Orgo Ch 4 extra

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  1. addition reactions
    when two reactants add together to form a single product with no atoms left over
  2. elimination reactions
    the opposite of addition reactions; occur when a single reactant splits into two products, often with formation of a small molecule and a double bond
  3. substitution reactions
    when two reactants exchange parts to give two new products
  4. rearrangement reactions
    when a single reactant undergoes a reorganization of bonds and atoms to yield an isomeric product
  5. homolytic bond breaking
    • radical
    • one electron stays with each fragment
  6. heterolytic bond breaking
    • polar 
    • two electrons stay with one fragment
  7. homogenic bond making
    • radical 
    • one elctron donated by each fragment
  8. heterogenic bond making
    • polar 
    • two electrons donated by one fragment
  9. Nonpolar reaction
    rad* + A:B--> Rad:A + *B
  10. Explain initiation.
    radicals are formed
  11. Explain propagation.
    a radical reacts to generate another radical
  12. Explain termination.
    the radicals are depleted
  13. Change in enthalpy
    sum of bonds broken minus sum of bonds formed
  14. BDEs decrease with what (in terms of carbon)
    • with more highly substituted
    • ex: methy;= 435
    • primary radical= 410
    • secondary= 397
    • tertiary= 381
    • etc
  15. __ radicals are the easiest to form.
    tertiary radicals
  16. stability of free radicals
    tertiary > secondary > primary > methyl
  17. Bromination is __. The secondary carbons are __ as reactive as primary.
    • very selective
    • 97
  18. __ in __ is highly __.
    • rate determining step 
    • endothermic
  19. How can you distinguish initiation from propagation?
    • initiation: creates new free radicals
    • propagation: combines a free radical and a reactant to form a product and another free radical
  20. Bond dissociation __ energy. 
    bond formation __ energy.
    • requires
    • releases
  21. The vertical axis in a graph indicates what?
    potential energy
  22. The horizontal axis indicates what?
    • reaction coordinate
    • or just rxn
  23. Where are the.....
    transition states? 
    rate-determining steps?
    • highest points in an energy diagram
    • lowest points after the curve are the intermediates
    • highest Ea is rate limiting
  24. Where will Ea be?
    between the start point and the energy max
  25. Where will deltaH be?
    • between the two species, either reactant with intermediates or intermediate with product
    • the total will be between reactant and prodcut
  26. With increasing Ea, rate __.
    With increasing temperature, rate __.
    Fluorine reacts __.
    Chlorine reacts __.
    Bromine __.
    Iodine __.
    • decreases
    • increases
    • explosively
    • at a moderate rate
    • must be heated to reaect
    • does not react
  27. Reaction intermediates are stable as long as what?
    they don't collide with another molecule or atom, but they are very reactive
  28. Transition states are at __.
    Intermediates are at __.
    • energy maximas
    • energy minimas
Card Set:
Orgo Ch 4 extra
2013-10-10 19:17:56
CHM 201

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