WHAP, Unit 3, Chapter Nine Terms

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WHAP, Unit 3, Chapter Nine Terms
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WHAP, Unit 3, Chapter Nine Terms
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  1. bushido
    The "way of the warrior" referring to the military virtues of the Japanese samurai, including bravery, loyalty, and an emphasis on death over surrender.
  2. Chan Buddhism
    Called Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite.
  3. Changan
    Capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2,000,000 larger than any contemporary world city.
  4. Chinese Buddhism
    Buddhism was China's only large-scale cultural borrowing before the twentieth century; Buddhism entered China from India in the first and second centuries C.E. but only became popular in 300-800 C.E. through a series of cultural accommodations.  At first supported by the state.  Buddhism suffered persecution during the ninth century but continued to play a role in Chinese society.
  5. Chu nom
    A variation of Chinese writing developed in Vietnam that became the basis for an independent national literature; "southern script."
  6. Flying money
    Chinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of a venture; reduced danger of robbery; an early form of currency.
  7. foot binding
    Chinese practice of tightly wrapping girls' feet to keep them small, begun in the Tang dynasty; an emphasis on small size and delicacy was central to views of female beauty.
  8. Grand Canal
    Great canal system begun by Yangdi (second Sui ruler); joined the Yellow River region to the Yangtze basin.
  9. Hangui
    a phonetic alphabet developed in Korea in the fifteenth century
  10. Hangzhou
    China's capital during the Song dynasty, with a population of more than a million people
  11. Heian
    Japan's second capital city (now known as Kyoto), modeled on the Chinese capital of Chang'an; also used to describe the period of Japanese history from 794 to 1192 C.E.
  12. Jinshi
    title given students who passed the most difficult examinations; became eligible for high office.
  13. Jurchen
    A nomadic people who established a state that included parts of northern China (1115-1234)
  14. Junks
    Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominat force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
  15. kami
    Sacred spirits of Japan, whether ancestors or natural phenomena; their worship must later came to be called Shinto.
  16. Khitan
    A nomadic people who established a state that included parts of northern China (907-1125)
  17. Koryo
    Korean dynasty (918-1392)
  18. Li Bo
    Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
  19. Murasaki Shikibu
    Perhaps Japan's greatest author, a woman active at the Heian court who is best known for The Tale of Genji, which she wrote about 1000 C.E.
  20. Nara
    Japan's first capital city, modeled on the Chinese capital of Chang'an
  21. Neo-Confucianism
    A philosophy that emerged in Song-dynasty China; it revived Confucian thinking while adding in Buddhist and Daoist elements.
  22. Pure Land Buddhism
    A school of Buddhism that proved to be immensely popular in China; emphasized salavation by faith int eh Amitabha Buddha.
  23. samurai
    Members of Japan's warrior class, which developed as political power became increasingly decentralized.
  24. sinification
    extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions.
  25. Silla dynasty
    The first ruling dynasty to bring a measure of political unity to the Korean peninsula (688-900 C.E.)
  26. Song dynasty economic revolution
    A major economic quickening that took place in China under the Song dynasty (960-1279 C.E.); marked by rapid population, growth, urbanization, economic specialization, the development of an immense network of internal waterways, and a great increase in industrial production and innovation.
  27. Southern Song
    smaller surviving dynasty (1127-1279); presided over one of the greatest cultural reigns in world history.
  28. Sui dynasty
    Ruling dynasty of China (581-618 C.E.) that effectively reunited the country after several centuries of political fragmentation.
  29. Tang dynasty
    Ruling dynasty of China from 618-907 C.E.; noted for its openness to foreign cultural influences.
  30. Taika reforms
    attempt to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
  31. Tanka
    Highly stylized form of Japanese poetry that has been a favored means of expression for centuries.
  32. tribute system
    Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and peoples that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required the payment of tribute--produce of value from their countries--to the Chinese emperor (although the Chinese gifts given in return were often much more valuable).
  33. Trung sisters
    Two Vietnamese sisters who launched a major revolt against the Chinese presence in Vietnam in 39 C.E.; the rebellion was crushed and the sisters committed suicide, but they remained symbols of Vietnamese resistance to China for centuries.
  34. Uighurs
    Turkic empire of the steppes; flourished in eighth century C.E.
  35. Wendi, Emperor
    Sui emperor (r. 581-604) who particularly patronized Buddhism.
  36. Xiongnu
    Major nomadic confederacy that was established ca. 200 B.C.E. and eventually reached from Manchuria to Central Asia.
  37. Yi
    Korean dynasty (1392-1910)

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