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What is taxonomy and what does it include?
- A formal system for organizing, classifying and naming living things.
What is nomenclature
a system of naming organisms that is included in taxonomy
What is classification and what are the levels of it?
- An orderly arrangement of organisms into groups; based on an evolutionary relationship.
- Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
Which classification system did Carl Woese help make?
- All living organisms have been separated into three domains.
- Carl Woese
What classification system did Robert H Whittaker?
- All living organisms are separated into five kingdoms:
- Monera or Prokaryotae
What is included in the six-kingdom system?
What is Identification and what is it used to determine and what are the traits?
- A system used to determine and name and classify organisms.
- Morphology, Physiologica/metabolic, Ecological, Genetic, and molecular. (pegmm)
What is Serology? and how does it examine phenotypic characterists?
- Is when the proteins and polysaccharides that make up a bacterium are sometimes unique and can serve to identify that organism.
- Uses antibodies to these markers for rapid identification.
What are the different ways to identify phenotypic characteristics?
- Metabolic differences
What are the ways to examine Genotypic characteristics?
- Dna electrophoresis: fragments generated by restriction digests
- Dny hybridization:complemetary sequences based on physical binding
- Dena squencing and genomic analysis: search for conserved sequences
- Pcr:amplify dna sequences
What are bacterial species and strain?
- A collection of strains that share a set of stable properties and differ from other groups of strains.
- Strains are a population that descends from a single organism or pure isolate.
What do bacterial species exhibit?
What are biovars and Morphovars?
Bacterial strains differing by physiological or biochemical properties
Strains that differ morphologically.
What are Serovars?
Strains that differ by their serological (antigenic) properties known as serotype.
What can you use to differentiate between strains?
- Genomic typing
- Rflp: restriction fragment length polymorphism
- Phage typing: compare susceptibility to bacteriophages.
- Antibiograms: Compare antibiotic susceptibility patterns
What are phenetic based on and what do they compare?
are based on similarity of phenotypic characteristics and they compare as many characters as possible to see whether there is congruence.
What is Phylogenetic based on and what does it do?
- evolutionary hypotheses that these organisms are divergent
- allow use of genetic characterists
What are the various classification systems?
- Numerical taxonomy
What is numerical taxonomy?
large group of techniques used to cluster organisms based on character data sets that are weighted differently and can be used to produce distance measures which allow construction of trees (dendrograms)
How is genetic analysis important in resulting in many bacteria being reclassified and renamed?
Eliminates most of the confusion about pheotypic similarity through identification of genetic make up and caused many bacteria to be renamed or reclassified.
What is the gram-stain of proteobacteria?
What is the gram stain of Low G+c and high g+C?
What are the Alpha proteobacteria?
- Alcaligenes faecalis
- Bartonella quintana
- Bartonella henselae