Edwards Chapter 12 Vocab.txt

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Edwards Chapter 12 Vocab.txt
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Edwards Chapter 12 Vocab
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  1. 21. Bicameral legislature
    A legislature divided into two houses.
  2. 22. Bill
    A proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language. Anyone can draft a bill, but only a member of the House of Representatives or the Senate can formally submit a bill for consideration.
  3. 23. Casework
    Activities of members of congress that helps constituents as individuals; cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get people what they think they have a right to get
  4. 24. Caucus
    (congressional) A group of members of Congress sharing some interest or characteristic. Most are composed of members from both parties and from both houses. (State party) A meeting of all state party leaders for selecting delegates to the national party convention. Caucuses are usually organized as a pyramid.
  5. 25. Committee Chairs
    The most important influencers of the congressional agenda. They play dominant roles in scheduling hearings, hiring staff, appointing subcommittees and managing committee bills when they are brought before the full house.
  6. 26. Conference Committee
    Congressional committees formed when the Senate and the House pass a particular bill in different forms. Party leadership appoints members from each house to iron out the differences and bring back a single bill.
  7. 27. Filibuster
    A strategy unique to the Senate whereby opponents of a piece of legislation try to talk it to death, based on the tradition of unlimited debate.
  8. 28. House Rules Committee
    An institution unique to the House of Representatives that reviews all bills (except revenue, budget and appropriations bills) coming from a House committee before they go to the full House.
  9. 29. Incumbents
    Those already holding office. In congressional elections, incumbents usually win.
  10. 30. Joint Committees
    Congressional committees on a few subject matter areas with membership drawn from both houses.
  11. 31. Legislative oversight
    Congress’ monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through hearings.
  12. 32. Majority Leader
    The principal partisan ally of the Speaker of the House or the party’s wheel horse in the Senate. The majority leader is responsible for scheduling bills, influencing committee assignments and rounding up votes in behalf of the party’s legislative positions.
  13. 33. Minority Leader
    The principal leader of the minority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate.
  14. 34. Pork barrel legislation
    The mighty list of federal projects, grants and contracts available to cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions available in a congressional district.
  15. 35. Select Committee
    Congressional committees appointed for a specific purpose.
  16. 36. Seniority system
    A simple rule for picking committee chairs, in effect until the 1970s. The member who had served on the committee the longest and whose party controlled Congress became chair, regardless of party loyalty, mental state, or competence.
  17. 37. Speaker of the House
    An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.
  18. 38. Standing Committees
    Separate subject-matter committees in each house of Congress that handle bills in different policy areas.
  19. 40. Whips
    Party leaders who work with the majority leader or minority leader to count votes beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by the party.

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