Biology 1115 Chapter 5
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Biology 1115 Chapter 5
The structure and function of large biological molecules
What are the four classes of large biological molecules?
What are macromolecules? (2)
Are large molecules composed of thousands of
connected atoms. They are polymers built from monomers.
Molecular _______ and ________ are inseparable.
Structure and function
A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks.
These are the small building block molecules that make up polymers.
What are the 3 out of 4 classes of life's organic molecules that are polymers?
What happens in a dehydration reaction?
A dehydration reaction (condensation reaction) occurs when two monomers bond together through
the loss of water molecules.
What is hydrolysis reaction? (2)
Polymers are dissembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially the
reverse of dehydration reaction,
adds water molecules, breaking a bond
What is the basis for such diversity in these macromolecules?
polymers of sugars.
What is a monosaccharide?
carbohydrates or single sugars
monomer of carbohydrates
What is a polysaccharide?
composed of many sugar building blocks
What are the 3 major functions of carbohydrates?
serve as fuel
Carbohydrates are typically made from which elements?
hydrogen, carbon, oxygen
What is the standard molecular formula for carbohydrates?
What is the most common monosaccharide and what is its chemical formula?
What are the 2 functions of monosaccharides?
serves as major
for building molecules
How are monosaccharides classified? (2)
number of carbons
in the carbon skeleton
the location of the
What is a carbonyl group?
Carbon double bonded to oxygen
What is the difference between aldose and ketose?
location of the carbonyl group
: if carbonyl group in the middle
: if carbonyl group is at the end
What is the difference between glucose and galactose?
They are enantiomers.
Many sugars form________.
rings (know how to draw glucose ring.)
It's formed when a
reaction joins two monosaccharides.
What is the bond between disaccharides (carbohydrates) called?
is called a
Define polysaccharide. what are it's roles?
The polymers of sugars.
How is the structure and function of a polysaccharide determined?
It's determined by it's
positions of glycosidic linkages
What are the four important polysaccharides?
: plant storage
: animal storage
: structural role in plants
: found on insects and bacteria
a storage polysaccharide of plants
, consists entirely of
Define glycogen. what is the difference between glycogen and starch?
is a storage polysaccharide in animals, glucose monomers
Where do humans and other vertebrates store glycogen?
mainly in liver and muscle cells.
Define cellulose. How is it different from starch?
is major component of the
tough wall of plant
cells; glucose monomer
. The difference is based on
two ring forms of glucose
(linkages are at the top)
Polymers with a alpha glucose are ______.
Polymers with beta glucose are _________.
straight, which is better for structural polymer
structural polysaccharide, is found in the
exoskeleton of arthropods
also provides structural support for the cell walls of many fungi
Lipids are typically made from which elements? How does this differ from carbohydrates?
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Lipids have less oxygen than carbohydrates.
What are lipids? (2)
-are the one class of large biological molecules that
do not form
no affinity for water
Lipids are __________ because the consist mostly of __________. Why does this occur?
hydrocarbons are hydrophilic because they have
nonpolar covalent bonds
What are the 3 most important biological lipids?
They're constructed from
How are triglycerides formed?
three fatty acids
are joined to
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Saturated fatty acids
: have the
maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible
no double bonds
Unsaturated fatty acids
one or more double bonds.
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats regarding their state at room temperature?
at room temperature; most animal fats are saturated
at room temperature; most plants and fish fats are unsaturated.
What are trans fats? (2)
They have double bonds
what are 4 functions of fat in the body?
cushioning and protection of organs
What is the structure of a phospholipid?
two fatty acids
are attached to
What do phospholipids usually have? (3)
They usually have
fatty acid tail and
fatty acid tail.
phosphate group has a
hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails
Define steroids. Give an example.
are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of
four fused rings
is an example; it's the
building block for different hormones
What is the general term for monomers of protein?
What is the general term for polymers of protein?
Proteins are typically made from what elements?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,
What are some functions of proteins? (8)
coordinate organism activities
response of cell to chemical stimuli
acceleration of chemical reactions
protection against disease
storage of amino acids
transport of substances
What are enzymes?
are a type of
that acts as a
speed up chemical reactions.
What are amino acids? (2) (know how to draw)
are organic molecules with a
group and an
acts as an
acts as a
All polypeptides are polymers constructed from the same set of _________.
20 amino acids
What are the 4 categories of amino acids and their distinction?
Non-polar side chains (hydrophobic)
Polar side chains (hydrophilic)
Acidic negatively charged (hydrophilic side chains)
: carboxyl group
Basic positively charged (hydrophobic side chains)
: amino group
Amino acids are linked by __________.
What are the four levels of protein structure?
: sequence of amino acids
coils (alpha helix)
(beta pleated sheets)
Tertiary structure: determined by
two or more polypeptide chains
form one macromolecule.
What are the interactions between R-groups in the tertiary structure? (4)
Van der Waals interactions
Strong covalent bonds called __________ may reinforce the protein structure in the tertiary structure of proteins.
Define Collagen and hemoglobin.
Collagen is a
and hemoglobin is a
What are some physical and chemical conditions that can affect the proteins structure? (4)
alteration in pH
other environmental factors
of a protein's
is called ________.
What are chaperonins?
They are protein molecules that
assist the proper folding
of other proteins.
What is the general term for monomers of nucleic acid?
what is the general term for polymers of nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids are typically made from which elements? (5)
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous.
List the major types of nucleic acid. (3)
What major functions do nucleic acids perform?
List the 3 major types of RNA and function.
mRNA (messenger RNA)
: transfers replicated RNA to the ribosome
tRNA (transfer RNA)
: builds the polypeptide chain by organizing the order of amino acids
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
: does functions for the ribosome.
What does a
consists of a nitrogenous base
NO PHOSPATE GROUP
What are the two families if nitrogenous bases and what do they include?
: have a single six-membrane ring; includes cytosine, thymine and uracil
: have six-membrane ring fused to a five-membrane ring; includes adenine and guanine
What is the difference in sugars between DNA and RNA?
Nucleotide monomers are linked together to build a polynucleotides by what linkage?
What are the base pairing in DNA?
Cytosine and guanine
: 3 hydrogen bonds
adenine and thymine
: 2 hydrogen bonds (uracil replaces thymine)
What are 3 differences between DNA and RNA?
: double helix, deoxyribose, thymine
: single strand, ribose, uracil