Bio Exam #3
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The capacity to do work
Energy of motion, -ΔG, catabolic, exergonic
Stored energy because of structure or location, +ΔG, anabolic, endergonic.
Gibbs free energy, can do work. -ΔG means a rxn gives off energy, it provides power. +ΔG means rxn needs energy, it will not run unless energy is added, every rxn has a specific ΔG, ΔG is never changed in a reaction.
breaking down, releasing energy, -ΔG, exergonic.
building up, needs energy, +ΔG, endergonic
energy of a molecule due to its shape, potential.
heat associated with random motion of molecules.
Laws of thermodynamics
- 1. conservation of energy, can't be created or destroyed.
- 2. Everything is moving towards chaos, every energy transformation increases entropy. spontaneous processes requiring no outside energy increase entropy.
- these laws govern all energy transformations.
release energy, amount released equals the difference in potential energy between reactants and products.
Requires input of energy. Input equals difference in potential energy of reactants and products.
Sum total of all endergonic and exergoninc reactions in the cell.
Adenine+Ribose+P~P~P. 1x glucose =36 ATP. Captures and transferes free energy. Link of P's like a compressed spring, release = energy released. Hydrolysis releases energy. ATP⇒ADP+Pi (means PO4) Phosphate groups used to phosphorylate, releases 7.3 kcal.
Adding phosphate group to another molecule, endergonic reactions.
- endergonic reactions of cellular respiration phosphorylate ADP reforms ATP
- ADP+Pi ⇒ATP
Biological Catalysts, lowers activation energy, cannot lower ΔG
Reactant, binds to enzyme's active site, converted into product, catalyzed by 1. enzyme orients it to bond atoms, 2. enzyme induces strain making substrate unstable, 3.adds chemical groups.
Enzymes will denature so that the active site in incapable of reacting with substrate because of pH, temp, salt concentration, presents of co-factors.
Nonprotein helpers for catalytic activity, bind tightly or loosely to active site, if organic called coenzymes.
oxidaton losing electrons, reduction gaining electrons.
substrate level phosphorylation
does not involve ETC, or ATP synthase, ADP phosphorylated by enzyme using PO4 group from phosphorylated substrate.
the process in which energy stored in the form of a hydrogen gradient is used to power ATP synthesis
- Steps 1-5 are endergonic = require ATP inputSteps
- 6-10 are energy-releasing= exergonic; make ATP and NADH
- net energy gain is 2 ATP and 2 NADH for each glucose2 Pyruvate are also made
Pyruvate is chemically processed before entering Kreb’s cycle
- NAD+ is reduced to NADH
- Pyruvate is stripped of a carbon, releases CO2complexed with coenzyme A (CoA) forming acetyl CoA
- net energy gain is 2 NADH for each glucose
- Net energy gain from Krebs is 2 ATP, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 for each glucose that started the process of cellular metabolism
- SO.. for each Acetyl CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle how many ATP, FADH2 and NADH are made?
- The Electron Transport Chain is embedded in the mitochondrial cristae
- There are many proteins involved that transfer hydrogens to generate a hydrogen gradient
- Chemiosmosis = the process in which energy stored in the form of a hydrogen gradient is used to power ATP synthesis
- H+ gradient drives ATP synthesis in matrix as H+ transported through ATP synthase
- net energy gain is 28 ATP for each glucose
- Oxygen is the final hydrogen( electron) acceptor
- Water is the “waste” product
- Some poisons function by interrupting critical events in respiration
- rotenone, cyanide and carbon monoxide block various parts of electron transport chainoligomycin blocks passage of H+ through ATP synthase
- Uncouplers, like dinitrophenol (DNP), cause cristae to leak H+, cannot maintain H+ gradient
Energy releasing reactions in absence of oxygen. re charges NAD+ for glycolysis. yeast, lactic acid
respond to inhibitors, controls rate of gylcolysis and kreb's, adjusts rate of respiration
energy producing orgenelle in plants. contains chlorophyll all green plants have it, found in mesophyll, interior of leaf, have 30-40 choroplast in each cell.
liquid in chloroplast
Endergonic reaction, energy stored in bonds of glucose, reverses direction of electron flow, water is oxidized, carbondioxyde is reduced.
in thylakoids, split h2o, release o2 reduce NADPH, generate ATP from ADP by phos.
in stroma, uses atp, and nadph, reduces co2 to make sugar, with carbon fixation, incorporating co2 into organic molecules.
- 2 comes first, harvest photons, electrons pass through seires of redox reactions, final is oxidation, 2 absorbs at 680nm, 1 at 700nm,
- 1 can also do cyclic electron flow, synthesizes only ATP, 2 carries out linear flow, plants use both photo and ETC
ATP and NADPH power calvin cycle, in stroma, gives 3 C from CO2, CO2 added to 5C inter ribulose-1, 5-bisphos, for 1 G3P turns three times, fixing 3 CO2
closing of stomata to save water
only use calvin cycle to fix carbon, close stomata, allows o2 build up in leaves, rubisco fixes o2, uses AtP and NADPH but makes no sugars
plants in dry areas, conserve water, co2 incorporated into 4c in mesophyll, releases co2, fixes co2 even when low, bc PEP carboxylase has affinity to co2 more than robisco.
incorporate carbon at night, succulent plants,
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