What is the typical prime sequence length for an egg-type hen? a broiler breeder?
    • 60 days
    • 20 days
  164. What are the symptoms of having not enough follicles? what are some causes?
    • Normal peak production
    • Poor persistency

    • Inadequate light stimulation
    • high incidence of atresia
    • normal decline in follicle number with age
  165. What are the symptoms of too many follciles
    • Excellent peak production
    • Poor persistency (short sequences)
    • Poor shell quality
    • High incidence of double-yolked eggs

    • Birds fed aggressively coming into egg production
    • Light stimulation problems
  166. What are sources of energy in a diet?
    • Carbs
    • -corn
    • -cereals
    • Fats
    • -Canola (oils)
    • -Tallow (animal source fats)
    • -restaurant grease (trans fats - not good)
  167. What are two high protein ingredients?
    • Soybean meal
    • Canola meal
  168. What are two types of feed that are antinutritional for chickens?
    • fish meal
    • bone meal
    • (lots of fat)
  169. What happens if there is too much energy provided in a diet?
    • Fat production
    • Increase in heat and increased feed conversion rate = inefficiencies
  170. What happens if there is too little energy provided in a diet?
    • Deamination of nitrogen sources for energy.
    • Decrease in growth (less ADG), reduced yield
  171. What is another term for growth
    Average Daily Gain ADG
  172. What should not be fed to chickens in a hot environment? why?
    Excess proteins should not be fed.  If there is too much protein in the diet, deamination will occur and there will be heat production.
  173. What should be fed to chickens in a hot environment?
    More energy from a fat source than CHO because there is less heat production
  174. What is the yield paradox of breast muscle?
    • Breast yield of females is higher than males
    • Breast weight in males is higher than in females
  175. What is correlated with antinutritional properties?
    Urease activities
  176. What is the water to feed ratio in chickens?
  177. What is another term for 'money that you pocket'
  178. What is a margin in terms of economics?
    revenue - specific cost
  179. What are the two main breeders?
    Aviagen and Tyson
  180. Why are there so few primary breeders?
    Because lots of the smaller companies have been absorbed by larger companies
  181. What are the roles of the primary breeder? (4)
    • Development of male and female breeding stock for poultry industry through genetic selection
    • Customers include integrated poultry companies in the US and around the world
    • Provide product technical support for broilers and broiler breeders
    • Ensure quality and good health status of products
  182. What is integration? is it common?
    Integration is when the hatchery, mill, processor etc is often owned by the same company.  It is common in USA but not in Canada
  183. Why did the cut-up market evolve?
    • Families were changing
    • Hard to sustain a whole bird, quality market (because of carcass quality during processing)
    • Further developed into a breast market (chicken nuggets)
  184. Why don't broilers grow as well as the great grand parent stock?
    Because broilers have a more intense environment.
  185. What is sib selection?
    Looking at siblings for selection purposes
  186. How long does it take for change in selection pressure to show in the field (broiler level)
    Five years
  187. How has genetic selection criteria changed?
    • We used to only select for liveweight
    • Now we select for FCR, Cardiovascular fitness, skeletal integrity, eggs, hatchability, wings, breast meat, heat quality, immune response and growth profile
  188. How is meat yield selected for today?
    • Using fleshing
    • Carcass evaluation
    • Ultrasound

    Combined index leading to better selection decisions and hence more progress up to 0.5% breast yield per year
  189. What is an oximeter?
    A noninvasive method of measure o2 levels.
  190. What is a lixiscope
    A low intensity x ray imaging scope that looks at bones and joints
  191. What is another way of looking at feed conversion
    how much feed It takes to make 1 kg of meat.  The lower the number, the better
  192. How is swallowing achieved in chickens? How is it different than humans
    Swallowing is assisted by gravity.  The neck is stretched and closes off trachea preventing food from entering. 

    It is different because they do not have a soft palate
  193. What is the primary function of saliva?
    Lubrication of feed
  194. What are the functions of the tongue (3)
    • Collecting food
    • Manipulating food
    • Swallowing
  195. Describe the esophagus
    • It has external longitudinal and internal circular muscles
    • Abundant mucous glands
    • Peristaltic contractions
    • -motility under involuntary nervous control, and depends on hunger state and feed in crop
  196. What is the purpose of the crop?
    Storage for feed.  Impaction can occur from bulky or dry feed.
  197. Why does the size of the crop vary between species?
    The size varies by species and is related to feeding habits
  198. What is the gizzard made out of?
    Primarily muscle.  Made out of cartilage (why it shines)
  199. Why is coprophagia and litter bad?
    Because it can block the GIT and the bird will have a hard time breaking it down
  200. How does the gizzard change depending on diet?
    A bird eating soft food will have a flaccid gizzard, while a bird eating harder food will have a thickened muscle tunic.
  201. What is the gizzard lined with
    • Protein secreting chief cells
    • Koilin layer = hardened protein membrane lining lumen
  202. What is the Koilin layer?
    It is in the gizzard and is a hardened protein membrane lining lumen
  203. What do most nutrients from the stomach and small intestine pass through to get to the liver?
    The portal vein
  204. What is the hepatic region? What does it aid in?
    The hepatic region is the liver, gallbladder and bile duct. 

    It aids in excretion of waste products
  205. What are waste products of the hepatic region?
    Cholesterol and by-products of hemoglobin degradation.
  206. What is the primary role of the liver in digestion?
    Bile  which facilitates solubilization and absorption of fat
  207. What are the roles of the liver? (8)
    • Bile production and secretion
    • Detoxification of harmful compounds
    • Metabolism of protein, carbs and lipids
    • Storage of vitamins
    • Storage of carbs
    • Destruction of red blood cells
    • Formulation of plasma proteins
    • inactivation of polypeptide hormones
  208. What are the three parts of the small intestine?
    Duodenum, jejunum and ileum
  209. How does the small intestine of the chicken compare the mammal?
    it is shorter relative to mammals and has a shorter transit time
  210. How does food move through the small intestine (3)
    • Pendular movement (forward/back)
    • Segmentation (alternating ring contraction)
    • Peristalsis (forward movement of contents)
  211. What are the ceca of the chicken?
    • Two blind- end sacs that arise from the colon and the ileal-cecal junction
    • vary greatly depending on feed type
  212. What type of feed leads to bigger ceca?
    Fibrous feed
  213. What is the purpose of the large intestine?
    Water absorption
  214. What two movements can be seen in the large intestine?  What do they do?
    • Peristaltic to empty guy and
    • antiperistaltic to fill ceca
  215. What is the cloaca and what are its three parts?
    • Large intestine (coprodeum)
    • Urinary tract (uric acid;  urodeum)
    • Reproductive tract (eggs or semen; urodeum)

    Final chamber is the proctodeum where there are continuous peristaltic movements
  216. What is the final chamber of the cloaca?
  217. What are carbs stored as?
  218. What is the function of glucagon?
    A hormone that the pancreas releases to release glycogen from liver as glucose.
  219. What we not been able to change with selection?
    Incubation of egg to chick has not been able to be changed from 21 days
  220. What is the average body weight of a day old chick?
    35-40 grams
  221. What does in ovo mean
    In the egg (In the embryo because the egg contains cells, tissues, organs and systems)
  222. What are the five basic parts of a chicken embryo in an egg?
    • Air cell
    • Allantois
    • Amnion
    • Embryo
    • Yolk sac
  223. Why was in ovo invented?
    As an alternative for the conventional method of vaccinating against Marek's disease
  224. What is Marek's disease?
    A herpes virus in poultry
  225. What are the benefits of in ovo inoculation? (5)
    • Stress free
    • Less labour intensity
    • Earlier immunity
    • Contamination free
    • uniform delivery
  226. What is done to ensure embryos are not traumatized by in ovo inoculation?

    What are the three crucial factors?
    Automated injection needles is used in making a precise target depth of 2.49 cm into the amnion of each embryo between day 17.5 and 19 of incubation

    • Injecting needle dimension size
    • site of injection
    • time
  227. What happens if injection of a nutrient during in ovo goes into any other site other than the amnion?
    • Wastage of injected nutrient
    • Traumatizing the embryo if it is penetration
  228. Why do in ovo injections occur during days 17.5 and day 19
    Because at day 17.5 the amnion is at its max size and is regressed by day 19.
  229. What is the difference between the type 1 and type 2 multi egg injector?
    The type 1 was built to inject 50 000 eggs an hour

    The type 2 is newer and injects 70 000 eggs in an hour.  It can candle eggs as well
  230. What is in ovo vaccination
    The process of enacting early immunity in poultry embryos through inoculation of the amnion with vaccines containing killed, live and attenuated pathogen like virus with the use of in ovo injection technology
  231. What vaccines can be administered in ovo
    • Marek's disease herpes virus
    • Coccidiosis
    • Infectious bursal disease virus
  232. What is pre-hatch nutrition
    A pre-hatch (in ovo) feeding which is accomplished through the use of the adopted innovative technology in introducing nutrients into the amnion of a developing avian embryo to supplement the nutrients transferred into the eggs from the mother hen
  233. When are the tissues, organs and entire systems involved with immune response, digestion, nutrition and renal activities fully functional?
    • The least time of in ovo
    • 17.5 days of incubation
  234. What are advantages of in ovo (8)
    • Improved digestive capacity
    • Improved hatchability
    • Increased growth rate and feed efficiency
    • Recued post-hatch mortality and morbidity
    • Improved immune response to enteric agents
    • nutrigenomics
    • reduced incidence of developmental skeletal disorders
    • increased muscle development and breast meat yield
  235. What are the two things in ovo is used for
    • Vaccination
    • Pre-hatch nutrition
  236. How many grower facilities are there for maple leaf?
  237. How do hatcheries obtain breeding stock?
    Place an order 12-18 months ahead
  238. How long are pullets grown for in hatcheries?
    18-20 weeks
  239. How long are pullets in the lay barn?
    For 22-24 weeks until the end of lay
  240. When do hens come into lay?
    At around 27 weeks
  241. What is the minimum egg size
    52 grams
  242. What are some issues for hatcheries?
    • Floor eggs
    • Fertility issues
    • Hatch residue break outs
  243. Where does heat in the incubators come from?
    The egg
  244. Why are floor eggs an issue?
    They are a source of contamination
  245. When is the fertility program started in hatcheries?
    Around 30 weeks of age
  246. When are males introduced into hatcheries? Why?
    They are introduced at 45-50 weeks to help with hatchability
  247. How often are eggs picked up from hatcheries?
    twice a week
  248. How many eggs are hatcheries allowed to import?
    a maximum of 17.43%
  249. What is something to consider with incubation of different strains?
    Different strains have different incubator environment optimums and hatch at slightly different speeds
  250. Describe how a chick hatches
    A chick will use its egg tooth to cut a circle around the egg.  Should be a perfect circle.  Chick pushes out of the egg
  251. What are red hocks associated with?
    Moisture loss in an egg
  252. What is an issue with having too much moisture in an incubator?
    The air cell will be smaller and the chicks will need to cut the egg higher up
  253. What is the moisture loss impact at hatch
    11-14 %
  254. What drives the meat market?
    The demand for meat
  255. How are orders placed from hatcheries?
    5 weeks before hatch and the demand is driven by kill requirements 10 weeks in advance
  256. What is important for hatcheries to monitor?
    • Everything!
    • 7-day mortalities in particular, and all hatch drops by 2% or more
  257. What is the plant target weight and market day(maple leaf hatchery)
    • 2.15 kg
    • with 36-38 days until market weight (average = 37.3)
  258. What is the significance of having an open market in Alberta?
    Producers can move between processors easily (19 week notice to change)
  259. What are the challenges of the hatchery (7)
    • Balance of egg supply
    • Chick quality
    • Hatch of fertile
    • Producer engagement for improvement
    • Skilled labor
    • Mixing of egg pack/incubation flow
    • Alignment of set/hatch/kill - schedule
  260. Why is it hard to make changes to the hatchery system/incubation?
    Because of the five week delay phase.
  261. Describe natural incubation
    • Temperature is obtained by body heat
    • Hen turns the egg some times in a day
  262. Do all hens display brooding behaviour?
  263. What is the eyelid test of artifical incubation?
    Place egg against eye to see if it is warm
  264. How does the incubation time vary between Altricial and Precocial?
    Precocial has a longer incubation period
  265. Name three precocial poultry species
    • Quail
    • Turkey
    • Chicken
  266. Name two altricial poultry species
    • Pigeon
    • Canary
  267. What is the incubation period of chickens? Turkeys?
    • 21 days
    • 28 days
  268. Are most domestic poultry species altricial or precocial
  269. What is the purpose of the infundibulum?
    How long does the ovum spend here?
    • Recieves yolk from ovary
    • Fertilization occurs
    • 15 minutes
  270. What is the purpose of the magnum?
    How long does the ovum spend here?
    • Shell membranes fromed
    • Water and salts added
    • 3 hours
  271. What is the purpose of the isthmus?
    How long does the ovum spend here?
    • Albumen layered around yolk
    • 1 hour
  272. What is the purpose of the uterus in a chicken? What is another name?
    How long does the ovum spend here?
    • Also called shell gland
    • More water added, shell formation
    • 21 hours
  273. What are the parts of a hens reproductive tract? (8)
    • Ovary
    • Infundibulum
    • Magnum
    • Isthmus
    • Shell gland
    • Vagina
    • Cloaca
    • Vent
  274. What is the site of fertilization in an egg
    Germinal disk
  275. What is another name for germinal disk?
  276. What are the two parts of the blastoderm? What is their function?
    • Area pellucida: will form the embryo
    • Area opaca: extraembryonic membranes
  277. What are the four main parts of an egg?  What are their functions?
    • Shell: Protection and calcium for bone development
    • Albumen: protection, water and protein source
    • Yolk: Main source of nutrients for embryo
    • Air cell: breathing space during hatch
  278. What is the ideal storage time of fertilized eggs? What is the maximum time?
    • Ideal: 7 days
    • Max: 21 days
  279. What is the ideal temperature of fertilized egg storage (before hatchery?)
    What else is important other than temperature? why?
    • A low temperature of 20 degrees or lower is important because it stops embryonic development
    • A high humidity is important in avoiding excessive water loss
  280. What is canding? When is it done?
    • Candling is done before and during incubation. 
    • The purpose of it is to shine a light through an egg shell to look for shell defects before incubation, and check embryo development during incubation.
  281. What are the five key components to artificial incubation?
    • Ventilation
    • Humidity
    • Temperature
    • Turning
    • Storage
  282. What is the ideal temperature of incubation? What happens at the end of the incubation period?
    What does improper incubation cause?
    The ideal temperature is 37.5.  At the end of incubation there is an increase in temperature as a result of embryonic metabolic heat

    A higher or lower incubation temperature can affect hatching time and alter embryo mortality and chick quality.
  283. When does embryonic metabolic heat start to play a factor in incubation?
    At around day 9
  284. What is the ideal humidity range of chicken incubation? What does humidity control?
    • The ideal humidity range is 40-60%.
    • Humidity controls water evaporation loss from the egg
  285. What affects the egg water loss? (3)
    • Environmental humidity
    • Number of pores
    • Shell thickness
  286. What determines the shell thickness?
    • Hen age
    • Hen nutrition
  287. What is the purpose of turning eggs during incubation? (3)
    What happens when there is no turning? (old and young embryo)
    • Prevent adhesion of embryo to shell membranes
    • Reduce embryonic malpositioning
    • Better albumen utilization by the embryo
    • No turning: Young embryo (mortality) older embryo (delayed hatch)
  288. Where is the air cell located during incubation
    The air cell is on the top
  289. What is the purpose of ventilation during incubation
    • To maintain CO2 at an ideal concentration
    • Help dissipate heat
    • Lower albumen pH
  290. Why are multistage incubators hard to control temperature?
    Because embryos are at different ages, and there is metabolic heat produced.
  291. What are the four extraembryonic structures?
    • Yolk sac or vitelline membrane
    • Amnion
    • Chorion
    • Allantois
  292. Describe the yolk sac.  What is another name?
    • It is also referred to as the vitelline membrane
    • it is the first extraembryonic structure to develop
    • A main source of nutrients for the embryo
    • Visible at 3 days of incubation
  293. Describe the amnion
    • Sac filled with fluid
    • Protects the embryo from shock or dehydration
    • Absorbed by embryo before hatch
  294. Describe the chorion
    • Develops close to the interior shell membrane
    • helps embryo with gas exchange through shell pores (With allantois)
  295. Describe the allantois
    • Blood supply for extraembryonic annexes
    • transfer minerals from the shell
    • storage of metabolic waste
  296. What is a major developmental step that occurs at day three of incubation
    Heart beats, blood vessels visible
  297. What is a major developmental step that occurs at day six of incubation
    • Appearance of beak
    • Voluntary movements begin
  298. What is a major developmental step that occurs at day 10 of incubation
    • Egg tooth prominent
    • Toe nails
  299. What is a major developmental step that occurs at day 13 of incubation
    • Appearance of scales
    • Body covered lightly with feathers
  300. What is a major developmental step that occurs at day 20 of incubation
    • Yolk sac drawn completely into body
    • Embryo becomes a chick
    • Internal and external pipping
  301. When are eggs moved from the incubator into the hatcher?
    At day 18
  302. Describe the hatching process of a chick
    • The chick points head towards air cell
    • Egg tooth pecks at shell then makes a hole and breaths
    • Chick rests and then pips.  It takes 2-5 hours
  303. What are the two types of sexing methods? Describe them
    • Vent sexing: males have a small bump
    • Feather sexing: slow feathering males and fast feathering females
  304. What is often looked at when a chick is hatched?
    • Chick weight
    • Length
    • Activity
    • Beak and hock
    • Navel
  305. What are some consequences of a not healed navel of a newly hatched chick? (3)
    • More susceptible for infections
    • More energy fighting infections (less growth)
    • Increase in mortality
  306. What are the mortality determination of chicks (the age groups that they are separated into)
    • Infertile
    • Early-dead embryo (1-7)
    • Middle dead embryo (8-14)
    • Late-dead embryo (15-21)
    • Pipped eggs
  307. What are causes of early mortality of a chick embryo?
    • Poor handling and temperature changes
    • moisture loss
    • long storage
  308. What are causes of intermediate mortality (days 8-14) during incubation of a chick embryo?
    Nutritional and genetic problems
  309. What are causes of late embryo mortality (15-21) of chick embryos?
    • Long storage
    • Poor incubator ventilation
  310. What is performance a result of?
    A balance of genetics, nutrition and management.
  311. Describe growth rate of birds today than in 1957
    3.8 times faster
  312. How is market body weight changing?
    0.5-1 day less per year
  313. How is the importance of first week changing?
    Because birds take less tor each market body weight, the first week of life is a higher percentage of bird life
  314. What are broilers, in terms of temperature regulation?
  315. What are the important events that occur during the first 2 weeks of a chicks life (4)
    • Passive immunity
    • Digestive tract maturation
    • Skeletal system development
    • Thermoregulation
  316. What are the brooding fundamentals? (6)
    • Pre-placement preparation
    • Temperature management
    • Feed management
    • Water management
    • Air Quality and ventilation
    • Light management
  317. Describe partial house brooding
    Start of having a brooding area a smaller percentage of whole barn, then increase the size as chicks age.  This will reduce the amount of space and allow for heat conservation.  Chicks will also be closer to feed, water and heat
  318. What must litter be? (5)
    • Absorbent
    • Lightweight
    • Free of pathogens
    • Inexpensive
    • Non-toxic
  319. What is the ideal litter depth? Why is uneven litter bad?
    • Depth 8-10 cm
    • Uneven bedding material can restrict access to feed and water
  320. What is the ideal temperature of a chick during the first week of life? What happens if it is higher or lower?
    • 32-35
    • Hyperthermia if too warm (dehydration, reduced feed intake and bwg)
    • Hypothermia if too cold (pulmonary hypertension, heart weight increase, ascites)
  321. How long before placement should temperature and relative humidity be established?
    24 hours
  322. Where are brooding temperature conditions based upon?
    Litter temperature
  323. What is the difference between spot brooding and whole house brooding?
    • Spot brooding: The heat source is local so chicks can move away from warm areas
    • Whole house: Heat source is more widely spread
  324. What is the best indicator of correct brooder temperature?
    Chick behaviour
  325. What is the effect of delayed feeding on the GIT of a chick
    • decrease weight and intestinal morphology
    • Delayed feed increases cell death
  326. What is the main feeding goal of a day seven chick?
    To have the body weight increase four times (40 to 160)
  327. What are some benefits of chick paper?
    How much of the brooding area should it cover?
    • Paper at least 25% of the brooding area
    • Helps to recycle some nutrients (feces)
  328. How are chicks encouraged to eat from the automated food dispensers when they start with chickpaper?
    Move feed trays closer and closer to system and then take them away
  329. What is a test that can be done to see whether the chicks are eating?
    Feel the crop of the bird
  330. What does water restriction reduce?
    Feed intake
  331. What is the purpose of ventilation during the brooding period?
    • Maintain temperature and relative humidity at correct level
    • Allow air exchange to prevent accumulation of harmful gases and dust
  332. Name three harmful gases that may build up in a barn
    • NH3
    • CO2
    • CO
  333. What are some consequences of high ammonia in the barn?
    • Food pad burns
    • Eye burns
    • Breast blisters/skin irritations
    • Decreased performance
    • Poor uniformity
    • Respiratory disease
  334. What is a difference between green and blue light on broiler performance?
    Green light increased BW and muscle growth at the early stage, while blue light increases growth at the later stage
  335. What is the ideal light lux?
  336. How should the light be modified in warm weather?
    Decrease the darkness
  337. What sells for more, whole birds or cutup birds?
    Cutup market has more income.
  338. What is a model?
    A representation of something else
  339. What is the growth model?
    • The Gompertz equation
    • Wt=Wmexp^-exp^(-b(tt*))
  340. How much of the cost of production does feed account for
  341. How does the rate of maturing and mature weight change between male and female broilers
    Females have a higher rate of maturing while males have a higher mature body weight.
  342. What is Huxley's Dickuation?
    • Y=aWb
    • Allometry
    • It measures weight of a body part using body weight and a coefficient
  343. What is the first law of thermodynamics
    • Energy can be changed from one form to another but it cannot be created or destroyed
    • Energy is conserved
  344. What are the four energy systems?
    • Gross energy (remove fecal energy to get:)
    • Digestible energy (urinary and gaseous energy)
    • Metabolizable energy (Heat increment)
    • Net energy
    • Net energy for maintenance and production
  345. When do energy requirements for the immune system reach a peak?
    6 weeks of age
  346. What is efficiency
    • Amount of resource to produce amount of product
    • Gain/Feed
    • Energy output/energy input
  347. What affects efficiency (5)
    • Growth rate
    • Lean:fat ratio
    • Reproductive output
    • Nutrient supply
    • Environment
  348. How has the measure of efficiency changed?
    It moved from FCR to RFI: Residual feed intake
  349. What are the two main requirements for sexual maturity?
    • Carcass traits
    • Hypothalamic Maturation
  350. What occurs during sexual maturation of a hen?
    • Yolk lipid synthesis in liver
    • Bone calcium mobilization
    • Pubic symphysis relaxation
    • Oviduct development
    • Comb growth
    • Molt
  351. Where does mechanism of light stimulation occur?
    Hypothalamic stimulation
  352. What are the functions of photostimulation?
    • Promote vigorous start in brooding
    • Inhibits sexual development in all birds in flock
    • Create conditions for long sequences
    • Cue sexual maturity in all birds at right time
    • Discourage floor laying
    • Stimulate proper development of males relative to females
  353. How does age of photostimulation affect days to first egg?
    The longer the age at photostimulation, the shorter the number of days to the first egg.
  354. How does age of photostimulation effect carcass fat content
    Later photostimulation has a higher fat content
  355. What is largely an indicator of uniformity in sexual development?
    • Peak egg production
    • More important than uniform body weight.
  356. What is a high peak in egg production?
    • When all hens are doing their personal best at the same time
    • Affected mostly by management
  357. What is low peak in egg production?
    When few of the hens are doing their personal best at the same time
  358. What is the relationship between allocating nutrients during rearing and laying?
    A bird that is over-fed during the rearing period will be under-fed during laying.
  359. What is a common rearing practice in north America regarding sex?
  360. Why is ad libitum feeding for the first 2 weeks of rearing done?
    To ensure vigorous start and variations in chick weight
  361. What occurs to body weight prior to sexual majority?
    There are major gains in body weight
  362. What is a difference between immature and mature pullets prior to sexual maturity?
    • Immature pullets will grow body mass
    • Mature pullets will develop sexually
  363. What might be a result in poor flock uniformity for layers? What can be done to help with flock uniformity
    • Low peak production
    • Pre-plan a feed withdrawal plan
  364. What is a critical period of feed allocation in layers? Why?
    • Approaching peak production
    • The decline in increasing egg production results in an increase in body weight gain unless feed is removed
  365. Why is it too late to reduce feed allocation when there is a reduction in egg production
    Because it is too late - the birds are already too heavy
  366. Why can egg weight not be used to feed withdraw layers?
    Because it is not that well understood
  367. When should feed withdrawal be done in layers? Why?
    When there is a larger increase in weekly BW than anticipated.  This is good because birds are just starting to partition less energy to the ovary and are instead gaining weight
  368. What are the principles of breeder management (4) and what are the three key principles
    • Know your genotype well
    • Know flock well
    • Avoid sudden large increases in feed intake
    • Make feed increases as small and as frequent as possible

    • Stimulate sexual maturity by changing daylength (NOT FEED)
    • Support the necessary body weight gain needed with feed
    • Don't let the bird's metabolism know that the feed allocation has been changed
  369. What is a broiler
    A type of chicken raised for meat only
  370. What is the definition of organic
    A specialty chicken produced under strict criteria determined by the standards council of Canada and certified by a registered certifying body
  371. What are the three main housing systems?
    • Free run
    • Free range
    • Cages
  372. What does the term poultry signals refer to
    Referring the signals that poultry give off to recognize the normal and abnormal
  373. What are the keys to flawless management
    • FLAWSS
    • Feed
    • Lighting programs
    • Air
    • Water
    • Space
    • Sanitation
  374. When does a slowdown in weight occur later in the growth period?
    It should NEVER happen
  375. What gives a sensitive measure to catch a growth-related problem in broilers?
    Daily gain
  376. What is a result of too bright lights?
    Flighty birds
  377. What is a result of long day length in broilers?
    High mortality
  378. What is the traditional understanding of daylength and light intensity?
    • More daylength = more growth
    • More intensity = less growth
  379. What is the optimum amount of daylight for feed:gain ratio and body weight?
  380. How is welfare affected by an increase in daylength?
    A high daylight decreases dust bathing time and decreases
  381. What is the target water:feed ratio
    1.8 : 1
  382. What should water temperature be ideally?
    18 degrees?
  383. What is the recommended number of birds/nipple
  384. How should bell type drinkers be aligned?
    It should be aligned with the bird's back
  385. How does the angle change with nipple drinker height as a bird ages
    There is less water waste with a steeper angle in older birds
  386. How can litter conditions be controlled?
    A combination of ventilation, heat and drinker pressure/height.
  387. What might be a cause of no feed intake late in life
    Water issues/no water/decreased water intake
  388. What is a high pressure flush?
    A high pressure flush performed at regular intervals to prevent sediment and biofilm buildup
  389. What requirements increase during a fever?
    Energy and essential AA requirement go up due to increased basal metabolic rate
  390. What is the difference between morbitity and mortality
    • Diseased state
    • Death
  391. What are the signs of morbidity (4)
    • Impaired performance
    • Reduced well-being
    • Poor uniformity, pigmentation
    • Increased susceptibility to other diseases
  392. What is the maximum stocking density? When is another limit set
    The max stocking density for birds is 31 kg/m2 under basic certification, but under full certification the density may be 38kg/m2
  393. What are possible sources of contamination for poultry
    • Litter
    • Feed
    • Feces
    • Watery gut contents
    • Broken down intestinal lining
    • Bile
    • Cecal contents
  394. What is very important for food safety?
    • Clean birds
    • Feed withdrawal
  395. What are the windows for processing after feed withdrawal (
    • 8-12 hours (High gut integrity)
    • 18-22 hours (lower intestinal contents)
    • Between 14 to 16 hours guts are gassy: high risk of contamination
  396. What are the two key points of domestication?
    • Animals can't negotiate their side of the deal so humans must do justice to both sides
    • Updates and renegotiation are critical
  397. What is animal welfare
    • Respect for animals
    • Right thing to do
    • Decreased welfare = decreased performance/product
  398. What is a risk with decreased animal welfare?
    Consumer trust and social license
  399. What are the five freedoms
    • Freedom from hunger and thirst
    • Freedom from discomfort
    • Freedom from pain injury and disease
    • Freedom for fear and distress
    • Freedom to perform natural behaviours
  400. What are the four I's of animal suffering.  Explain
    • Ignorance: not knowing what to do
    • Inexperience: Knowing what to do but not knowing how to do it
    • Incompetence: inability to do it
    • Inconsideration: Not caring
  401. What are some welfare conflicts in chickens? turkeys? egg?
    • Battery cages, beak trimming, lameness, growth rates
    • Reproduction in turkeys
    • Destruction of embryonic and day old chicks
  402. What poultry things are supply managed?
    • Alberta chicken producers
    • Egg farmers of alberta
    • Alberta hatching egg producers
    • Turkeys
  403. Does Canada eat a lot of turkey compared to other countries?
    Yes - but not more than USA
  404. What is the name of a juvenile turkey?
  405. Name the three female turkey classes by size, and then the males
    • Broiler, Hen, Super hen
    • Tom, Heavy tom
  406. How old are turkey breeders when they reach maturity
    28 weeks of age
  407. How old are turkey eggs in the incubator for? How much do they weigh
    • 28 days
    • 75 grams
  408. What is the critical time period for poults
    3 days
  409. What is recommended regarding feed with poults at placement?
    Recommended to add an extra 100grams extra feed per poult at placement
  410. How old are turkeys when they are marketed? What is different compared with chickens other than age?
    • Turkeys are marketed between 11 and 17 weeks of age depending on market requirements
    • Chickens are marketed at an almost exact age (35d)
  411. What is the upper ammonia limit for turkeys?
    25 ppm
  412. What is a test that can be done on litter to see if it is too wet
    The litter ball test: it should not make a ball when squeezed => it should crumble
  413. What is aspergillus
    It is a mold that can be found in litter
  414. What was the main cause in mortalities in turkey industry in Alberta?
    • High crate stocking density
    • Usually when stocked by producers themselves
  415. What is a scooter?
    Farm talk for pullet (flighty)
  416. What is a double hierarchy
    When a hen produces double the amount of follices
  417. What is the goal of precision feeding
    To eliminate under and over feeding
  418. What is better for uniformity, sorting or scatter feeding, or skip-a-day feeding?
    Sorting was best for uniformity
  419. What is the theory behind skip-a-day feeding
    All birds will eat to fill crops
  420. What is the broiler breeder mating cycle length? Describe it a bit.
    • 64 week cycle
    • 0-20 rearing
    • 20-23 photo stimulation
    • 56-60wk slaughter
  421. What are different feeding schedules for broiler breeder management?
    • Every day
    • Skip a day
    • 4/3
    • 5/2
  422. What is the bullwhip effect?
    It is when the gain is not consistent and changes from week to week.
  423. What is fertility?
    # fertile eggs/fertilized eggs
  424. What is hatchability?
    # of chicks hatched from eggs layed
  425. what is hatch of fertile?
    # of chicks hatched from fertilized eggs
  426. What is an exploder?
    Floor egg that bursts during incubation
  427. Which type of light is better for photostimulation?
    • Red light because it penetrates the skull the easiest
    • Blue is the best, but can not penetrate skull
  428. What does a bird in a positive energy balance prioritize nutrients towards?
    Egg production
  429. What is important when decreasing post-peak feed allocations?
    Keep birds growing on target
  430. What are roosters fed for good fertility?
    Low nutrient requirements = too much feed = extra breast meat deposition (incomplete mating)
  431. What might be necessary for males when mating?
    Increasing feed because males will become very active and may lose weight
  432. What is the most critical management mistake?
    Failure to maintain positive growth profile
  433. What behavior is a problem during the rearing phase for males?
    Can disrupt feed access for other males
  434. What is an issue with males during the breeding phase?
    They get hormonal and may battle for dominance, disrupt others mating and ward off males from hens.
  435. Why does fertility decline with age?
    • Hormonal control of reproduction gets less efficient and hormone production gradually declines
    • Hens need to be mated more often to sustain same level of fertility
    • Rooster less interest
  436. When should intervention occur in a flock regarding fertility? What are some solutions
    • Post 40-wk flock must intervene to maintain flock fertility
    • May have to add young roosters (spiking)
  437. What is the typical spiking program? What is something to consider?
    • Add 2% 28 week old males to a flock of 40-45 wk of age?
    • Requires careful biosecurity?
  438. What is the goal of workplace health and safety
    Eliminate workplace and public hazards through education, training, inspections and investigations
  439. Is agriculture a high risk for OHS?
    Yes, number 5
  440. What is ACGIH?
    • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
    • Private non-for-profit non-governmental corporation
    • Members dedicated to the promotion of health and safety in the workplace
  441. What is a TLV?
    It is a threshold limit value. Concerns airborne concentrations of substances under which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed
  442. What is -TLV-TWA?
    Time weighted average of a threshold limit value
  443. What is TLV-STEL?
    Short-Term exposure limit of a threshold limit value.  A 15 minute time weighted average
  444. What is TLV-C
    The ceiling: the concentration that should not be exceed during any part of the workday.
  445. What are contaminants in agricultural workspaces?
    • Dust
    • Gases
  446. What are the different types of dust? (3) in order of large to small
    • Inhalable dust
    • Thoracic dust
    • Respirable dust
  447. What is an endotoxin
    • Inherent component of cell wall of gram negative bacteria
    • Can induce brocho-restriction (reduced lung function)
  448. What are the three types of respiratory protection designations?
    • N: No oil present in air
    • R: Oil is present but only single 8h shift
    • P: Oil is present
  449. When did supply management start?
  450. What are the three pillars of supply management ?
    • Production control
    • Price control
    • Import controls
  451. What are the pros of Supply management
    • Provides consumers with a consistent supply of high quality products at steady prices
    • Gives farmers a predictable income
    • No safety-net programs
  452. What are the cons of SM
    • Inflates the prices for processors and consumers
    • High cost of quota limits
  453. What are the egg sizes? What is the ideal?
    • Peewee
    • Small
    • Medium
    • large
    • Extra Large
    • Jumbo
    • Start at 42 grams, + 7 each
    • Large
  454. What dictates egg size?
    Yolk size
  455. When is maximum pullet growth?
    9 to 14 weeks
  456. What is the best thing to maintain eggshell quality
    Dietary calcium increased during each phase
  457. How is egg size controlled
    • Reduce dietary protein
    • Reduce available phosphorus
    • Reduce methionine
  458. Prior to 2009 organic producers were certified using what
    • USDA organic standard
    • in 2009 Canadian organic standards became mandatory
  459. What is organic
    • CFIA Organic standards
    • Verification Bodies
    • Certification bodies
  460. What are the challenges with organic farming
    • Weather
    • Meeting demand
    • Financing
    • Apparently learning to get someone decent to make a presentation.
  461. What is new York dressed?
    Defeathered birds
  462. On are the two ways to remove feathers?
    • Defeathering
    • Waxing
  463. Where are containers held when they arrive at a processing facility
    Climate-controlled laiarge area
  464. What type of light is used at processing plants to reduce stress
    Blue light like the tardis!
  465. What are the two types of common stunning
    Electrical and gas stunning
  466. What are the benefits with gas stunning
    • Less stress
    • Less carcass defects
  467. What is scalding
    heating to 49-52 degrees to remove feathers
  468. What is the processing chilling thingy
    • Prechilling
    • Chilling
    • Frozen storage