A&P Midterm 1 (part 1)
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What is contained in the Dorsal Body Cavity?
The brain and spinal chord
What is the ventral body cavity?
What is the thoracic cavity?
What separates them from each other?
The Ventral body cavity= all soft (visceral) organs..like your intestines, kidneys, stomach ect
The Thoracic Cavity contains the lungs and heart.
The diaphram divides them apart
What are the 4 types of tissue?
Explain Each briefly.
lines and covers. (also forms glands and secretes/excretes important things)
holds body together and adds support (helps support adipose[fat])
- 3. Muscle Tissue- moves the body
- (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle)
4. Nervous Tissue-
reacts to stimuli; transmits info around the body and controls bodily function.
Explain the 3 types of Muscle Tissue.
1. Skeletal tissue- moves the bones of the skeletal system. (voluntary)
2. Cardiac tissue- heart beat (involuntary)
3. Smooth tissue- found in internal organs (involuntary)....ex: intestines
What are Organs?
- Organs are made up of groups of tissues.
- They come together to serve a common purpose.
(in pairs usually..kidneys, lungs ect)
Groups of organs involved in a common set of activities
**What is your normal body pH?
a pH of 7.4 (more basic than acidic)
What tissue is Carcinoma found?
What tissue is Sarcoma found?
Carcinoma= cancer of epithelial origin
Sarcoma= cancer of connective tissue origin
What is Organic vs. Inorganic?
- -Organic- WE are organic...anything with Carbon.
- ex: lipids, carbs, proteins, and nucleic acids
- Inorganic- important things in living organisms
- ex: water, salts, acids and bases.
What is a Solute vs. Solution?
What is a Solution vs. Suspension?
- solute- a chemicals you add to water.
- solution- the product of chemicals and water
a substance and water, but they do not form together like a solution. They settle, so you need to stir/shake them.
- Very common, "you're sick".
- For acid/base pH is thrown off.
What are Carbohydrates?
What are 2 types of carb molecules?
- molecules used for storage of energy.
- ex: starch.
- 1. Ribose- backbone of DNA & RNA
- 2. Glycogen- (glucose) stores energy
What are lipids?
What are the 5 types of lipids?
use for energy and stored in fat. Lipids can serve as chemical messengers in forms of hormones.
- 1. Triglycerides- stores energy (body fat)
- 2. Phospholipids- primarily make up cell membrane
- 3. Steroids- hormone synthesis
- 4. Prostaglandins- regulates hormone synthesis
- 5. Eicosanoid- conductor of hormone synthesis
What are proteins made of?
Why is nitrogen important?
-Nitrogen is important because it can turn into proteins, hard to break down. Critical for amino acids.
What are structural proteins?
What are functional proteins?
Structural proteins are made of collagen. They aid in structural framework and physical movement.
Functional proteins- functions in chemical reactions,& regulation of metabolism(thyroid hormone) and immune system (antibodies)
Levels of organization in Proteins
1. explain Primary Structure
2. explain Secondary Structure
3. Explain Tertiary Structure
4. Explain Quaternary Structure
- Primary structure- a single chain of proteins
- Secondary structure- a wild coil of proteins
- Tertiary structure-a fold over..lock&key of proteins.
- Quaternary structure- multiple chains of proteins come together
What is DNA made up of?
- in RNA... G-->C
- A--> U (Uracil)
Line breeding causes?
Genetic diseases (dispositions to cancer ect.)
What are cells?
What are Organisms?
Cells make up EVERYTHING. Basic unit of life. Each cell carries genetic material
Organisms are what cells come together and make. (elaborate complex)
What are erythrocytes? Osteocytes? Neutrophils? Neurocytes? Fibroblasts? Myocytes? Macrophage? AND adipocyte?
- erythrocytes= RBC
- Osteocytes= bone cells
- neutrophils= WBC
- neurocytes= nerve cells
- fibroblasts= cells that build scar tissue
- myocytes=muscle cells
- macrophage= fights disease
- adipocyte=cell that stores fat
What are viruses? how can they be prevented?
Viruses are parasitic and are not visible under a microscope. (they have only 1 strands of DNA OR 1 strand of RNA)
Vaccines can help prevent viral infections.
What are Prions?
Infectious proteins that attack the brain. (cause Scrapie/ Cruetzfeldt-jacob)
What is cytoplasm? & what is in it?
- Everything inside the cell membrane BESIDES the nucleus & genetic material
- Jam-like! It has electrolytes, proteins, a flexible skeleton, and organelles.
What is the Cell Membrane?
A flexible, elastic barrier between the cytoplasm and outside environment.
*Made up of phospholipid bilayer
Cilia vs. flagella?
Cilia- occur in large #'s, they are shorter then flagella. **In upper resp. tract they propel bacteria and mucus away from the lungs.
Flagella- singular, longer, and used for locomotion.
What are Mitochondria?
The powerhouse of the cell! They produce 95% of the cells energy.Largest of all organelles
What are ribosomes?
Site for protein synthesis.
Most common organelle in the cell...they move freely between cytoskeleton&ER
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum?
What is the difference between smooth and rough?
The ER is flattened tubes stacked ontop of eachother.
- rough ER- involved in protein production. Ribosomes reside heresmooth ER- synthesis and storage of lipids
What is the Golgi apparatus?
Post office for proteins!
What is lysosome?
What is peroxisomes?
Lysosome- contains digestive enzymes. Known as "suicide cell". "Stomach of the cell"
Peroxisomes- membranous sacs that contains enzymes..they remove free radicals.
What is Chromatin?
It consists of DNA and proteins. It regulates protein synthesis
What is the Nucleus?
What is the Nucleolus?
the Nucleus is the brain of the cell that contains DNA.
the Nucleolus is where ribosomes are made
What are nucleotides?
Chains that make up DNA
What is DNA?
What is RNA?
DNA is a double helix. Also known as Deoxyribose nucleic acid.(AT CG)
RNA is a single strand. contains (AU CG)
Cations vs Anions
Cations are positively charged ions
Anions are negatively charged ions
What are electrolytes?
All ions..capable of conducting electrical current
PASSIVE MEMBRANE PROCESSES
- Diffusion-passive movement of molecules from higher to lower concentration.
- Facilitated Diffusion- diffusion of molecules across a cell membrane with the help of proteinsOsmosis- passive moment of water through a semi permeable mebrane, from dilute solutes to more concentrated solutes.Filtration- hydrostatic pressure causes liquid to go through a membrane (ex:kidneys)
ACTIVE MEMBRANE PROCESSES
Endocytosis- the engulfing of large particles/liquids into the cell (phagocytosis- cell engulfs solid. pinocytosis-cell engulfs liquid)
Exocytosis- excretions of waste products. And secretion of manufactured substances.
What are Somatic cells?
All cells in the body..besides reproductive.
Somatic cells divide by Mitosis.
Where are Reproductive cells found?
What do they divide by?
Found in ovaries and testes.
They divide by Meiosis.
What are the two phases of Somatic Cells?
Interphase: the cell is growing, maturing, DNA replicating.
Mitotic phase (Mitosis): actively dividing stage.
What are the 6 stages of Mitosis?
- 1. Interphase- before a cell can divide
- 2. Prophase- chromatin strands coil &form chromosomes.
- 3. Metaphase- chromosome line up in the center of the spindle.
- 4. Anaphase- chromatids are pulled apart by the duplicate set of chromosomes.
- 5. Telophase- nuclear envelope apears.
- 6. Cytokinesis- marks the end of telophase. 2 new daughter cells.
What is Dialysis?
Filtration of the body.
What do chemotheraphy drugs do?
- They attack rapidly dividing cells.
- (hair cells divide rapidly..thats why hair falls out)
What is Gross Anatomy?
The study of anatomical structures that can be seen with the eye.
What is Microanatomy?
The study of microscopic tissues and organs.
Name a few characteristics of Epithelial Tissue
- -Epithelial cells are Polar.-They have an Apical surface (top)-They have a basal surface (bottom)-They have a basement membrane (foundation)
- -avascular (no blood supply)
- *NO NERVES
SPECIAL ATTACHMENTS in EPITH. TISSUE
- Tight junction- fusion of outermost cells. NOTHING gets through.
- Gap Junction- linked by tubular channel proteins..send electrical signals (heart, intestines ect.) *allow exchange of nutrients
- Desmosome- strong welded plaque. Like a rubberband. stretches and comes back. ex: skin, heart, uterus.
What do Microvilli do in the GI tract?
Allow for absorption of nutrients.
What are exocrine glands vs. endocrine glands?
Exocrine glands- posses ducts; discharge secretions via their ducts.
Endocrine glands- secrete chemicals into the bloodstream (like hormones)
What are goblet cells?
Cells that store mucus. They release mucus onto tissue surface. (resp. tract and digestive tract)
What are the 3 types of exocrine glands?
- 1. Merocrine gland- the cell makes little vesicles and sends them out ex: SWEAT, saliva
- 2. Apocrine gland- the cell makes secretions & stores it. The top pinches off and releases secretions. ex: mammary glands.
- 3. Holocrine gland- cells divide at the bottom. cell makes secretions and it moves up. When it makes it to the top it bursts. ex: sebaceous glands
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