Bio 502, 2016, Lecture #10: Arm Elbow & Cubital Fossa

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ChathamBio502
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239737
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Bio 502, 2016, Lecture #10: Arm Elbow & Cubital Fossa
Updated:
2016-10-06 18:44:57
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Arm Elbow Cubital fossa
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Anatomy of Arm, Elbow & Cubital fossa
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  1. Properly associated the communicating regions of the arm with the structures that pass through each.
    • Quadrangular space: axillary nerve & posterior circumflex humeral artery
    • Triangular interval: profunda brachii artery & radial nerve
    • Triangular space: circumflex scapular artery
  2. For the following question:
    Pick A if all choices are TRUE
    Pick B if all choices are FALSE
    Pick C if 1 is true
    Pick D if 1&2 are true
    Pick E if 1, 2 & 3 are true
    1: the elbow joint is composed of three joints
    2: the trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna
    3: the capitulum of the radius articulates with the humerus
    4: the joint between the radial head of the radius and the radial notch of the ulna is not regarded as a part of the elbow joint
    D
  3. For the following question:
    Pick A if all choices are TRUE
    Pick B if all choices are FALSE
    Pick C if 1 is true
    Pick D if 1&2 are true
    Pick E if 1, 2 & 3 are true
    1: the axillary artery becomes the brachial artery at the superior margin of teres major
    2: the lateral thoracic artery is the first branch off of the second part of the axillary artery
    3: in 65% of people, the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries arise from the brachial artery rather than the axillary artery
    4: the subscapular artery is generally the smallest branch off of the axillary artery
    B
  4. For the following question:
    Pick A if all choices are TRUE
    Pick B if all choices are FALSE
    Pick C if 1 is true
    Pick D if 1&2 are true
    Pick E if 1, 2 & 3 are true
    1: The tendon of the long head of biceps brachii passes through the glenohumeral joint capsule
    2: the tendon of the long head of biceps brachii arises from the inferior surface of the glenoid labrum
    3: The short head of biceps brachii arises directly from coracobrachialis
    4: The primary spinal levels of biceps brachii differ between the short head and the long head
    C
  5. For the following question:
    Pick A if all choices are TRUE
    Pick B if all choices are FALSE
    Pick C if 1 is true
    Pick D if 1&2 are true
    Pick E if 1, 2 & 3 are true
    1: biceps brachii supinates the arm ONLY against resistance  or during rapid movemet
    2: brachialis flexes the arm whether or not resistance is present
    3: coracobrachilais flexes the arm at the glenohumeral joint ONLY against resistance or during rapid flexion
    4: biceps brachii flexes the arm whether or not resistance is present
    D
  6. True or false (if false, provide the correct information): the carrying angle is the most pronounced when your forearm is flexed rather than extended
    FALSE. The carrying angle is evident only when the forearm is extended.
  7. True or false (if false, provide the correct information): biceps brachii inserts onto the radial tuberosity via its primary insertion and onto the tuberosity of the ulna via its secondary insertion.
    FALSE. The secondary insertion for biceps brachii (via the bicipital aponeurosis) is into the antebrachial fascia, which overlies the ulnar tuberosity
  8. List the spinal levels of the brachial plexus that innervate muscles in the arm.
    C5, C6, C7, C8
  9. List all of the muscles that participate in flexion of the humerus at the GH joint and, if necessary, provide the conditions of their function. Be specific about heads and or parts of the muscles that are participating.
    • 1) anterior fibers of deltoid: particularly effective from extended position
    • 2) clavicural head of pectoralis major: particularly effective from extended position
    • 3) biceps brachii: weakly
    • 4) coracobrachialis
  10. Describe the conditions under which brachialis assists with extension of the arm.
    Brachialis does not ever assist with extension of the arm.
  11. Describe the conditions under which brachialis acts to flex the forearm at the elbow.
    Any time the forearm is flexed, brachialis is involved.
  12. Describe the conditions under which each of the heads of triceps brachii acts to extend the forearm at the elbow joint.
    • Long head & lateral head: extend the forearm against resistance.
    • Medial head: active in all forms of extension.
  13. True of false (if false, provide the correct information): the ulnar nerve warps around the lateral humeral epicondyle and then travels through the two heads of flexor carpi ulnaris.
    FALSE, it wraps around the medial humeral epicondyle
  14. Which muscles would lose some or all of their primary blood supply if the first branch of the axillary artery were blocked?
    • 1) pectoralis minor
    • 2) serratus anterior
    • 3) subclavius
  15. Describe the trochlear notch, including:
    A) the structures that make the notch
    B) all associated articulating structures
    C) the joint and the type of joint that it participates in
    • A) proximal articulating structure of the ulnam made of the olecranon process (posteriorly) and the coronoid process (anteriorly)
    • B) articulates with the trochlea of the humerus
    • C) helps form the elbow joint. The joint between the trochlear notch and the trochlea is a synovial hinge joint
  16. Which arteries help supply the elbow joint?
    • radial recurrent & radial collateral
    • anterior ulnar recurrent & inferior ulnar collateral
    • posterior ulnar recurrent & superior ulnar collateral
  17. Where is the sacciform recess located and what does it facilitate?
    The sacciform recess is an extension of the synovial membrane of the elbow that lines the proximal radius (it encloses the radial head). It facilitates pronation and supination.
  18. What are the contents of the cubital fossa?
    • 1) tendon of biceps brachii
    • 2) Brachial artery & vein
    • 3) median nerve
  19. What is the functional significance of the dorsal tubercle on the dorsal distal radius?
    The tendon of extensor pollicis longus run over the tubercle, which changes the path of the muscle from the long axis of the forearm to the oblique axis of the thumb (relative to the forearm). This re-direction enables extensor pollicis longus to extend the joints of the thumb rather than dorsiflex the hand at the wrist.
  20. Trace the fibers of the nerve innervating the long head of triceps brachii back to their specific spinal roots.
    triceps brachii/radial nerve/posterior cord/posterior divisions of the superior, inferior and middle trunks/C6, C7, C8
  21. Trace the anterior interosseous artery back to the arch of the aorta on the left side of the body.
    anterior interosseous artery/common interosseous artery/ulnar artery/brachial artery/axillary artery/left subclavian artery/arch of the aorta
  22. True or false (if false, provide the correct information): Musculocutaneous is solely responsible for motor impulses to the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm.
    False, brachialis receives C7 from radial
  23. List all of the muscles that medially rotate the humerus at the glenohumeral joint (disregard conditions, be specific on muscle fibers, if necessary).
    • 1) subscapularis
    • 2) teres major
    • 3) latissimus dorsi
    • 4) pectoralis major
    • 5) anterior fibers of deltoid
  24. True of false (if false, provide the correct information): pectoralis minor is innervated by both the upper and lower subscapular nerves.
    FALSE. Pectoralis minor is innervated by both the medial and lateral pectoral nerves.
  25. If a patient presented with a lesion on the posterior division of the middle trunk, rendering it non-functional, would the patient retain the ability to protract the scapula? Explain your answer including:
    A) affected muscles that participate in protraction (compromised & non-functional)
    B) unaffected muscles that participate in protraction and their spinal levels
    • Yes, scapular protraction is still possible because:
    • A) the posterior divisions don't participate in protraction anyway
    • B) unaffected protractors:
    • 1) pectoralis minor: C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1 because it does not receive fibers from the posterior divisions
    • 2) Serratus anterior: C5, C6, C7 (all from the roots )
  26. True or false & explain your reasoning:
    The radius has four surfaces.
    TRUE: proximally the radius has just three surfaces, just like all of the other long limb bones. Distally it has a fourth surface on the medial side, called the ulnar notch. The head of the ulna articulates with the radius at the ulnar notch.

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