Heel strike is the instant that the heel touches the ground to begin stance phase
standard- foot flat
Foot flat is the point in which the entire foot makes contact with the ground and should occur directly after heel strike
midstance is the point during the stance phase when the entire body weight is directly over the stance phase
standard- heel off
heel off is the point which the heel of the stance limb remains on the ground
toe off is the point in which the heel of the stance limb remains on the ground
acceleration begins when toe off is complete and the reference limb swings until positioned directly under the body.
midswing is the point when the swing limb is directly under the body
deceleration begins directly after midswing as the swing limb begins to extend and ends just prior to heel strike
RLA- initial contact
initial contact is the beginning of the stance phase that occurs when the foot touches the ground
RLA- loading response
loading response correcponds to the amount of time between initial contact and the beginning of the swing phase for the other leg
midstance corresponds to the point in stance phase when the other foot is off the floor intil the body is directly over the stance limb
RLA- terminal stance
terminal stance begins when the stance limb's heel rises and ends when the other stance foot reaches toe off.
pre-swing phase begins when the other foot touches the ground and ends when the stance foot reachs toe off
RLA- initial swing
initial swing begins with stance foot lifts from the floor and ends with maximal knee flexion during swing
midswing phase begins with maximal knee flexion during swing and ends when the tibia is perpendicular with the ground
RLA- terminal swing
terminal swing phase begins when the tibia is perpendicular to the foot and ends when the foot touches the ground
Stance phase is ____% and swing phase is _____%
Base of Support
The distance measured between the left and right foot during progression of gait. The distance decreases as cadence increase. Average base of support is 2-4 inches
The number of steps an individual will walk over a period of time. The average value for an adult if 110-120 steps per minute
Degree of toe-out
The angle formed by each foot's line of progression and a line intersecting the center of the heel and second toe. Average 7 degrees
Double support phase
The double support phase refers to the two times during the gait cycle where both feet are on the ground. The time of double supprt increase as the speed of gait decreases. Theis phase does not exist with running.
The gait cycle refers to the sequence of motions that occur from one inital contact of the heel to the next consecutive initial contact of the same heel
rotation of the pelvis opposite the thorax in order to maintain balance and regulate speed. 4 degrees forward and 4 degrees backward
Single support phase
The single support phase occurs when only one foot is on the ground and occurs twice during the gait cycle.
the distance measured between right heel strike and left heel strike. average is 13-16 inches.
The distance measured between right heel strike and the following right heel strike. Average 26-32 inches
A protective gait pattern where the involoved step length is decreased in order to aviod weight bearing on the involoved side usually secondary to pain.
A gait pattern charcterized by staggering and unsteadiness. Usually a wide BOS and movements are exaggerated (drunk people)
A staggering gait problem seen in cerabellar disease
A gait pattern characterized by a circular motion to advance the leg diring swing phase; this may be used to compensate for insufficient hip or knee flexion or dorsiflexion
A gait pattern in which alternate steps are of a different length or at a different rate.
A gait pattern in which alternate steps are of a different length or at a different rate
A gait pattern where a patient walks on toes as though pushed, It starts slowly, increase, and may continue until the patient grasps an object in order to stop. Parkinsons
A gait pattern in which pt abduct the paralyzed limb, swing it around, and bring it forward so the foot comes to the ground in the front of them.
a gait pattern marked by increased forward flexion of the trunk and knees; gait is shuffling with quick and small steps; festinating may occur
A gait pattern in which the legs cross midline upon advancement
A gait pattern with stiff movement, toes seeming to catch and drag, legs held together, hip and knee joints slightly flexed. Commonly seen in spastic paraplegia.
A gait pattern in which the feet and toes are lifted through hip and knee flexion to excessive heights; usually secondary to dorsiflexor weakness. The foot will slap at initial contact with the ground secondary to the decreased control
A high steppage ataxic gait pattern in which the feet slap the ground
A gait pattern that denotes gluteus medius weakness; excessive lateral truck flexion and weight shifting over the stance leg
A gait pattern where the swing leg advanced by compensating through the combination of elevation of the pelvis and plantar flexion of the stance leg