Psych Midterm

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Psych Midterm
2013-10-14 18:37:01
Psy230 Professor Amber Carpenter Gay Porn Midterm

Psy230 Professor Amber Carpenter Midterm 1
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  1. The scientific study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotion, and personality
    Human Development
  2. Average ages at which developmental milestones are reached
  3. Gradual unfolding of a genetically programmed sequential pattern of change.
  4. The current veiw of of developmentalists that important changes occur throughout the entire lifespan and that these changes must be interpreted in terms of the culture and context in which they occur; thus, interdisciplinary research is critical to understand human development.
    Lifespan Perspective
  5. Changes in size, shape, and characteristics of the body
    Physical Domain
  6. Changes in thinking, memory, problem solving, and other intellectual skills
    Cognitive Domain
  7. Changes in variables that are associated with the relationship of an individual to others
    Social Domain
  8. Individuals of all ages possess the capacity for positive change in response to environmental demands
  9. The debate about the relative contributions of biological processes and experimental factors to development
    Nature-Nurture Debate
  10. Changes that are common to every member of a species
    Normative Age-Graded Changes
  11. Changes that occur in most member s of a cohort as a result of factors at work during a specific, well defined historical period
    Normative history-graded changes
  12. Result from unique, unshared events.
    Nonnormative changes
  13. Development that deviates from the typical developmental pathway in a direction harmful to the individual
    Atypical Development
  14. The process of studying people in their normal environments
    Naturalistic observation
  15. presumed casual element in an experiment
    independent variable
  16. the characteristic or behavior that is expected to be affected by the independent variable
    dependent variable
  17. The tendency for observers to ignore details that do not favor their preconceived view
    Observer Bias
  18. An in-depth examination of a single individual
    Case Study
  19. Observation of behavior under controlled conditions
    Laboratory observation
  20. Data-collection method in which participants responded to questions
  21. The entire group that is of interest to a researcher
  22. Subset of a group that is of interest to a researcher who participates in a study
  23. a sample that has the same characteristics as the population to which a study's findings apply
    Representative sample
  24. A child's level of development that an adult must develop their scaffolding strategy off of.
    Zone of Proximal Development
  25. Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Stage:
    *Birth till 18 months.
    *Baby understands the world through her senses and motor actions.
    *Begins to use simple symbols, single words, and pretend play towards the end
    Sensorimotor Stage
  26. Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Stage:
    18 months to six years
    By age 2, the child can use symbols both to think and to communicate. 
    by the end of this stage children begin to classify objects, use logic, and take other's points of veiw
    Preoperational Stage
  27. Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Stage:
    6-12 years
    Logic takes great leaps forward with the development of new internal operations, such as conservation and class inclusion, but is still tied to the known world. By the end, can reason about simple "what if" questions
    Concrete operational stage
  28. Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Stage
    12 years. child begins to maipulate ideas as well as objects; thinks hypothetically and, by adulthood, can easily manage a variety of "what if" questions; greatly improves her ability to organize ideas and objects mentally.
    Formal operational stage
  29. Bronfenbrenner's theory that explains development in terms of relationships between individuals and their environments, or interconnected contexts
    Bioecological theory
  30. Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological context:
    Cultural Level
    universal beliefs and values
  31. Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological context:Cultural Level
    Socioeconomic  Context
  32. Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological context:
    Immediate context (Microsystem)
    (includes family, school, and religion and community)
  33. Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological context:Cultural Level
    Biological Context
  34. 17th century philosopher
    developed empiricism which claims that the mind of a child is a blank slate.
    John Locke
  35. 18th century philosipher
    Believed in innate goodness, and all a child needs is love and nurturing is needed.
    Jean-Jacques Roussseau
  36. 19th century scientist
    Believed that life forms on earth evolved gradually as a result of the interplay between environmental factors and genetic processes.
    Charles Darwin
  37. Scientist that conducted first objective study of development using questionnaires and interviews to study a large number of children.
    G. Stanley Hall
  38. Conducted research  that suggested the existence of genetically programmed sequential pattern of change. coined the term maturation.
    Arnold Gesell
  39. First to develop a comprehensive theory of lifespan development. Conducted studies on the positive aspects of advanced age.
    Paul Baltes
  40. system of age related categories used by developmental scientists
    Periods of development
  41. First Period of development
    spans from conception till birth
    prenatal period
  42. Second Period of Development
    first two years after birth
  43. Third Period of Development
    Years 2-6
    Early Childhood
  44. Fourth Period of Development
    ages 6-12
    middle childhood
  45. Fifth Period of Development
    Ages 12-18
  46. Sixth Period of Development
    Ages 18-40
    Early adulthood
  47. Negative characteristics that a person brings to an interaction: bad temperament, alcoholism, physical abnormality, allergy
  48. Positive characteristics that an individual poses that aid them in stress. Good temperament, good physical coordination, high intelligence, physical attractiveness.
  49. Guidelines researchers follow to protect the rights of people and animals that participate in studies.
    Research Ethics
  50. One of Freud's elements of personality. It operates at an unconscious level and contains the libido, or a persons sexual and aggressive impulses.
  51. one of Freud's elements of personality. A conscious, thinking element formed to keep the id satisfied.
  52. One of Freud's elements of personality. The portion that acts as the moral judge.
  53. Neo Freudian theorist, who developed the psychosocial stages.
    Erik Erikson
  54. Erickson's First Psychosocial stage
    birth to 1 year
    a positive characteristic obtained. Hope; trust in primary caregiver and own ability to make things happen
    Trust vs. Mistrust Stage
  55. Erickson's Second Psychosocial stage
    1-3 years
    Positive characteristics gained are Will; new physical skills led to demand for more choices, most often seen as saying "no" to caregivers; child learns self-care skills such as toileting
    Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
  56. Eriksons third Psychosocial stage
    3-6 years
    Characteristics gained incude:
    Purpose; ability to organize activities around some goal; more assertiveness and aggressiveness. (Oedipus conflict with parent of same sex may lead to guilt)
    Initiative vs. Guilt
  57. Erikson's Fourth Psychosocial stage
    6-12 years
    Competence; cultural skills and norms, including school skills and tool use (failure to master these leads to sense of inferiority)
    Industry vs. Inferiority
  58. Erikson's Fifth Psychosocial stage
    12-18 Fidelity; adaptation of sense of self to pubertal changes, consideration of future choices, achievement of more mature sexual identity, and search for new values
    Identity vs. role confusion
  59. Erikson's sixth Psychosocial Stage
    Love; Persons develop intimate relationships beyond adolescent love; many become parents
    Intimacy vs. Isolation
  60. Erikson's seventh Psychosocial stage
    30 to late adulthood
    Care; people rear children, focus on occupational achievement or creativity, and train the next generation; turn outward from the self towards others
    Generativity vs. Stagnation
  61. Erikson's 8th Psychosocial stage
    Late adulthood
    Wisdom; person conducts a life review, integrates earlier stages and comes to terms with basic identity; develops self acceptance
    Integrity vs. despair
  62. Psychologist who coined the term behaviorism, which defines development in terms of behavior changes caused by environmental influences.
    John Watson
  63. Physiologist and Nobel Prize winner that discovered that organisms can acquire new signals for existing responses, or classical conditioning.
    Ivan Pavlov
  64. Psychologist that coined the term operant conditioning which involves learning to repeat or stop behaviors because of their consequences.
    B. F. Skinner
  65. Psychologist that asserted that learning does not always have to be reinforced, and that it can result from modeling.
    Albert Bandura
  66. Psychologist who discovered that cognitive development occurs in a sequence, and make the same mistakes and arrive at the same conclusions.
  67. Psychologist that developed the sociocultural theory that states that forms of thinking originate from social interactions. Learning of new cognitive skills is guided by an adult or more skilled child.
    Lev Vygotsky
  68. Strings of genetic material in the nuclei of cells
  69. Diseases caused by harmful genes or errors in the process of early development that have altered a child's chromosomal makeup
    Genetic Disorders
  70. Growth that proceeds from the head downward
    Cephalocaudal pattern
  71. Growth that proceeds from the middle of the body outward
    Proximodistal Pattern
  72. Substances such as viruses and drugs that cause birth defects
  73. Term for babies between birth and one month of age
  74. Effects of pregnancy in older women
    More difficult to become pregnant, have higher risk pregnancies, and more likely to have multiple births due to the use of fertility drugs.
  75. Last Menstrual period (LMP) to 12 weeks
    Morning Sickness may begin
    First Trimester
  76. 12-24 weeks
    Increased appetite, mother begins to "show"; risk of miscarriage declines
    2nd Trimester
  77. 25 weeks till Labor
    Third Trimester
  78. Connections between neurons
  79. Reflexes such as sucking that help newborns survive
    Adaptive reflex
  80. Reflexes controlled by primitive parts of the brain that disappear during the first years of life
    primitive reflexes
  81. theorists who claim that perceptual abilities are inborn
  82. theorists who argue that perceptual abilities are learned
  83. Milestones of Motor Development
    Gross: Stepping reflex; lifts head slightly
    Fine: Holds object if placed in hand
    1 month
  84. Milestones of Motor Development
    Gross: lifts head up to 90 degree angle when lying on stomach
    Fine: Begins to swipe at objects in sight
    2-3 months
  85. Milestones of Motor Development
    Gross: Rolls over; sits with support; moves on hands and knees. Holds head erect while sitting
    Fine: Reaches for and grasps objects
    4-6 months
  86. Milestones of Motor Development
    Gross: Sits without support; crawls
    Fine: Transfers objects from one hand to the other
    7-9 months
  87. Milestones of Motor Development
    Gross: pulls self up and walks grasping furniture; then walks alone; squats and stoops; plays pat-a-cake
    Fine: Shows some signs of hand preference; grasps a spoon across palm but has poor aim when moving food to mouth
  88. Milestones of Motor Development
    Gross:Walks backward and sideways. Runs and rolls ball to adult
    Fine:Stacks 2 blocks, puts objects into smaller container and dumps them out
    13-18 months
  89. Milestones of Motor Development
    Gross: Walks up and down stairs, two feet per step; jumps with both feet off the ground
    Fine:uses spoon to feed self; stacks 4 to ten blocks
    19-24 months
  90. The understanding that objects continue to exist when they cannot be seen
    Object Permanence
  91. Piaget's first stage of development, in which infants use information from their senses and motor actions to learn about the world
    Sensorimotor stage
  92. The understanding of incoming information to the limited array of schemes it is born with
  93. manipulating schemes based on experience
  94. an infants tendency to look for an object in the place where it was last seen rather than in the place where they saw the researcher move it
    A-Not-B error
  95. imitation that occurs in the absence of the model who first demonstrated it
    deferred imitation
  96. an infant's understanding of the nature of objects and how they behave
    object concept
  97. organization of experiences into expectancies, called schemas, which enable infants to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar stimuli
    Schematic learning
  98. An innate language processor theorized by Chomsky that contains the basic grammatical structure of all human language
    Language acquisition device (LAD)
  99. the making of repetitive vowel sounds particularly the uuuu sound
  100. the repetitive vocalizations of constant-vowel combinations by an infant
  101. Comprehension of spoken language
    receptive language
  102. The ability to use sounds signs or symbols to communicate meaning
    expressive language
  103. Subsets of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage
    Primary Technique: Reflexes
    Characteristics: use of built in schemes or reflexes such as sucking
    • Substage 1
    • 0-1 months
  104. Subsets of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage

    Primary Technique: Primary circular reactions
    Characteristics: further accommodation of basic schemes as the baby practices them endlessly
    • substage 2 
    • 1-4 months
  105. Subsets of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage

    Primary Technique: Secondary Circular Reactions
    Characteristics: Baby becomes more aware of events outside of self, and makes them happen again trial and error learning.
    • Substage 3
    • 4-8 months
  106. Subsets of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage

    Primary Technique: Coordination of secondary schemes
    Characteristics: Clear intentional means-end behavior. The baby no only goes after what it wants, but may combine two schemes to do so
    • Substage 4
    • 8-12 months
  107. Subsets of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage

    Primary Technique: Tertiary Circular reactions
    Characteristics: Experimentation begins in which the infant tries out new ways of playing with or manipulating objects
    • Substage 5
    • 12-18 months
  108. Subsets of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage

    Primary Technique: Beginning of mental representation
    Characteristics: Development of use of symbols to represent object or events. The child understand s that the symbol is separate from the object
    • Substage 6
    • 18-24 months
  109. the view that infants are biologically predisposed to form emotional bonds with caregivers and that the characteristics of those bonds shape later social and personality development
    attachment theory
  110. the emotional tie to a parent experience by an infant from which the child derives security
  111. Expressions of discomfort in the presence of strangers
    stranger anxiety
  112. expressions of discomfort when separated from an attachment figure
    separation anxiety
  113. a pattern of attachment in which an infant readily separates from the parent seeking proximity when stressed,an uses the parent as a safe base for exploration
    Secure attachment
  114. a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids contact with the parent and shows no preference for that parent over other people
    insecure/avoidant attachment
  115. a pattern of attachment in which the infant shows little exploratory behavior, is greatly upset when separated from the mother, and is not reassured by her return or efforts to comfort
    insecure/ambivalent attachment
  116. a pattern of attachment in which an infant seems confused or apprehensive and shows contradictory behavior, such as moving toward the mother while looking away from her
    insecure/disorganized attachment
  117. a pattern of responding to people and objects in the enviornment
  118. inborn predispositions, such as an activity level, that forms the foundations of personality
  119. the degree to which an infant's temperament is adaptable to his or her environment, and vice versa
  120. an infants awareness that she or he is a separate person who endures through time and space and can act on the enviornment
    subjective self
  121. the toddler's understanding that he or she is defined by various categories such as gender or qualities
    objective (categorical) self
  122. the membrane that connects the right and left hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
    corpus callosum
  123. the process  through which brain functions are divided between the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
  124. the brain structure that is important in learning
  125. the preference for using on hand or the other. develops between ages 3 and five
  126. the young child's belief that everyone sees and experiences the world the way it does
  127. physical or psychological injury that results  from an adults intentional exposure of a child to potentially harmful physical stimuli, sxual acts, or neglect
    child abuse
  128. the failure of caregivers to provide emotional and physical support for a child
    child neglect
  129. Piaget's second stage of cognitive development in which a child becomes proficient in the use of symbols in thinking and communicating, but still have difficulty thinking logically
    Preoperational stage
  130. a child's tendency to think of the world in terms of one variable at a time
  131. the understanding that matter can change in appearance without changing in quantity
  132. A set of ideas constructed by a child or adult to explain other people's ideas, beliefs, desires, and behavior
    Theory of Mind
  133. cognitive structures that underlie behaviors that are often repeated
  134. the use of language as a guide to solving problems
    Private speech
  135. The ability to categorically link new words to real-world referents
  136. the period during which the grammatical features of children's speech become more similar to those of adult speech
    Grammar Explosion
  137. The ratio of mental age to chronological age; also, a general term for any kind of score derived from an intelligence test.
    Intelligence quotient (IQ)
  138. a range, established by one's genes, between upper and lower boundaries for traits such as intelligence; one's environment determines where, within those limits, one will be
    reaction range
  139. the theoretical perspective that asserts that social and personality development in early childhood is related to improvements in cognitive domain
    social-cognitive theory
  140. the ability to classify others according to categorise such as age, gender, and race
    person perspective
  141. the ability to control emotional states and emotion-related behavior
    emotional regulation
  142. the ability to correctly label oneself and others as male or female
    gender identity
  143. the understanding that gender does not change
    gender stability
  144. the understanding that gender is a component of the self that is not altered by external appearance
    gender constancy
  145. information processing approach to gender concept development, asserting that people use a schema for each gender to process information about themselves and others
    gender schema theory
  146. a style of parenting that is high in nurturance and low in maturity demands, control, and communication
    permissive parenting style
  147. a style of parenting that is low in nurturance and communication, but high in control and maturity demands
    Authoritarian parenting style
  148. a style of parenting that is high in nurturance, maturity demands, control and communication
    authoritative parenting style
  149. a style of parenting that is low in nurturance, maturity demands, control, and communication
    uninvolved parenting style
  150. a set of behaviors that usually lead to being accepted as a play partner or friend by peers
    social skills
  151. behavior intended to harm another person or object
  152. aggression used to gain or damage an object
    instrumental aggression
  153. aggression used to hurt another person or gain an advantage
    hostile aggression
  154. behavior intended to help another person
    prosocial behavior
  155. language
    left brain
  156. Intuition
    Spatial Perception
    right brain