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What are the two main types of epithelial tissues?
- Covering and Lining Epithelium
- Glandular Epithelium
Describe 5 functions of epithelial tissues.
- Protection (skin)
- Absorption (digestive tract)
- Filtration (kidneys)
- Sensory (chemical detection on tongue)
- Secretion (hormones, saliva)
Name and describe five general properties of epithelial tissues.
- Polarity (apical and basal surface)
- Specialized Contacts (held together by tight junctions and/or desmosomes)
- Supported by connective tissue (basal and reticular lamina)
- Avascular (no blood vessels) but innervated (supplied by nerve fibers)
- Regenerative (able to reproduce)
What are the basement membrane, basal lamina, and reticular lamina?
- Basement membrane: provides point of attached end mechanical support
- Basal lamina: selective filter made up of epithelial tissue
- Reticular lamina: deeper "cushion" made of connective tissue
Describe the 3 main types of cell to cell junctions. Where is each type found in the body?
- Tight Junctions—pushes back passage of substances; prevents seepage in cavity (stomach, intestines, urinary bladder)
- Desmosomes —"clamp";prevent separation under tension (outer layer of skin)
- Gap Junctions—allow cell to cell communication (nerve and muscle tissue)
What do you look for when trying to identify an epithelial tissue?
Cell shape and number of layers
What are serous membranes?
Covers of ventral body cavity and covers the organs within the cavity
What do the words endothelium and mesothelium refer to?
- Endothelium: lines inside of heart, blood vessels, and lymph nodes
- Mesothelium: serous membranes that line the body cavity and covers organs
Describe the main functions of simple squamous epithelia. Where are they found?
Diffusion and filtration; found in air sacs, lining of ventral cavity body, lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymph nodes.
Describe the main functions of stratified squamous epithelia. Give two examples of where you would find stratified squamous epithelia, one that is keratinized, one that is not.
Protection; keratinized—epidermis of skin, nonkeratinized—esophagus, mouth, vagina
What are glands?
A single cell or a group of cells that make and secrete substances into ducts, onto a surface, or into the blood
How are glands classified?
- Where their products is released
- Relative cell number
What are the differences between exocrine and endocrine glands?
- Exocrine: glands that secrete products onto body surfaces or into body cavities
- Endocrine: "ductless" glands that secrete hormones into blood
Name examples of both endocrine and exocrine glands.
- Endocrine—thyroid glands, adrenal glands
- Exocrine—mucous, sweat/oil glands, salivary glands, pancreas/liver
Name the only important unicellular exocrine glands.
Mucous and goblet cells
Describe the function of goblet cells. In what types of tissues would you find them in the body?
Secretes mucin that will become mucus; found in trachea (pseudostratified columnar epithelium)
Describe the two modes of secretion of exocrine glands (holocrine and merocrine).
- Merocrine—secrete products by exotysis
- Holocrine—accumulate products until cell ruptures
Name examples of glands that use merocrine and holocrine secretion.
- Merocrine—pancreas, sweat, and salivary glands
- Holocrine—sebaceous or oil glands of skin
What is exocytosis? What role do SNARE proteins play in exocytosis?
- Exocytosis: process where cell releases materials to the outside through membrane-bounded vesicles passing through the cell membrane.
- V(vesicle)-SNAREs and T(target)-SNAREs are signaling molecules that fuse to the vesicle.
What are the four types of connective tissues, and the cells associated with each?
- Connective tissue proper—fibroblasts
- Blood—red and white blood cells
Describe 3 common characteristics to connective tissues.
- Embryonic origin (mesenchyme)
- Various degrees of vascularity (avascular and vascular)
- Composed of "living" cells and a "non-living" extracellular matrix
From where do connective tissue cells originate?
How does the function of immature and mature cells of connective tissue differ?
- Immature (—blast) cells—active, fast mitosis; secrete extracellular matrix
- Mature (—cyte) cells—less active, slow mitosis; maintain health of extracellular matrix; carry out specialized function
What is in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue?
- Ground substance: unstructured, fills space between cells (interstitial, or extracellular, fluid; cell adhesion proteins, proteoglycans)
- Fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular)
Name the various types of connective tissue proper. Group them according to “loose” and “dense.”
- Loose connective tissue
- 1. Areolar
- 2. Adipose
- 3. Reticular
- Dense connective tissue
- 1. Dense, Regular
- 2. Dense, Irregular
- 3. Elastic
Describe the structure and main functions of loose areolar connective tissue. Give two examples of where you could find some.
- Structure: Gel like matrix with collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers (loose arrangement); fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells
- Functions: Wraps and cushions organs, plays important role in inflammation, holds and conveys tissue fluid, serves as general packing material
- Found in lamina propria of mucous membranes and supports and surrounds capillaries
What is the lamina propria?
Connective tissue supporting mucous membranes (line body cavities open to outside of body)
What is edema?
Fluid retention in areolar tissue; role in inflammation
Describe the structure and main functions of loose adipose connective tissue. Where is it found in the body?
- Structure: little matrix; closely packed fat cells, or adipocytes (store triglycerides); vascularized for high metabolic activity; accumulates in subcutaneous tissue
- Functions: protection; insulation; fuel storage; supports and protects organs
- Found in yellow bone marrow; under skin; surrounding kidneys and eyeballs; within abdomen; in breasts
Describe the structure and main functions of dense regular connective tissue. Where is it found in the body?
- Structure:parallel strands of thick collagen fibers; few cells (major cell—fibroblast); very little ground substance; poorly vascularized;
- Functions: high tensile strength when pulling force in one direction; attaches bones to bones; attaches muscles to bones or muscles
- Found in tendons and ligaments
Describe the structure and main functions of dense irregular connective tissue. Where is it found in the body?
- Structure: irregularly arranged collagen fibers; few cells; very little ground substance; poorly vascularized
- Functions:high tensile strength when pulling force is in many directions
- Found in dermis; fibrous capsules of organs and joints
Compare and contrast intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular injections in terms of target tissue and rate of drug absorption into the blood.
- Intradermal: administered into dermis; longest absorption time (tuberculosis tests)
- Subcutaneous: administered into adipose tissue layer below epidermis and dermis; slow sustained rate of drug absorption into blood (insulin)
- Intramuscular: administered through skin and subcutaneous tissue and into the underlying muscle; faster rate of absorption and onset of action (hormones, antibiotics, vaccines)
Name the three forms of cartilage.
Describe the structure and main functions of hyaline cartilage. Where is it found in the body?
- Structure: amorphous but firm matrix (pits within matrix); most abundant (yet weakest) cartilage
- Function: provides flexibility and support; reduces friction and absorbs shock
- Found in nose, trachea, larynx, covering long end of bones
Describe the structure and main functions of fibrous cartilage. Where is it found in the body?
- Structure: strongest cartilage in body; matrix similar but less firm than hyaline
- Function: provides strong support and withstands heavy pressure (high tensile strength)
- Found in intervertebral discs
Describe the structure and main functions of elastic cartilage. Where is it found in the body?
- Structure:similar to hyaline but more elastic fibers in matrix
- Function: maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
- Found in external ear
Describe the structure and main functions of bone tissues. Your answer should include how bone differs from cartilage.
- Structure: additional collagen fibers and calcium salts found in hard calcified matrix
- Function: support and protect body structures; resists compression and tension
Briefly describe the structure and main function of blood.
- Structure: red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)
- Function: transport respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances
Describe the structure and main functions of skeletal muscle.
- Structure: Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells; striations
- Function: voluntary movement/control; locomotion; manipulation of the environment; facial expressions
Describe the structure and main functions of nerve tissue.
- Structure: contains neurons (generate nerve impulses) and supporting cells (do not generate nerve impulses)
- Function: supports, insulates, and protects neurons
How do skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles differ in terms of where they are found in the body and their function?
- Skeletal—muscles attached to bones
- Cardiac—muscles of heart
- Smooth—muscles of walls of hollow organs (stomach)
Be able to describe the structure of cutaneous membranes. Your answer must include, the name for its epithelium and/or connective tissue layer and where it is found in the body.
- Dry membrane
- Keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis); thick layer of dense irregular tissue (dermis)
- Found in skin
Be able to describe the structure of mucous membranes. Your answer must include, the name for its epithelium and/or connective tissue layer and where it is found in the body.
- Lines the closed ventral cavities; wet or moist membranes
- Non-keratinized stratified squamous or simple columnar; epithelia on top of loose connective tissue (lamina propria) and rests on top of smooth muscle
- Found in nasal cavity, mouth, esophagus lining, bronchi in lungs
Be able to describe the structure of serous membranes. Your answer must include, the name for its epithelium and/or connective tissue layer and where it is found in the body.
- Lines the closed ventral cavities; wet or moist membranes
- Simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) on top of layer of loose areolar connective tissue
- Found in heart, lungs, abdomen
What are the pleurae, pericardium, and peritoneum?
- Pleurae—membrane that lines lungs
- Pericardium—membrane that lines heart
- Peritoneum—membrane that lines abdomen
Briefly describe the regenerative capacity of epithelia, connective tissue, cartilage, muscle, and nervous tissue.
- High regenerative capacity—Epithelia, areolar connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, bones, blood
- Moderate regenerative capacity—Dense regular connective tissue, smooth muscle
- Weak regenerative capacity—Cartilage, skeletal muscle
- Little or no regenerative capacity—Cardiac muscle, nervous tissue