Art of India (midterm)

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rockinradio14
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239663
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Art of India (midterm)
Updated:
2013-10-09 00:25:27
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art history midterm india
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Midterm exam review cards
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  1. Ashoka (Mauryan period)
    • 3rd and most prominent ruler
    • pillars appear
    • "defeated Alexander the Great"
    • (272 - 231 BC)
  2. Art of Mauryan period
    322- 185 BCE
    • Ashokan pillar
    • Lauriya Nandangarh
    • 246 BC 
    • Bahir, India
    • (pillars had Ashoka's inscribed dharma/law)
    • Lion capital (Sarnath)
    • 250 BC
    • ★Wheel, horse, lion, bull, and elephant
    • (4 directions for each animal) metaphor 4 Buddha
    • "he began turning the wheel of the universe... for all of time"
    • Buddha metaphor and universal symbol
    • Bull capital (Rampurva)
    • 250 BC
    • Mediterranean motif & not polished
    • Yakshi? nah
    • Didargang chauri bearer
    • 1st - 2nd century
    • Patna region
    • Sankissa Elephant Capital
    • (not as polished)
    • Dhauli Elephant
    • "heart of the Kingdom of Dhauli"
    • inscribed like all the other pillars
  3. Naga
    Serpent divinity
  4. Bharhut
    Stupa Railing
    • Shunga Dynasty
    • 185 - 72 BCE
    • Chandra Yakshi
    • (much more detail than Mauryan, w/ lacework and facial tattoos)
  5. Stupa Railing (Bharhut)
    • inscribed "Made in the reign of the shongas"
    • 185 - 280 BC? (argued in class)
    • book = 250 BC
  6. The Great Stupa (Sanchi)
    • Satavahana Dynasty
    • 72 BCE ... 3rd century
    • King Satakarni <- there were many
  7. Kapilavastu
    city of Buddha's birth
  8. Gateway's at The Great Stupa
    • square platforms
    • East: Yakshi's
    • West: Dwarves
    • North: Elephants
    • South: Lion (like Sarnath capital) & circular platform
  9. The Great Stupa was worked on by irovy workers of Vidisha
    during 1st century BC craftsmen came from elsewhere... hence why taking images from other areas
  10. The Buddha wanted to cross river, ferry man didn't want to, and after a couple other tries, Buddha walks across the water.
    • Conversion of the Kashyapas
    • (first set of people converted)
  11. Place where The Buddha reached enlightenment
    Bodhgaya
  12. Bodhgaya
    • Shunga period
    • railing 1st century BC
    • Relief sculptures 1st & 2nd BC
    • stone slab 3rd BC w/ motifs like contemporary Mauryan pillars
  13. Bodhgaya mathunas
    couples, they were more erotic here
  14. Barabar Hills Sanctuaries
    • Sudama "Cave"
    • may have been influenced by tombs elsewhere
    • Sudama "Cave" (square opening)
    • Lomas Rishi "Cave" (elaborate opening & unfinished cuz unsafe)
  15. Chaitya
    religious hall in sanctuary w/ a large stupa at the end
    • Bhaja Main Hall
    • (plain pillars)
  16. Why Sungod Surya and Indra portrayed??
    • represent light, aid in meditation
    • otherwise Hindu gods aren't meant to be represented
  17. vihara
    • chair & bed area w/ porchway
    • (Bhaja main hall)
    • Karle Hall, mathunas
    • they were original and the portrayal of The Buddha was added later
    • Karle Hall (the main chaitya) very elaborate
    • *w/ added Hindu temple
    • also 1stBC - 1st AD
  18. Kanheri Main Shrine (chaitya)
  19. Kanheri time frame
    1st BC to 11 AD
  20. Kanheri, largest w/ 120 rock cut caves, 6 as caityas, 53 viharas, and 8 halls
    w/ water for drinking and bathing
    • Cave 3: 2nd century (largest looks like Karle) 
    • carvings w/ elephants worshipping bodhi tree or stupa
  21. Kanishka
    • ruled the Kushanas
    • third king
    • date around AD 78 & 144 (uncertain cuz eras)
  22. Gandhara vs Mathura (reason: who did it first?)
    • G: meditative seated Buddha or teaching/ speaking mudra
    • wheel typically painted
    • wavy locks & downcast eyes
    • infrequently dated
    • M: right hand raised in mudra gesture
    • wheel inscribed on feet/ hands
    • dated by kings' reign
    • stylistically subtly changed over years
    • Reliquary from Bimaran (Gandhara)
    • had bones of the Buddha(maybe) 
    • (had the Buddha imprinted in human form)
    • 1st AD
  23. Reliquary of Kanishka (Gandhara)
  24. Tahkt-i Bahi
    monastary in Gandhara, at the top of a hill away from society. seen monk cells.
  25. Bodhisattva
    • being who has potential for enlightenment but hasn't done so
    • all Jataka's: The Buddha was referred to as Bodhisattva
  26. Bodhasattva
    • Bodhisattva Maitreya
    • "Buddha of the future"
    • w/ elixir of immortality
  27. Bodhisattva Prince (The Buddha before enlightenment)

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