IS425 Exam1 KeyTerm

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IS425 Exam1 KeyTerm
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key term for exam 1 of is425
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  1. Ad hoc DSS 82
    - a DSS that deals with specific problems that are usually neither anticipated nor recurring
  2. Algorithm 58
    - a step-by-step search in which improvement made at every step until the best solution is found
  3. Analog model 44
    - an abstract, symbolic model of a system that behaves like the system but looks different
  4. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) 165
    - a modeling structure for representing multicriteria (multiple goals, multiple objectives) problems - with sets of criteria and alternatives (choices)- commonly found in business environments
  5. Analytical model 97
    - mathematical models into which data are loaded for analysis
  6. Analytical techniques 58
    - methods that use mathematical formulas to derive an optimal solution directly or to predict a certain result, mainly in solving structured problems
  7. Apriori algorithm 227
    - the most commonly used algorithm to discover association rules by recursively identifying frequent item sets
  8. Area under the ROC curve 219
    - a graphical assessment technique for binary classification models where the true positive rate is plotted on the Y-axis and false positive rate is plotted on the X-axis
  9. Automated decision system (ADS) 13/32
    • - aka decision automation system (DAS)- is a rule-based system that provides a solution, usually in one functional area (e.g. finance, manufacturing) to a specific repetitive managerial problem, usually in one industry (e.g. to approve or not to approve a request for a loan, to determine the price of an item in a store).
    • A business rule-based system that uses intelligence to recommend solutions to repetitive decisions (such as pricing)
  10. Bootingstrapping 219
    - a sampling technique where a fixed number of instances from the original data is sampled (with replacement) for training and the rest of the dataset is used for testing
  11. Business (or system) analyst 107
    - an individual whose job is to analyze business processes and the support they receive (or need) from information technology
  12. Business analytics (BA) 78
    - the application of models directly to business data. Business analytics involve using DSS tools, especially models, in assisting decision makers. It is essentially OLAP/DSS
  13. Business intelligence (BI) 19/38
    • - a conceptual framework for decision support. It combines architecture, databases (or data warehouses), analytical tools, and applications.
    • Business intelligence (BI) 86
  14. Business performance mgmt (BPM) (or corporate performance mgmt (CPM]) 22
    - an advanced performance measurement and analysis approach that embraces planning and strategy
  15. Categorical data 198
    - data that represent the labels of multiple classes used to divide a variable into specific groups
  16. Certainty 148
    - a condition under which it is assumed that future values are known for sure and only one result is associated with an action
  17. Choice phase 46
    • - the third phase in decision making, in which alternative is selected
    • - this phase involves selecting a course of action from among those available
  18. Classification 201
    - supervised induction used to analyze the historical data stored in a database and to automatically generate a model that can predict future behavior
  19. Clustering 202
    - partitioning a database into segments in which the members of a segment share similar qualities
  20. Cognitive limits 10
    - the limitations of the human mind related to processing information
  21. Complexity 172
    - a measure of how difficult a problem is in terms of its formulation for optimization, its required optimization effort, or its stochastic nature
  22. Confidence 226
    - in association rules, the conditional probability of finding the RHS of the rules present in a list of transactions where the LHS of the rule already exists
  23. CRISP-DM 207
    - a cross-industry standardized process of conducting data mining projects, which is a sequence of six steps that starts with a good understanding of the business and the need for the data mining project (i.e. the application domain) and ends with the deployment of the solution that satisfied the specific business need
  24. Dashboard 22
    -a visual presentation of critical data for executives to view. It allows executives to see hot spots in seconds and explore the situation
  25. Data mining 21
    • - a process that uses statistical, mathematical, artificial intelligence, and machine-learning techniques to extract and identify useful information and subsequent knowledge from large databases
    • Data mining 196
  26. Data warehouse 86 (DW)
    - a physical repository where relational data are specially organized to provide enterprise-wide, cleansed data in a standardized format
  27. Database 90
    - a collection of files that are viewed as a single storage concept. The data are then available to a wide ranges of users
  28. Database mgmt system (DBMS) 86
    - software for establishing, updating, and querying (e.g. managing) a database
  29. Decision analysis 161
    - methods for determining the solution to a problem, typically when it is inappropriate to use iterative algorithms
  30. Decision making 42
    - the action of selecting among alternatives
  31. Decision style 42
    - the manner in which a decision maker thinks and reacts to problems. It includes perceptions, cognitive responses, values, and beliefs
  32. Decision support system (DSS) 16
    - a conceptual framework for a process of supporting managerial decision making, usually by modeling problems and employing quantitative models for solution analysis
  33. Decision table 162
    - conveniently organized information and knowledge in a systematic, tabular manner, often prepared for further analysis
  34. Decision tree 163
    • - a graphical presentation of a sequence of interrelated decisions to be made under assumed risk. This technique classifies specific entities into particular classes based upon the features of the entities; a root followed by internal nodes, each node (including root) is labeled with a question, and arcs associated with each node cover all possible reponses
    • Decision tree 220
  35. Decision variable 50
    • - a variable in a model that can be changed and manipulated by the decision make. Decision variables correspond to the decisions to be made, such as quantity to produce, amounts of resources to allocate, etc.
    • Decision variable 146
  36. Descriptive model 54
    -a model that describes things as they are
  37. Design phase 46
    • - the second decision-making phase, which involves finding possible alternatives in decision making and assessing their contributions
    • - the phase involves inventing, developing, and analyzing possible alternative courses of action (solutions)
  38. Directory 93
    - a catalog of all the data in a database or all the models in a model base
  39. Discovery-driven data mining 204
    - a form of data mining that finds patterns, associations, and relationships among data in order to uncover facts that were previously unknown or not even contemplated by an organization
  40. Distance measure 225
    - a method used to calculate the closeness between pairs of items in most cluster analysis methods. Popular distance measure include Euclidian distance ( the ordinary distance between two points that one would measure with a ruler) and Manhattan distance (also called the rectilinear distance, or taxicab distance, between two points).
  41. DSS application 75
    - a DSS program built for a specific purpose (e.g. a scheduling system for a specific company).
  42. Dynamic models 143
    - models whose input data are changed over time (e.g. a 5-year profit or loss projection).
  43. Effectiveness 42
    - the degree of goal attainment. Doing the right things
  44. Efficiency 42
    - the ration of output to input. Appropriate use of resources. Doing things right
  45. Entropy 222
    - a metric that measures the extent of uncertainty or randomness in a data set. If all the data in a subset belong to just one class, then there is no uncertainty or randomness in that data set, and therefore the entropy is zero
  46. Environmental scanning and analysis 141
    - a process that involves conducting a search for and an analysis of information in external databases and flows of information
  47. Expert tool user 107
    - a person who is skilled in the application of one or more types of specialized problem-solving tools
  48. Extraction 92
    - the process of capturing data from several sources, synthesizing them, summarizing them, determining which of them are relevant, and organizing them, resulting in their effective integration
  49. Facilitator (in a GSS) 107
    - a person who plans, organizes, and electronically controls a group in a collaborative computing environment
  50. Forecasting 142
    - predicting the future
  51. Gini index 221
    - a metric that is used in economics to measure the diversity of the population. The same concept can be used to determine the purity of a specific class as a result of a decision to branch along a particular attribute/variable
  52. Goal seeking 159
    - asking a computer what values certain variables must have in order to attain desired goals
  53. Graphical user interface (GUI) 101
    - an interactive, user-friendly interface in which, by using icons and similar objects, the user can control communication with a computer
  54. Group support system (GSS) 84
    - information systems, specifically DSS, that support the collaborative work of groups
  55. Heuristic programming 170
    - the use of heuristics in problem solving
  56. Heuristics 170
    - informal, judgmental knowledge of an application area that constitutes the rules of good judgement in the field. Heuristics also encompasses the knowledge of how to solve problems efficiently and effectively, how to plan steps in solving a complex problem, how to improve performance, and so forth.
  57. Hybrid (integrated support system 27
    - different but integrated computer support system used together in one decision-making situation
  58. Hypothesis-drive data mining 204
    - a form of data mining that begins with a proposition by the user, who then seeks to validate the truthfulness of the proposition
  59. Iconic model 44
    - a scaled physical replica
  60. Implementation phase 59
    • - the fourth decision-making phase, involving actually putting a recommended solution to work
    • - the phase involves adapting the selected course of action to the decision situation (i.e. problem solving or opportunity exploiting)
  61. Influence diagram 145
    - a diagram that shows the various types of variables in a problem (e.g. decision, independent, result) and how they are related to each other
  62. Information gain 221
    - the splitting mechanism used in ID3 (a popular decision-tree algorithm)
  63. Institutional DSS 82
    - a DSS that is a permanent fixture in an organization and has continuing financial support. It deals with decisions of a recurring nature
  64. Intelligent phase 46
    • - the initial phase of problem definition in decision making
    • - the phase involves searching for conditions that call for decisions
  65. Intermediary 107
    - a person who uses a computer to fulfill requests made by other people (e.g. a financial analyst who uses a computer to answer questions for top mgmt)
  66. Intermediate result variable 147
    - a variable that contains the values of intermediate outcomes in mathematical models
  67. Interval data 198
    - variables that can be measured on interval scales
  68. K-fold cross-validation 218
    - a popular accuracy assessment technique for prediction models where the complete dataset is randomly split into k mutually exclusive subsets of approximately equal size. The classification model is trained and tested k times. Each time it is trained on all but one fold and then tested on the remaining single fold. The cross-validation estimate of the overall accuracy of a model is calculated by simply averaging the k individual accuracy measures
  69. Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) 215
    - a machine-learning process that performs rule induction or a related procedure to establish knowledge from large databases
  70. Linear programming (LP) 152
    - a mathematical model for the optical solution of resource allocation problems. All the relationships among the variables in this type of model are linear
  71. Link analysis 203
    - the linkage among many objects of interest is discovered automatically, such as the link between Web pages and referential relationships among groups of academic publication authors.
  72. Mgmt science (MS) (or operations research [OR]) 13
    - the application of a scientific approach and mathematical models to the anlysis and solution of managerial decision situations (e.g. problems, opportunities)
  73. Mgmt support system (MSS) 24
    - a system that applies any type of decision support tool or technique to managerial decision making
  74. Mathematical (quantitative) model 140
    - a system of symbols and expressions that represent a real solution
  75. Mathematical programming 153
    - an optimization technique for the allocation of resources, subject to constraints
  76. Mental model 46
    - the mechanisms or images through which a human mind performs sense-making in decision making
  77. Microsoft Enterprise Consortium 229-
    Serves as the worldwide source for access to Microsoft's SQL Server 2008 software suite for academic purpose- teaching and research. The consortium has been established to enable universities around the world to access enterprise technology without having to maintain the necessary hardware and software on their own campus. The consortium provides a wide range of business intelligence development tools (e.g. data mining, cube building, business reporting) as well as a number of large, realistic datasets from Sam's Club, Dillard's, and Tyson Foods.
  78. Microsoft SQL Server 229
    A suite of business intelligence capabilities where data and the models are stored in the same relational database environment, making model mgmt a considerably easier task
  79. Model base 96
    - a collection of preprogrammed quantitative models (e.g. statistical, financial, optimization) organized as a single unit
  80. Model base mgmt system (MBMS) 86
    • - software for establishing, updating, combining, and so on (e.g. managing) a DSS model base
    • Model base mgmt system (MBMS) 179
  81. Model building blocks 97
    - preprogrammed software elements that can be used to build computerized models. For example, a random-number generator can be employed in the construction of a simulation model
  82. Multidimensional analysis (modeling) 145
    - a modeling method that involves data analysis in several dimensions
  83. Multiple goals 164
    - refers to a decision situation in which alternatives are evaluated with several, sometimes conflicting, goals.
  84. Nominal data
    - a type of data that contains measurements of simple codes assigned to objects as labels, which are not measurements. For example, the variable marital status can be generally categorized as (1) single, (2) married, and (3) divorced
  85. Normative model 51
    - a model that prescribes how a system should operate
  86. Numeric data 198
    - a type of data that represent the numeric values of specific variables. Examples of numerically valued variables include age, number of children, total household income (in U.S. dollars), travel distance (in miles), and temperature ( in Fahrenheit degrees)
  87. Object 101
    - a person, place, or thing about which information is collected, processed, or stored
  88. Object-oriented model base mgmt system (OOMBMS) 180
    - an MBMS constructed in an object-oriented environment
  89. Operational knowledge base 86-
    An organization's knowledge repository
  90. Optimal solution 153-
    a best possible solution to a modeled problem
  91. Optimization 51
    - the process of identifying the best possible solution to a problem
  92. Ordinal data 198
    - data that contains codes assigned to objects or events as labels that also represent the rank order among them. For example, the variable credit score can be generally categorized as (1) low, (2), medium, and (3) high.
  93. Prediction 201
    - the act or telling about the future
  94. Predictive analytics 78
    - use of tools that help determine the probable future outcome for an event or the likelihood of a situation occurring. These tools also identify relationships and patterns
  95. Principle of choice 51
    - the criterion for making a choice among alternatives
  96. Problem ownership 50
    - the jurisdiction (authority) to solve a problem
  97. Problem solving 42
    - a process in which one starts from an initial state and proceeds to search through a problem space to identify a desired goal
  98. Quantitative software package 179
    - a preprogrammed (some times called ready-made) model or optimization system. These packages sometimes serve as building blocks for other quantitative models
  99. Query facility 93
    - the (database) mechanism that accepts requests for data, access them, manipulates them, and queries them
  100. RapidMiner 229
    - a popular, open-source, free-of-charge data mining software suite that employs a graphically enhanced user interface, a rather large number of algorithms, and a variety of data visualization features
  101. Ration data 198
    - continuous data where both differences and ratios are interpretable. The distinguishing feature of a ratio scale is the possession of a nonarbitrary zero value
  102. Regression 216
    - a data mining method for real-world prediction problems where the predicted values (i.e. the output variable or dependent variable) are numeric (e.g predicting the termperature for tomorrow as 68 degree F)
  103. Relational model base mgmt system (RMBMS) 180
    - a relational approach (as in relational databases) to the design and development of a model base mgmt system
  104. Result (outcome) variable 146
    - a variable that expresses the result of a decision (e.g. one concerning profit), usually one of the goals of a decision-making problem
  105. Risk 148
    - a probabilistic or stochastic decision situation
  106. Risk analysis 149
    - a decision-making method that analyzes the risk (based on assumed known probabilities) associated with different alternatives
  107. SAS Enterprise Miner 230
    - a comprehensive, and commercial data mining software tool developed by SAS Institute
  108. Satisficing 55
    - a process by which one seeks a solution that will satisfy a set of constraints. In contrast to optimization, which seeks the best possible solution, satisficing simply seeks a solution that will work well enough
  109. Scenario 57
    - a statement of assumptions and configurations concerning the operating environment of a particular system at a particular time
  110. Semistructured problem 12
    Fall between structured and unstructured problems, having some structured elements and some unstructured elements such problems as trading bonds, setting marketing budgets for consumer products, and performing capital acquisition analysis
  111. SEMMA
    - an alternative process for data mining projects proposed by the SAS Institute. The acronym SEMMA stands for sample, explore, modify, model, and assess
  112. Sensitivity analysis 58
    • - a study of the effect of a change in one or more input variables on a proposed solution
    • Sensitivity analysis 158
  113. Sequence mining 203-
    a pattern discovery method where relationships among the things are examined in terms of their order of occurrence to identify associations over time
  114. Simulation 54
    • - an imitation of reality in computers
    • Simulation 171
  115. Simple split 217
    - data is partitioned into two mutually exclusive subsets called a training set and a test set (or boldout set). It is common to designate two-thirds of the data as the training set and the remaining one-third as the test set
  116. SPSS PASW Modeler 230
    - a very popular, commercially available, comprehensive data, text, and Web mining software suite developed by SPSS (formerly Clementine)
  117. Staff assistant 107 -
    an individual who acts as an assistant to a manager
  118. Static models 143 -
    models that describe a single interval of a situation
  119. Strategic models 96 - models that represent problems for the strategic level (i.e. executive level) of mgmt
  120. Structure problem 12 -
    All phases are structured. The procedures for obtaining the best (or at least a good enough) solution are known. Whether the problem involves finding an appropriate inventory level or choosing an optimal investment strategy, the objectives are clearly defined. Common objectives are cost minimization and profit maximization
  121. Suboptimiation 53 -
    an optimization-based procedure that does not consider all the alternatives for or impacts on an organization
  122. Support 226-
    the measure of how often products and/or services appear together in the same transaction; that is, the proportion of transactions in the dataset that contain all of the products and/or services mentioned in a specific rule
  123. Tactical models 97-
    models that represent problems for the tactical level (i.e. midlevel) of mgmt
  124. Uncertainty 148 -
    in expert systems, a value that cannot be determined during a consultation. Many expert systems can accommodate uncertainty; that is, they allow the user to indicate whether he or she does not know the answer
  125. Uncontrollable variable or parameter 146 -
    a factor that affects the result of a decision but is not under the control of the decision maker. These variables can be internal (e.g. related to technology or to policies) or external (e.g. related to legal issues or to climiate)
  126. Unstructured problem 12
    One in which none of the Simon's four phases is structured
  127. User interface 100 -
    the component of a computer system that allows bidirectional communication between the system and its user
  128. User inter face mgmt system (UIMS) 100 -
    the DSS component that handles all interaction between users and the system
  129. Visual interactive simulation (VIS) 177 and Visual interactive modeling (VIM) -
    a simulation approach used in the decision-making process that shows graphical animation in which systems and processes are presented dynamically to the decision maker. It enables visualization of the results of different potential actions
  130. Weka 228 -
    a popular, free-of-charge, open-source suite of machine-learning software written in Java, developed at the University of Waikato
  131. What-if analysis 58 -
    • a process that involves asking a computer what the effect of changing some of the input data or parameters would be
    • What-if analysis 159
  132. Work system 25 -
    a system in which humans and/or machines perform a business process, using resources to produce products or services for internal or external customers.

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