Orgo Ch 4 extra
Card Set Information
Orgo Ch 4 extra
when two reactants add together to form a single product with no atoms left over
the opposite of addition reactions; occur when a single reactant splits into two products, often with formation of a small molecule and a double bond
when two reactants exchange parts to give two new products
when a single reactant undergoes a reorganization of bonds and atoms to yield an isomeric product
homolytic bond breaking
one electron stays with each fragment
heterolytic bond breaking
two electrons stay with one fragment
homogenic bond making
one elctron donated by each fragment
heterogenic bond making
two electrons donated by one fragment
rad* + A:B--> Rad:A + *B
radicals are formed
a radical reacts to generate another radical
the radicals are depleted
Change in enthalpy
sum of bonds broken minus sum of bonds formed
BDEs decrease with what (in terms of carbon)
with more highly substituted
: methy;= 435
primary radical= 410
__ radicals are the easiest to form.
stability of free radicals
tertiary > secondary > primary > methyl
Bromination is __. The secondary carbons are __ as reactive as primary.
__ in __ is highly __.
rate determining step
How can you distinguish initiation from propagation?
new free radicals
: combines a free radical and a reactant to form a product and another free radical
Bond dissociation __ energy.
bond formation __ energy.
The vertical axis in a graph indicates what?
The horizontal axis indicates what?
or just rxn
Where are the.....
highest points in an energy diagram
lowest points after the curve are the intermediates
highest Ea is rate limiting
Where will Ea be?
between the start point and the energy max
Where will deltaH be?
between the two species, either reactant with intermediates or intermediate with product
the total will be between reactant and prodcut
With increasing Ea, rate __.
With increasing temperature, rate __.
Fluorine reacts __.
Chlorine reacts __.
at a moderate rate
must be heated to reaect
does not react
Reaction intermediates are stable as long as what?
they don't collide with another molecule or atom, but they are very reactive
Transition states are at __.
Intermediates are at __.