HSCI 003 MIDTERM

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tgherasim
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239692
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HSCI 003 MIDTERM
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2013-10-10 22:41:25
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Medical Terminology
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Midterm study guide
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  1. Roots that mean "Dry"
    • Xer/o
    • Ichthy/o
  2. Roots that mean "Fat"
    • Lip/o
    • Steat/o
    • Adip/o
  3. Cerebral
    Pertaining to the brain
  4. Ophthalmoscope
    An instrument used to see the eye
  5. Hepatoma
    Tumor of the liver
  6. Carcinoma
    Cancerous tumor.
  7. Adenectomy
    Removal of a gland
  8. Pruritus
    • Itching
    • Associated with dermatitis.
  9. SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythamotosus)
    Inflammatory disease of collagen of the skin, joints, and other organs.
  10. Ecchymosis, Ecchymoses
    Bruise(s)
  11. Subungual
    Under a nail.
  12. Albinism
    Skin pigment condition
  13. Psoriasis
    Dermatitis with red patches and silvery scales.
  14. Osteitis
    Inflammation of a bone
  15. Arthroplasty
    Surgical joint repair
  16. Viscera
    Internal organs
  17. Biopsy
    Examination of living tissue
  18. Myeloma
    Tumor of bone marrow
  19. Thrombocyte
    A platelet.
  20. Volvulus
    Twisting of the intestines.
  21. Liposuction
    Removal of fatty tissue.
  22. Steatorrhea
    Fat in the feces.
  23. Percutaneous
    Through the skin.
  24. Osteomyelitis
    Inflammation of the bone and bone marrow.
  25. Gouty Arthritis
    Joint inflammation due to uric acid accumulation.
  26. Lyme Disease
    Bacterial infection caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi.
  27. Arthrography
    X-ray of a joint with contrast material.
  28. The "growth plate"
    • Suffix: -physis
    • Epiphyseal Plate
  29. What are the planes of the body?
    • Frontal (coronal) plane: vertical, divides the body into anterior and posterior positions
    • Sagittal (lateral) plane): lengthwise vertical, divides the body into right or left sides.
    • Transverse (axial) plane: Horizontal, divides the body parallel to the ground. Upper and lower portions.
  30. -malacia
    Softening
  31. Roots that mean "Hardening"
    • Scler/o
    • -sclerosis
  32. brady-
    Slow
  33. Roots that mean "Resembling"
    • -form
    • -oid
  34. Roots that mean "Pain"
    • -algia
    • -dynia
  35. -clast
    To break
  36. -desis
    Tied together
  37. Roots that mean "Lip"
    • Cheil/o
    • Labi/o
  38. Roots that mean "Large Intestine"
    • Col/o
    • Colon/o
  39. The types of burns.
    • First-degree burns: No blisters, pink to red, dry, painful, usually a sunburn.
    • Second-degree burns: Blisters, very painful, epidermal and dermal lesions, very sensitive.
    • Third-degree burns: Not painful, epidermis and dermis are destroyed, differential in color (white or yellow).
  40. What are the 12 body systems?
    • Integumentary (skin)
    • Skeletal (the bones)
    • Muscular (the muscles)
    • Cardiovascular (heart and vessels/providing movement of blood)
    • Respiratory (the lungs)
    • Digestive (the mouth, esophagus, stomach, etc.)
    • Nervous (brain, spinal cord, etc.)
    • Endocrine (glands which secrete inside the body)
    • Lymphatic (moves fluid throughout the body and moves waste around)
    • Urinary (kidneys, bladder, responsible for filatration of fluids throughout the body)
    • Reproductive (system that allows sexual reproduction)
    • Reticuloendothelial (immune system)
  41. Amniocentesis
    A puncture to remove fluid from the sac around the embryo.
  42. Genes
    • Contained in chromosomes.
    • Several thousand genes in each chromosome.
    • They contain DNA, which regulates the activity of a cell.
  43. The parts of a cell.
    • Cell Membrane: Surrounds/protects the cell, regulates what passes in and out.
    • Nucleus: Controls the operations of the cell.
    • Chromosomes: 23 pairs, contain genes.
    • Cytoplasm: Material outside the nucleus in the cell membrane.
    • Mitochondria: provides energy for the cell.
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum: Network of canals that manufacture proteins.
  44. Joint Types and their examples
    • Fibrous: the least movable; the surtures in the skull; tid fib joint in ankles.
    • Cartilagous: tough joints; provide cushioning; provide motioning at pubic symphesis, intervertebral disk
    • 7 Synovial: the most 
    • -gliding: joints that slide [carpals, SI],
    • -hinge [phalanges, elbow], 
    • -Pivot [atalanto-axial, radio-ulna],
    • -Ellipsoidal [metacarpo-phalangeal, radio-carpo] 
    • -Saddle [carpo-metacarpal],
    • -Ball and Socket [femur is the largest one, shoulder, hip]
    • TMJ: Temperal Vendibulo Joint
  45. Vitamin D deficiency causes WHAT?
    Nerve fibers are unable to transmit impulses effectively to muscles, the heart muscle becomes weak, and muscles attached to bones undergo spasms.
  46. An opening in the bone is called WHAT?
    Foramen
  47. Osteodystrophy
    The poor formation (abnormal development) of bone.
  48. Diverticula 
    Abnormal side pockets in a hollow organ.
  49. Ischemia
    An area with insufficient blood.
  50. Nephrosis
    Abnormal condition of the kidney.
  51. Spondylolisthesis
    Slipping of one vertebrae upon another.
  52. Roots and Definition for the "Fibula?"
    • The smallest of the two lower leg bones.
    • Fibul/o
    • Perone/o
  53. Types of fractures
    • Simple (closed): bone is broken but there is no open wound in the skin.
    • Compund (open): bone is broken and a fragment protrudes through an open wound in the skin.
    • Colles: Near the wrist at the distal ends of the radius.
    • Comminuted: Bone is splintered and crushed in several pieces.
    • Compression: Bone collapses or is compressed, happens in the vertebrae.
    • Greenstick: Bone is partially broken and bends at the other end, happens at the forearm.
    • Impacted: One fragment is driven firmly into another.
  54. Peritoneum
    Double folded membrane that lines the abdominal cavity.
  55. Ilium
    The uppermost and largest portion of the pelvis that join at the sacrum.
  56. Ileum
    The 3rd portion of the small intestine which is 11 feet long.
  57. Small Intestine: Names and Lengths
    • 1. Duodenum: 1 ft long
    • 2. Jejunum: 8 ft long.
    • 3. Ileum: 11 ft long
    • Total = 20 feet
  58. Large Intestine: Names and Lengths
    • 1. Cecum (appendix is attached to it).
    • 2. Colon: 5 ft (Ascending, Transverse, Descending, Sigmoid).
    • 3. Rectum (leads to anus).
    • Total = 5 ft
  59. Muscle Functions
    • Striated Muscle: Makes up the voluntary and skeletal muscles that move all the bones. Fascia separates them.
    • Smooth Muscle: Makes up involuntary or visceral muscles that move internal organs.
    • Cardiac Muscle: Branching fibers that are found in the heart.
  60. Liver Serums
    • AST (aminotransferase) = SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase). Found in tissues, released when they're damaged.
    • ALT (alanine aminotransferase) = SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase). Found largely in the liver, realease when damaged.
  61. Dental Specialties
    • Endodontist: Specializing in the inner parts of the tooth.
    • Orthodontist: Specializes in straightening teeth.
    • Periodontist: Specializes in the treatment of gums.
  62. Chromosomal Anomalies
    • Down Syndrome: Child recieves an extra chromosome, so they have 47 instead of 46.
    • Turner Syndrome: Partial or complete absense of the second X chromosome in females.
    • Klinefelter syndrome: An extra X chromosome in a male.
  63. Tissues
    • Epithelial: Covers the outside of the body and lines the inner surface of the internal organs.
    • Muscle: Voluntary (conscious movement: arms, legs, etc.), Involuntary (unconscious movement: heart and digestive system), Cardiac (inside the heart).
    • Connective: bone, cartilage, blood, adipose (fat), fibrous (tendons: MUSCLE TO BONE and ligaments: BONE TO BONE)

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