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Political identity that women ascribed to after the revolutionary war. Middle class white woman
- Mrs. = Mr's women's identity was consumed by husbands after marriage. Women are given responsibility of husbands during the war by becoming "Deputy of Husband"
- They can hire people, keep the homestead running, etc. Women are given the responsibility to instill that sense of virtuous citizenship to husband and children. Had the ability to speak in a court of law.
Social status remains the same, but responsibility grows.
Women gain the role as an educator.
- women working side by side with husband at home.
- women become housewives catalyst is the emergence of the middle class during the industrial revolution
- No wage, women's labor viewed as less valuable than men. Men work onset of bread winning idea. Women's labor hasn't changed still working on the homestead which has no monetary value.
Men going off to work to bring something back home validates their work. Relationships grow apart.
Inferiority solidified by influx of wage.
Women in private domestic sphere v.s. men in public work sphere
Cult of Domesticity
coined by Barbara Welter
- Value system created, enforced and taught
- Piety, purity, submission, domesticity
Female sexuality makes women almost childlike. Poses women as weak. This places women inherently weaker than men. Subservient position.
Poor women will find it difficult to gain status. Legacy grown in generations due to lack of resources.
Early American Housewives "Good Wives"
- serving her family and home without question
- happiness in service, placing family/husbands needs ahead of her own.
housewives rules - modest, charitable, submissive, family oriented
- Lowell recruitment began in 1823.
- Industrial revolution recruiters sold a sense of security to parents. Young women 18-30 w/o children. Women learning a trade. $16-23 per month.
1st female group to strike for higher wages in 1836 which was successful.
- Urban living conditions
- tenements, over crowding, unsanitary, communal ties strong community bonds
Law of Coverture: "Feme Covert"
Legal document of marriage where women's legal identity was taken over by their husband including their right to be represented in the court of law.
Political reform by women in middle/working class. Temperance religious violation of sabbath. Advocated to moderation of drug abuse then abstinence. Leg by women but supported by factory workers due to high # of drunks. Sided against abuse of family
The New York Moral Reform Society
1834 - early 20th c. established to end prostitution. They published men name's who solicited prostitution. Enforce purity before marriage
- Consort: mind, body, soul devoted to husband
- Mother: nurture, educator for family
Hannah Emerson Duston
Held captive by Indian raid. She killed her captives, escaped and told men back home. She was viewed as a nurturer/heroine
Suffered beatings from men and father. Gave birth to Dorthy. She was arrested for the murder of her twins, still born babies. Charged with infanticide. She was viewed as a killer and was given a nameless grave.
Christian heroine a myth contrived from real events. Women who ran pitchers of water to soldiers who were under fire. Molly is committing a selfless act, aiding the cause and is poised as a "christian women", a hero. This helps serves/educates the ideal women and preserve the republic a "selfless" women
Father was a drunk, family was poor. Struggling with alcoholism. Mother was a schizo. 1st husband was an alcoholic repeated path of life. Very dedicated to temperance. Physically imposing women 6 ft. vandalizes bars w/ an axe. Most charismatic figure of the temperance movement.
Female anti slavery society (1833) middle class-white, mainly in North. MA 1st to pass abolition.
- Grimke Sisters: Sarah and Angelina - daughters of a prominent slave owner. 1st women to address a meeting for legislature.
- Were accused of being lesbians for stepping out of women's sphere. They were publicly attacked by wives of legislatures which created a loss in credibility of women's status by attacking sexuality.
Founders of children's home. Helped foundation of slavery movement.
19th Amendment/Susan B. Anthony Amendment 1920
Women's right to vote
Seneca Falls Convention
- New York. July 19-20, 1848
- Challenge domestic irresponsibility at home
- Addressed women's right, property laws and presented declaration of sentiments
Lists resolutions centered on domestic ideology 9th resolve - Women's right to vote
Lucretia Molt (1793-1880)
mentor to Stanton originators of Seneca Falls. Did not wear cotton by the ideology of the slavery that deteriorate humanity. Cane frome Quaker enviornment
Alice Paul (1885-1977)
New generation of suffragettes. Fo
Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony
- Tumultuous friendship. Anthony arrested and stated that the government is taking her citizenship rights by no granting her the right to vote.
- Women's Bible (1895)
- changing the text in the bible that makes women not inferior
National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA) 1869
Created after black men received the right to vote. Stanton and Anthony opposed the 14th and 15th amendments. African Americans focused primarily on building a community and women are placed on the back burner. They felt scorn so there was a split in groups.
American Women's Suffrage Association 1869
- Founded by Lucy Stone, Fredrick Douglas supported the 14th and 15th amendment
- ensuring active African American in the political franchise. A deep split in the movement. Lucy Stone claimed that these women do not completely follow through with the Abolitionist movement.
Deep animosity and an entrenched division until 1890
National American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
AWSA & NWSA come together because African American men are not the political allies they though to be and they would gain more strength and power in numbers. Influx of new suffragettes
- Main focus was towards the west - "Freedom in the frontier"
- New land could give women voting rights within state which helped double population and increased political power in the senate for women.
More states that can curb for women's rights leading to a proposal of new amendment
National Association of Colored Women (NACW) 1896
Mary Church Terrell daughter of two slaves. One 1st African women to get a college degree.
- Ida B. Wells - Popular journalist documented lynches in the south. Colored women are doubled in the struggle. De franchised in government and kept bounded by the racial laws.
- Rectify their grievances. Focuses on civil rights and suffrage
National Women's Party (NWP)
- smaller than League of Women Voters
- supported women candidates and women's causes
- Equal Rights Amendment (1923)
- justice not protection. protection was paternalistic, discriminatory and damaging
Alice Paul protective legislation justifies sexual discrimination. Women can never expect to improve their status if they are recognized as different.
Tennessee senator conservative vote against 19th amendment but got a telegraph from his mother telling him to vote for the women's right to vote.
The Women's Bible
created by Elizabeth Cady Stanton published 1895 purpose to revel the limitation christianity placed on women. Rewrote every passage that said women were inferior
Susan B. Anthony is impartial to the controversy. Plays politician role. Stanton leaves NAWSA and Anthony remains president for four years
Sheppard-Towner Act (1921)
material and child health care 1st legislation after vote
1st congress woman 1915. Pacifist