Exercise Physio LAB 1.txt

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Exercise Physio LAB 1.txt
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  1. What is electromyography (EMG)?
    recording of the electrical events of muscular contraction (i.e, the muscle action potential)
  2. What does EMG activity reflect? How does EMG activity relate to muscle contraction?
    An electromyogram generates two recordings of the electrical events of muscular contraction.

    One recording is a raw response in terms of amplitude (size of EMG response) and frequency. An increase in the amplitude of an EMG reflects an increase in recruitment of more motor units during muscular contraction; it may also reflect to a certain extent a recruitment of larger motor units. An increase in the frequency of an EMG reflects the more frequent firing of motor units.

    The second EMG recording is an integrated response combining amplitude and frequency. As amplitude and/or frequency of the raw EMG response increases, the slop of the integrated response will become steeper reflecting an overall increase in EMG activity and hence, an increase recruitment and firing of motor units.
  3. EMG response and relationship to motor recruitment patterns during increaseing workloads without fatigue
    The raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as the slope of the integrated EMG response should increase with the increasing work as more motor units are needed to increase force production.

    • EXAMPLE:
    • Initially, slow-twitch (SO) motor units may be used to produce 10 kg of force followed by the addition of fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG) motor units to produce 20 kg and 30 kg of force; eventually, as maximum force production capabilities are approached at 30 kg and reached at 40 kg of force, fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) motor units will also be recruited in addition to SO and FOG motor units.
  4. EMG response and relationship to motor recruitment patterns during maximal effort across time with fatigue occuring
    Force production will begin to decrease as fatigue occurs. However, during the initial stages of fatigue, the raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as the slope of the integrated EMG response will not change as local muscle fatigue (e.g, depletion of phosphagen stores, adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate, or lactic acid accumulation) generally precedes neurological fatigue.

    However, as force production due to local muscle fatigue continues to decrease over time, the raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as the slope of the integrated EMG response will eventually decrease as neural fatigue (e.g, depletion of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine) begins to occur.
  5. EMG response and relationship to motor recruitment patterns during submaximal effort across time using a constant resistance with fatigue occuring
    Eventually, the raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as the slope of the integrated EMG response should increase as fast-twitch motor units are recruited to replace the fatiguing slow-twitch motor units.

    Since local muscle fatigue (e.g., depletion of phosphagen stores or lactic acid accumulation) generally precedes neurological fatigue, the neural activity of slow-twitch motor units will probably continue to exist and hence, the EMG activity associated with the recruitment of the fast-twitch motor units is added on to the raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as the slope of the integrated EMG response combined with the EMG activity of the slow-twitch motor units.
  6. EMG response and relationship to motor recruitment patterns during a comparison of two individuals using the same absolute workload who have different maximal strength values
    Person B (the weaker person) will have a greater raw amplitude and/or frequency as well as steeper slope of the integrated EMG response than Person A, as Person B is required to recruitment of greater proportion of total motor units to perform the same absolute submaximal work.
  7. Does local muscular fatigue or neural fatigue usually occur first? Explain
    Local muscle fatigue (depletion of phosphagens-ATP and CP- and accumulation of lactic acids) PRECEDES neural fatigue.
  8. How does force production relate to the cross-sectional area of muscle?
  9. How does force production relate to the distribution of fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle mass?
  10. How does force production relate to the speed of movement?
  11. How does force production relate to motor unit recruitment?
  12. Characteristics of isokinetic strength
    Involves maximal overload throughout the entire range of motion at a controlled, constant speed of movement as a muscle contracts; force is greater than the resistance and consequently, movement is in the direction of the force vector.

    The controlled, constant speed of movement is achieved by the concept of "accommodating resistance."

    An isokinetic machine will accommodate or give back a resistance necessary to control the speed of movement during muscle contraction at a constant, predetermined speed.
  13. Isokinetic strength response during single effort
  14. Isokinetic response during peak contractions at various speeds of movement
  15. Isokinetic response during repeated contractions across time at a moderate speed of movement
    The sprinter will initially generate greater force than the endurance individual, as the sprinter has a higher distribution of FT motor units which tend to have a greater density of actin and myosin contractile protein.

    However, across time as fatigue occurs the endurance athlete will have less of a decrease in force production, as the endurance individual has a higher distribution of ST motor units which have greater capillarization and higher intramuscular concentrations of myoglobin, mitochondria, and oxidative enzymes (note: the ability of muscle tissue to continue to contract and maintain force production over extended periods of time is fundamentally based on the ability of muscle tissue to oxidatively (i.e., aerobically) recycle or regenerate adenosine triphosphate).
  16. How do these responses relate to motor unit recruitment patterns?
  17. How are anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and fatigue index measured calculated?
    Anaerobic Wingate Test
  18. What physiological attributes or characteristics do these anaerobic work indices represent? How do these anaerobic work indices relate to athletic ability and fitness level?
    Anaerobic Power

    • -highest work performed in the first 5 seconds
    • -measures or reflects the development of phosphagen (adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate) metabolism

    Anaerobic Capacity

    • -total work performed in the 30 seconds
    • -measures or reflects the development of phosphagen (ATP & CP) AND anaerobic glycolytic metabolism

    Fatigue Index

    • -percent decline in the work completed in the first 5 seconds compared to the work completed in the last 5 seconds
    • -measures reflect the oxidative capacity of muscle tissue
    • -high fatigue index measures or reflects a low oxidative capacity of muscle tissue (sprinter) and a low fatigue index measures or reflects a high oxidative capacity of muscle tissue (endurance).
  19. How would body composition and distribution of muscle fibers type affect these anerobic work indices?
    Fat Weight vs. Lean Body Weight

    This can affect the test results since the pedaling resistance is based on body weight. If two individuals who differ in body composition but have the same body weight and hence pedal against the same resistance, the individual with a high distribution of fat weight will have lower test results compared to the lean individual with low body fat levels

    Muscle fiber type distribution will also affect the test results. An individual with a high distribution of fast-twitch muscle (sprinter) should have higher results on all three anaerobic work indices compared to an individual with a high distribution of slow-twitch muscle (endurance).
  20. What are the electrical and mechanical events of the cardiac cycle?
    Electrical

    • P = atrial depolarization
    • QRS = ventricular depolarization
    • T = ventricular repolarization

    Mechanical

    • P = atrial contraction
    • QRS = ventricular contraction
    • T = ventricular relaxation
  21. What are the electrical and mechanical events of the electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern?
    If the depolarization wave of the heart moves toward the positive electrode, an upright (positive) R wave is observed on the ECG recording;

    However, if the depolarization wave of the heart moves away from the positive electrode, an inverted (negative) R wave is observed on the ECG recording.

    The standard paper speed for an ECG recording is 25 mm/sec;

    At this speed, each small square (1 mm) on the ECG paper represents 0.04 seconds and each large square (5 mm) represents 0.20 seconds.
  22. How do you measure heart rate for both regular and irregular heart rates?
    Irregular

    Measure the distance in millimeters (mm) between the beginning R wave (point "0" or R0) and the 10th R wave (R10); the distance between R0 and R10 represents 10 complete cardiac cycles. The distance between R0 and R10 is then divided into 15,000 to obtain heart rate in beats per minute (bpm). 

    Heart Rate (bpm) = 15,000/distance in mm between R0 and R10


    Regular

    The above method can be further simplified by measuring the distance between the beginning R wave and the next occurring R wave (R1); the distance between R0 and R1 represents one complete cardiac cycle. The distance between R0 and R1 is then divided into 1,500 to obtain heart rate in beats per minute (bpm).

    Heart Rate (bpm) = 1,500/distance in mm between R0 and R1
  23. What are the 12-leads for an ECG? Where is the positive electrode located?
    6 Limb Leads:

    • (3 Bipolar Leads)
    • - Lead 1 = left arm - right arm negative
    • - Lead 2 = left foot - right arm negative
    • - Lead 3 = left foot - left arm negative

    • (3 Unipolar Leads)
    • - Augmented Voltage Right (AVR) - right arm
    • - Augmented Voltage Left (AVL) - left arm
    • - Augmented Voltage Foot (AVF) - left foot

    • (6 Chest Leads)
    • - V1 = right sternal border, 4th intercostal space
    • - V2 = left sternal border, 4th intercostal space
    • - V3 = equally spaced between V2 and V4
    • - V4 = midclavicular line, 5th intercostal space
    • - V5 = anterior axillary line, 5th intercostal space
    • - V6 = midaxillary line, 5th intercostal space
  24. Should the QRS complex should be positive or negative?
    6 Limb Leads:

    • (3 Bipolar Leads)
    • - Lead 1 = left arm - partially pos./neg.
    • - Lead 2 = left foot - positive
    • - Lead 3 = left foot - positive

    • (3 Unipolar Leads)
    • - Augmented Voltage Right (AVR) - negative
    • - Augmented Voltage Left (AVL) - negative
    • - Augmented Voltage Foot (AVF) - positive

    • (6 Chest Leads)
    • - V1 = negative
    • - V2 = negative
    • - V3 = positive or negative
    • - V4 = positive
    • - V5 = positive
    • - V6 = positive
  25. What is the normal range of resting heart rate?
    60-100 b/min
  26. What does bradycardia and tachycardia mean?
    Bradycardia exists if resting heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute (b/min)

    Tachycardia exists if resting heart rate is greater than 100 beats per minute (b/min)
  27. What are the inherent pacemaker rates of atrial, atrialventricular (AV) node, and ventricular pacemaker sites?
    Atrial = 75 b/min

    AV Node = 60 b/min

    Ventricles = 30-40 b/min
  28. Which of the 12-leads of an ECG can pick-up approximately 80% of all ECG abnormalities?
    V5
  29. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a normal ECG pattern
    Heart cells are charged or polarized in the resting state but when electrically stimulated, they "depolarize" and contract. The wave of depolarization (cells become positive inside) and repolarization (cells return to negative) is recorded on the ECG.

    The upward deflection on the ECG is caused by a positive wave of depolarization moving toward a positive skin electrode. Under normal conditions, the SA node act as the pacemaker of the heart and begins the electrical impulse. As the impulse spreads across the atria, they contract, signified by the P wave on the ECG recording. The impulse then reaches the AV node where a 1/10 second pause allows blood to enter the ventricles.

    The QRS complex represents the electrical activity of ventricular contraction. The T wave represents repolarization of the ventricles. The repolarization of the atria occurs during ventricular contraction and thus is hidden by the QRS complex on the electrocardiogram. Together, the P wave, QRS complex and T wave represent one cardiac cycle.
  30. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a premature ventricular contraction
    An irregular rhythm characterized by a QRS complex that is greater than 3 mm wide or 0.12 seconds in duration with a distorted, bizarre shape

    A PVC that occurs regularly every other beat is called bigeminy, every third beat is called trigeminey, and every fourth beat is called quadrigeminy

    PVC's may be either unifocal (same site in ventricle triggers PVC's) or multifocal (different sites in ventricles trigger PVC's)

    A PVC which falls on a T wave is particularly dangerous as the ventricle is contracting at the same time that it is filling with blood and hence, stroke volume and cardiac output are severely reduced

    Uncontrolled PVC's may progress into ventricular flutter, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular asystole.
  31. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a ventricular flutter
    Produced by the rapid firing of a single ventricular ectopic site at a rate of 200-300 b/min

    The overall ECG pattern is characterized by a smooth wave appearance
  32. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a ventricular fibrillation
    Characterized by an unsynchronized, totally irregular heart rate of 300-500 b/min

    Multiple ectopic ventricular firings produce no distinct QRS complexes, P waves, or T waves; dissimilar V Fib waves are present which are bizarre in shape and range in size from 1-10mm
  33. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a ventricular asystole
    heart rate, rhythm, P-R interval, and QRS complexes are all absent

    An isoelectric line is present on the electrocardiogram
  34. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a myocardial ischemia
    Characterized by a symmetrically inverted T wave, which indicates lack of blood flow and oxygen to the cardiac tissue.
  35. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of acute myocardial injury
    Characterized by ST segment elevation, which indicates an acute (fresh) injury to the myocardial tissue
  36. Identify and explain the ECG characteristic(s) of a myocardial infarction
    Characterized by significant Q waves that are more than 1 mm wide (0.04 seconds) or more than one-third the size of the QRS complex

    Indicates that a myocardial infarction has occurred.
  37. How does exercise affect heart rate responses?
  38. How does training effect resting, submaximal and maximal heart rate responses?
  39. What does systolic blood pressure represent?
    Systolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles
  40. What does diastolic blood pressure represent?
    Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries during relaxation of the ventricles
  41. Which of the korotkoff sounds are used to detect systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
  42. What are the normal ranges for systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
    The normal range for systolic blood pressure is:

    100-140 mmHg

    The normal range for diastolic blood pressure is:

    60-89 mmHg
  43. Systolic and/or diastolic blood pressures above what level would be considered a high risk of having or developing coronary heart disease?
    Systolic blood pressure equal to or greater than 160 mmHg.

    Diastolic blood pressure equal to or greater than 90 mmHg.
  44. How does exercise affect systolic and diastolic blood pressures?
  45. How does training affect blood pressure in hypertensive normotensive (normal) individuals?
    Long-term training has minimal effects on resting blood pressure in individuals with normal blood pressure.
  46. How can oxygen uptake rate (VO2) and carbon dioxide producation rate be converted from mL/min to L/min and L/min to mL/min?
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of oxygen uptake rate (VO2) in L/min:

    • VO2 L/min = VO2 ml/min / 1000
    • VO2 L/min = 1500 ml/min / 1000
    • VO2 L/min = 1.500 L/min

    Calculation of carbon dioxide production rate in L/min:

    • VCO2 L/min = VCO2 ml/min / 1000
    • VCO2 L/min = 1225 ml/min / 1000
    • VCO2 L/min = 1.225 L/min
  47. What is the equation and calculation for determining the respiratory exchange ratio (RER or R value)?
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of RER (respiratory exchange ratio) or R value:

    • RER or R Value = VCO2 / VO2
    • RER or R Value = 1.225 L/min / 1.550 L/min
    • RER or R Value = 0.79
  48. What is the equation and calculation for determining kilocalories expended per minute?
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of kcal/min (kcal expended per minute):

    • kcal/min = (kcal/liter of VO2) x VO2 L/min
    • kcal/min = 4.74 kcal/liter of VO2 x 1.550 L/min
    • kcal/min = 7.347 kcal/min
  49. What is the equation and calculation for determining the percentage of fuel utilization and kilocalories obtained from carbohydrate and fat during rest and exercise?
  50. What is the equation and calculation for converting body weight in pounds to body weight in kilograms?
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of BW kg (body weight in kilograms):

    • BW kg = BW lb / 2.2
    • BW kg = 176.0 lb / 2.2
  51. What is the equation and calculation for converting oxygen uptake in liters per minute to mililiters per kilogram of body weight
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of VO2 (oxygen uptake rate) in ml/kg/min (ml of oxygen used per kilogram of body weight per minute):

    • VO2 ml/kg/min = (VO2 in L/min x 1000) / BW kg
    • VO2 ml/kg/min = (1.550 L/min x 1000) / 80.0 kg
    • VO2 ml/kg/min = 1550 ml/min / 80.0 kg
    • VO2 ml/kg/min = 19.4 ml/kg/min
  52. What is the equation and calculation for determining the metabolic equivalents (METS)?
    • USING THIS DATA
    • Body Weight (BW) = 176.0lb / 2.2 = 80.0kg
    • Oxygen uptake rate (VO2) = 1500 ml/min
    • Carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) = 1225 ml/min

    Calculation of METS (metabolic equivalents):

    • METS = (VO2 in ml/kg/min) / 3.5 ml/kg/min
    • METS = 19.4 ml/kg/min / 3.5 ml/kg/min
    • METS = 5.5 METS
  53. What is resting metabolic rate (RMR)?
    oxygen uptake rate (VO2) needed to sustain bodily functions under resting conditions
  54. How does RMR differ from basal metabolic rate?
  55. What factors affect resting metabolic rate?
  56. What is meant by the term "oxygen debt?"
    The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery from exercise above that ordinarily consumed at rest in the same time period.
  57. What is meant by the term "oxygen deficit?"
    The time period during exercise in which the level of oxygen uptake rate is below that necessary to supply all of the ATP that is required for exercise.

    The anaerobic energy systems provide the additional need ATP until steady-state oxygen uptake rate is reached.
  58. What is meant by the term "steady state?"
    The time period during exercise in which a physiological function, such as oxygen uptake rate (VO2), remains at a relatively constant value.

    Steady-state oxygen uptake is when the oxygen supplied to the working muscle equals the oxygen demanded or required to do the exercise workload.
  59. What do the previous terms physiologically represent?
    EPOC?

    exercise post oxygen consumption
  60. What are the two phases of oxygen debt and what do they physiologically represent?
    The two phases of oxygen debt are the lactacid phase and the alactacid phase.

    The alactacid phase of the oxygen debt occurs during the first 1-2 minutes of recovery and represents the replenishment of the phosphagens that were depleted during the oxygen deficit.

    The lactacid phase of the oxygen debt, which follows the previous phase, represents the removal of lactate by oxidation that was produced during the oxygen deficit.
  61. Why is oxygen debt greater than oxygen deficit?
    (1) because there will be increased oxygen uptake needs for replenishment of the phosphagen stores and removal of lactate by oxidation, there will be increased needs of oxygen by the respiratory muscles and cardiac muscle to meet the increased oxygen transport demands during recovery.

    (2) in order to effectively dissipate heat that was produced during exercise, myocardial oxygen uptake rate will be elevated above resting level in order to drive circulation, which carries the heat from musculature and core of the body to the skin surface area for convective and evaporative heat loss.

    (3) during exercise hormones, such as thyroxin (medulla) and catecholamines (epinephrine), which stimulate metabolism are released into circulation. The lingering affects of such hormones also contribute to the elevated oxygen uptake rate above resting level during recovery.
  62. How do you calculate oxygen debt and deficit?

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