Chapter 6

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abuter
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239682
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Chapter 6
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2013-11-13 22:11:01
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Digestive System
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  1. breaks food apart by the action of the teeth, moistens and lubricates food with saliva;
    food formed into a bolus
    mouth
  2. serve as organs of mastication
    teeth
  3. common passageway for both respiration and digestion;
    muscular constrictions move the bolus into the esophagus
    pharynx
  4. peristalsis within this move the food down the _______ into the stomach
    esophagus
  5. reduces food to a digestible state, converts the food to a semi-liquid form
    stomach
  6. digestion and absorption take place;
    nutrients are absorbed into tiny capillaries and lymph vessels in the walls and are transmitted to body cells by the circulatory system
    small intestine
  7. removes water from the fecal material, stores, and then eliminates waste from the body via the rectum and anus
    large intestine
  8. secrete saliva to moisten and lubricate food
    salivary glands
  9. changes glucose into glycogen and stores it until needed;
    desaturates fats, assists in protein catabolism, manufactures bile, fibrinogen, prothrombin, heparin, and blood proteins, stores vitamins, produces heat, and detoxifies substances
    liver
  10. stores and concentrates bile
    gallbladder
  11. secretes pancreatic juice into the small intestine, contains cells that produce digestive enzymes, secretes insulin and glucogon
    pancreas
  12. process whereby nutrient material is taken into the bloodstream or lymph
    absorption
  13. an enzyme that breaks down starch
    amylase
  14. literally "a throwing upward";
    the building up of the body substance
    anabolism
  15. lack of appetite
    anorexia
  16. an accumulation of serious fluid in the peritoneal cavity
    ascities
  17. pert. to or conveying bile
    biliary
  18. orange-colored bile pigment produced by the seperation of hemoglobin into the parts that are excreted by the liver cells
    bilirubin
  19. a cond in which the tongue is covered by hair-like papillae;
    may be caused by poor oral hygiene and/or overgrowth of fungi due to antibiotic therapy
    black hairy tongue
  20. the intestine, gut, or
    entrail
    bowel
  21. pert to the cheek
    buccal
  22. a cond of episodic binge eating w/ or w/o self induced vomiting
    bulimia
  23. literally "a throwing down";
    a breaking of complex substances into more basic elements
    catabolism
  24. pert to the abdomen
    celiac
  25. an abnormal cond of the lip as seen in riboflavin and other B-complex deficiencies
    cheilosis
  26. surgical excision of the gallbladder
    cholecystectomy
  27. inflammation of the gallbladder
    cholecystitis
  28. surgical incision of the common bile duct
    choledochotomy
  29. the milky fluid of intestinal digestion, composed of lymph and emulsified fats
    chyle
  30. chronic degenerative liver disease characterized by changes in the lobes
    cirrhosis
  31. surgical excision of part of the colon
    colectomy
  32. malignancy of the colon
    colon cancer
  33. pert to the colon
    colonic
  34. exam of the upper portion of the colon
    colonoscopy
  35. the creation of a new opening into the colon
    colostomy
  36. infrequent passage of unduly hard and dry feces
    constipation
  37. chronic autoimmune disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract but most commonly occurs in the ileum
    Crohn's disease
  38. evacuation of the bowel
    defecation
  39. the act or process of swallowing
    deglutition
  40. pain in the tooth
    dentalgia
  41. frequent passage of unformed watery stools
    diarrhea
  42. the process by which food is changed in the mouth, stomach, and intestines by chemical, mechanical, and physical action so that it can be absorbed by the body
    digestion
  43. inflammation of the diverticula in the colon
    diverticulitis
  44. pert to the duodenum;
    the first part of the small intestion
    duodenal
  45. an intestinal disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane
    dysentery
  46. difficulty in digestion
    dyspepsia
  47. difficulty in swallowing
    dysphagia
  48. pert to the intestine
    enteric
  49. inflammation of the intestine
    enteritis
  50. a protein substance capable of causing chemical changes in other substances w/o being changed itself
    enzyme
  51. pert to the region above the stomach
    epigastric
  52. belching
    eructation
  53. pert to the esohagus
    esophageal
  54. body waste expelled from the bowels
    feces
  55. a fibrous, encapsulated connective tissue tumor
    fibroma
  56. gas in the stomach or intestines
    flatus
  57. surgical excision of a part or the whole stomach
    gastroectomy
  58. pert to the stomach
    gastric
  59. study of the stomach and the intestines
    gastroenterology
  60. pert to the stomach and esophagus
    gastroesophageal
  61. occurs when the muscle between the esophagus and the stomach, the lower esophageal sphincter, is weak or relaxes inappropriately, allowing the stomach's contents to back up
    gastroesophageal reflux
  62. to feed liquid or semi-liquid food via a tube
    gavage
  63. inflammation of the gums
    gingivitis
  64. surgical incision into the tongue
    glossotomy
  65. bad breath
    halitosis
  66. vomiting of blood
    hematemesis
  67. a mass of dilated, tortuous veins in the anorectum;
    may be internal or external
    hemorrhoid
  68. inflammation of the liver
    hepatitis
  69. a tumor of the liver
    hepatoma
  70. the abnormal protrusion of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the body cavity that normally contain it
    hernia
  71. surgical incision for the repair of a hernia
    herniotomy
  72. an IV infusion of a hypertonic solution to sustain life
    hyperalimentation
  73. excessive vomiting
    hyperemesis
  74. pert to below the stomach
    hypogastric
  75. inflammation of the ileum
    ileitis
  76. the creation of a new opening through the abdominal wall into the ileum
    ileostomy
  77. a d/o that interferes with the normal functions of the lg intestine
    irritable bowel syndrome
  78. pert to the lip
    labial
  79. surgical incision into the abdomen
    laparotomy
  80. to wash out a cavity
    lavage
  81. dent
    tooth
  82. gest
    to carry
  83. diverticul
    diverticula
  84. duoden
    doudenum
  85. enter
    intestine
  86. eme
    to vomit
  87. gastr
    stomach
  88. eructat
    a breaking out
  89. fibr
    fibrous tissue
  90. gingiv
    gums
  91. alimentat
    nourishment
  92. lapar/o
    • flank
    • abdomin
  93. lingu
    tongue
  94. absorpt
    to suck in
  95. pancreat
    pancreas
  96. amyl
    starch
  97. append
    appendix
  98. appendic
    appendix
  99. celi
    • abdomin
    • belly
  100. chol/e
    • gall
    • bile
  101. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  102. cirrh
    orang-yellow
  103. colon/o
    colon
  104. constipat
    to press together
  105. pilo/o
    hair
  106. mid
    nest
  107. cyst
    sac
  108. halit
    breath
  109. hemat
    blood
  110. hemorrh
    vein liable to bleed
  111. gloss/o
    tongue
  112. glyco/o
    • sweet
    • sugar
  113. pept
    to digest
  114. hepat
    liver
  115. herni/o
    hernia
  116. ili
    • ileum
    • twisting
  117. ile/o
    ileum
  118. labi
    lip
  119. laxat
    to loosen
  120. masticat
    to chew
  121. mes
    middle
  122. paralyt
    • to disable
    • paralysis
  123. bol
    • to cast
    • throw
  124. bil/i
    • gall
    • bile
  125. bucc
    cheeck
  126. cheil
    lip
  127. cyst
    bladder
  128. col
    colon
  129. pharyngl/e
    pharynx
  130. prand/i
    meal
  131. proct/o
    • rectum
    • anus
  132. pylor
    • pylorus
    • gatekeeper
  133. rect/o
    rectum
  134. sial
    saliva
  135. aden
    gland
  136. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid
  137. stomat
    mouth
  138. verm/i
    worm
  139. volvul
    to roll
  140. -ive
    • nature of
    • quality of
  141. -lysis
    • destruction
    • to seperate
  142. -us
    pert to
  143. -stalsis
    contraction
  144. -orexia
    appetitie
  145. -pepsia
    to digest
  146. -phagia
    to eat
  147. -genesis
    • formation
    • produce
  148. -cele
    hernia
  149. -form
    shape
  150. -ion
    process
  151. -ase
    enzyme
  152. -stomy
    new opening
  153. -sis
    cond of
  154. ana-
    up
  155. cata-
    down
  156. di-
    through
  157. dys-
    difficult
  158. post-
    after
  159. a substance that acts to loosen the bowels
    laxative
  160. pert to the tongue
    lingual
  161. the destruction of fat
    lipolysis
  162. the surgical  process of transferring the liver from a donor to a patient
    liver transplant
  163. the process of bad or inadequate absorption of nutrients from the intestinal tract
    malabsorption
  164. chewing
    mastication
  165. black feces caused by the action of intestinal juices in blood
    melena
  166. pert to the peritoneal fold encircling the small intestines and connecting the intestines to the abd wall
    mesentery
  167. the feeling of needing to vomit
    nausea
  168. the surgical proess of transferring a pancrease from a donor to a patient
    pancreas transplant
  169. inflammation of the pancrease
    pancreatitis
  170. a paralysis of the intestines that causes distention and symptoms of acute obstruction and prostration
    paralytic ileus
  171. part to gastric digestion
    peptic
  172. pert to the area around the tooth
    periodontal
  173. inflammation and degeneration of the gums and surrounding bone, which frequently causes loss of the teeth
    periodontal disease
  174. a wave-like contraction that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the alimentary canal
    peristalsis
  175. pert to the pharynx
    pharyngeal
  176. a closed sac in the crease of the sacrococcygeal region caused by a developmental defect that permits epithelial tissue and hair to be trapped below the skin
    pilonidal cyst
  177. pert to after a meal
    postprandial
  178. one who specializes in the study of the anus and the rectum
    proctologist
  179. an instrument used to view the anus and rectum
    proctoscope
  180. pert to the gatekeeper;
    the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
    pyloric
  181. a herna of part of the rectum into the vagina
    rectocele
  182. inflammation of salivary glands
    sialadenitis
  183. an instrument used to view the sigmoid
    sigmoidoscope
  184. enlargement of the spleen
    splenomegaly
  185. inflammation of the mouth
    stomatitis
  186. pert to below the tongue
    sublingual
  187. a disease that causes inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the lg intestine;
    also called colitis or proctitis
    ulcerative colitis
  188. shaped like a worm
    vermiform
  189. a twisting of the bowel on itself that causes an obstruction
    volvulus
  190. to eject stomach contents throught the mouth
    vomit
  191. the space between the cheeks and the teeth
    vestibule
  192. thin fold of mucus membrane that connects the free portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium
    lingual frenulum
  193. the tongue is divided in 3 portions:
    • root - blunt rear portion
    • pointed tip
    • central body
  194. the ___ and the ____ are located in the surface of the tongue
    • papillae
    • taste buds
  195. 3 pair of salivary glands
    • parotid
    • sublingual
    • submandibular
  196. sm. mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed
    bolus
  197. 2 sets of teeth:
    • 20 decidous teeth
    •    a) 8 incisors
    •    b) 8 molars
    •    c) 4 canines or cuspids

    • 32 permanent teeth
    •    a) 4 canines
    •    b) 8 incisors
    •    c) 8 premolars or bicuspid
    •    d) 12 molars
  198. 3 main portions of the teeth
    • 1. crown - projecting above the gum
    • 2. root - imbedded in the alveolus
    • 3. neck - the portion between the root & crown
  199. ___ of teeth are firmly implanted in _____ within  the alveoli which are lined with _____
    Roots of the teeth are firmly implanted in depressions within the alveoli which are lined with periosteum
  200. a cavity found in the interior of the crown & the center of each root & contains dental pulp
    pulp cavity
  201. loose connective tissue within each tooth that is richly supplied with vessels & nerves
    dental pulp
  202. a narrow tunnel at the root or base of the tooth
    root canal
  203. the opening that blood vessels & nerves enter the root canal
    apical foramen
  204. boney socket the root of each tooth sits on
    alveolus
  205. collagen figers that extend from the dentin of the root to the bone of the alveolus
    periodental ligament
  206. binds the teeth to boney sockets in the maxillary bone & mandible
    gomphosis
  207. covers the dentin of the root providing protection & firmly anchoring the periodontal ligament
    cementum
  208. solid portion of the tooth
    dentin
  209. covers the exposed part of the crown & is the hardest and most compact part of the tooth
    enamel
  210. shallow groove that surrounds the neck of each tooth
    gingival sulcus
  211. voicebox
    larynx
  212. 3 parts of the sm. intestine
    • duodenum - first 12 inches
    • jejunum - 2nd section, 8 ft
    • ileum - 3rd section, 12 ft
  213. semiliquid food
    chyme
  214. about 5 ft long, extends from the ileocecal orifice at the sm. intestine to the anus
    lg. intestine
  215. 4 sections of the lg. intestine
    • cecum
    • colon 
    • rectum
    • anal canal
  216. a pouch-like structure forming at the beginning of the lg. intestine
    cecum
  217. makes up a lg. bulk of the lg. intestine

    subdivided into the transverse ___, desending ___, and sigmoid ____.
    colon
  218. salivary gland located on either side of the face slightly below the ear
    parotid
  219. salivary gland located in the floor of the mouth
    submandibular
  220. salivary gland located below the tongue
    sublingual
  221. 3 types of liver metabolishm
    • carbohydrate
    • fat
    • protien
  222. liver metabolism that changes glucose to glycogen and stores for later use, also changes glycogen back to glucose
    carobyhdrate
  223. liver metabolism that serves as a storage place and desaturates fats before releasing them back into the blood
    fat
  224. liver metabolism that acts as storage and assists in protien catabolism
    protien
  225. these substances are manufactured in the liver:
    • bile
    • fibrinogen & prothrombin
    • heparin
    • blood protiens
  226. bile:
    digestive juice
  227. fibrinogen & prothrombin:
    coagulants essential for blood clotting
  228. heparin:
    anticoagulant
  229. blood protiens:
    • albumin
    • gamma globulin
  230. produces digestive enzymes.  also secrets the hormones insulin and glucogen directly into the blood stream
    pancrease
  231. the digestive tract in a child is formed by the ______ or ______
    the digestive tract in a chld is formed by the embryonic membrane or yolk sac
  232. a childs digestive tract is divided into...
    • foregut
    • midgut
    • hindgut
  233. meconium or first stool
    is a mixture of amniotic flluid and secretions of the intestinal glands;

    usually passes within 8-24 hours after birth
  234. a person refuses to maintain a normal body weight; self starvation
    anorexia nervosa
  235. surgical reduction of the opening into the fundus of the stomach and sutering of the previously removed end of the esophagus to the opening
    fundoplication
  236. the upper part of the stomach moves into the chest through a small opening in the diaphragm
    hiatal hernia
  237. this type of hernia occurs when a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal
    inguinal hernia
  238. a tubular passage through the lower layers of the abd wall
    inguinal canal
  239. a d/o that interfers with the normal functions of the lg. intestine
    irritable bowel syndome or IBS
  240. occurs when the lining of the esophogus, stomach, or duodenum is worn away
    peptic ulcer disease
  241. a procedure that involves putting a thin telescope into the mouth and moved down the stomach and intestines to directly see any ulcers
    endoscopy
  242. classified as nonsystemic and systemic drugs that neutralize hydrochloric acid in the stomach
    antacids
  243. protect the stomach's mucosal lining from acids but they do not inhibit the release of acid
    mucosal protective meds
  244. inhibit both daytime and nocturnal basal gastric acid secretion and inhibit gastric acid stimulated by food, histamines, caffeine, insulin, and pentagastrin
    histamine H2 receptor antagonists
  245. 3 main functions of the digestive system
    • digestion
    • absorption
    • elimination

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