CD 118: Chapter 4

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CD 118: Chapter 4
2013-10-20 19:47:00
Physical Development health

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  1. What patterns do growth generally follow?
    Cephalocaudal and proximodistal pattern
  2. Cephalocaudal Pattern
    The sequence in which the fastest growth occurs at the top of the body-The head- with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually work from top to bottom. the head and brain grows faster than the lower parts such as the jaw
  3. sensory and motor development also generally proceed according to the ___ ___?
    Celphalocaudal Pattern
  4. proximodistal pattern
    The sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities
  5. puberty
    a period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that take place primarily in early adolescence
  6. menarche
    a girls first menstruation
  7. precocious puberty
    very early onset and rapid progression of puberty
  8. hormones
    powerful chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands and carried through the body by the blood stream
  9. androgens
    the main class of male sex hormones
  10. estrogens
    • the main class of female sex hormones
    • as the levels of this hormone rises- breast develop, uterine development occurs and skeletal changes occur
  11. testosterone
    • a androgen that is a key hormone in boys pubertal development
    • as testosterone levels rise in puberty the external genital enlarge, height increases, and voice changes
  12. estradiol
    an estrogen that is a key hormone in girls pubertal development
  13. pubertal growth spurt
    on the average, the peak of the growth spurt that characterizes pubertal change occurs two years earlier for girls (11 1/2) than for boys(131/2)
  14. lateralization
    specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other
  15. myelination
    the process of encasing axons with a myelin sheath that increases the speed of processing information
  16. corpus callosum
    brain area where fibers connect the brain's left and right hemispheres
  17. prefrontal cortex
    the highest level of the frontal lobes that is involved in reasoning, decision making, and self-control
  18. amygdala
    the sea of emotions in the brain
  19. Sudden infant death syndrome
    a condition that occurs when an infant stops breathing, usually during the night, and suddenly dies without an apparent cause
  20. marasmus
    severe malnutrition caused by an insufficient protein-calorie intake, resulting in a shrunken, elderly appearance
  21.  kwashiorkor
    severe malnutrition caused by a protein-deficient diet, causing the feet and abdomen to swell with water.
  22. Vernix Caseosa
    • Lubricant skin protective found on neonates
    • is the waxy or cheese-like white substance found coating the skin of newborn human babies. Vernix starts developing on the baby in the womb around 18 weeks into pregnancy
  23. What is the baby called in his first month of life ?
  24. Swaddling 
    • A blanket wrapped snuggly around your baby’s body
    • can resemble the mother’s womb and help soothe your newborn baby.
  25. fontanelles
    are soft spots on a baby's head which, during birth, enable the bony plates of the skull to flex, allowing the child's head to pass through the birth canal.
  26. ossification 
    •  is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts
    • The ossification of the bones of the skull causes the anterior fontanelle to close over by 9 to 18 months.[3] The sphenoidal and posterior fontanelles close during the first few months of life.
  27. pubescence
    the time when puberty begins
  28. invincibility fable 
    • adolescent's tendency to think they cannot be harmed by anything
    • not understanding consequences and believing they'll be an exception 
  29. postpartum depression 
    characteristics of women who have strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that they have trouble coping with daily tasks during the postpartum period
  30. shaken baby syndrome 
     is a serious brain injury resulting from forcefully shaking an infant or toddler. Shaken baby syndrome destroys a child's brain cells and prevents his or her brain from getting enough oxygen. Shaken baby syndrome is a form of child abuse that can result in permanent brain damage or death.
  31. Concerns of shaken baby sydrome?
    • baby has lack of neck and head control 
    • size and shape of the babies head
    • frontanelles are still open, havent completely closed 
  32. how long should a baby not have direct sunshine?
    6 months
  33. when do infants maintain own body temperature?
    8-9 weeks 
  34. Growth during infancy ?
    • average new born is 20inches and 7 1/2 lbs
    • first several days newborns lose 5-7% of their body weight
    • once infants adjust to sucking, swallowing, and digesting they grow rapidly gaining an average of 5-6 ounces per week during the first month
    • they have 2x there birth weight by age of 4months
    • and 3x it by there first bday
    • second year of life it slows down
    • by 2 they weight approximately 26-32 lbs
    • average 2 yo is 32-35 inches tall which is nearly one half of adult height
  35. Early Childhood Growth?
    • both boys and girls slim down as the trunks of their bodies lengthen 
    • end of preschool years they lose their heavy top look
    • body fat declines slowly but steadily during preschool years
    • girls have more fatty tissue and boys have more muscle 
    • growth patterns vary individually- variation due to heredity but environmental experiences are also involved 
  36. pituitary gland
    • "body's master gland"
    • located at brains base 
    • secretes growth related hormones 
  37. middle and late childhood growth?
    • 6-11 yo
    • period of calm before the rapid growth spurt of adolescence 
    • during elementary children grown on average of 2-3 inches a year ( age of 8 average boy and girl are 4 foot 2 inches)
    • during middle and late childhood years  children gain 5-7 lbs a year( average wieght being 56lbs)
    • the weight increase is due to increases in size of some body organs
    • muscle mass and strength gradually increase as baby fat decreases in middle and late childhood

  38. what is the most pronounced physical change in middle and late childhood growth?
    • changes in proportions 
    • head circumference , waist circumference and leg length decrease in relation to body height 
    • a less noticable change is that bones continue to harden ; still yielding to pressure and pull more than mature bones 
  39. the earlier onset of puberty is likely the result of ?
    improved health and nutrition 
  40. for girls it is normal to menarche between ages ?
  41. heredity of puberty ?
    environmental factors
    • it is programmed into genes of every human being- the timing  for the emergence of puberty 
    • none the less within the boundaries of about 9-16 yo environmental factors such as health, weight, and stress can influence the onset and duration of puberty 
  42. Puberty and hormones ?
    the secretion of key hormones is controlled by the interaction of the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland and the gonads( sex glands) 
  43. hypothalamus 
    structure in the brain  that monitors eating, drinking, and sex 
  44. gonads
    sex glands- testes in males and ovaries in female
  45. order of male pubertal characteristic development:
    • Increase in penis and testicle size
    • appearance of straight pubic hair
    • minor voice change
    • first ejaculation ( masturbation or wet dream)
    • appearance of pubic hair
    • onset of maximum body growth
    • growth of hair in armpits
    • more detectable voice changes
    • growth of facial hair
  46. what are the most noticeable areas of sexual maturation in boys?
    • penis enlongation
    • testes development 
    • growth of facial hair
  47. what order of appearance of physical changes in females? 
    • breast enlarge 
    • pubic hair appears 
    • armpit hair
    •  as these changes occur females grow in height and her hips become wider than her shoulders
  48. neurons 
    • key components of brains major structure 
    • the nerve cells that handle information processing 
  49. forebrain
    top portion of the brain farthest from the spinal cord
  50. cerebral cortex 
    is responsible for about 80% of the brains volume and is critical in perception, thinking, language and other important function
  51. Frontal lobes 
    are involved in voluntary movement. thinking, personality and intentionality or purpose 
  52. occipital lobe 
    function in vision
  53. temporal lobes 
    have an active role in hearing, language processing and memory
  54. parietal lobes
    play important roles in registering spatial location, attention and motor control 
  55. hippocampus 
    memory and emotion 
  56. axon
    sends electircal signals away from the central part of the neuron 
  57. neurotransmitters
    at the end of the axons, terminal buttons that release chemicals into synapses 
  58. synapses 
    • tiny gaps between neurons' fibers 
    • chemical interactions in synapses connect axons and dendrites, allowing information to pase from neuron to neuron
  59. myelin sheath 
    • axons are covered by this, which is a layer of fat cells 
    • more times your brain makes connections the thicker the myelin sheath becomes 
    • the more fat on the myelin sheath the faster information travels 
  60. neural circuits 
    • clusters of neurons
    • work together to handle particular types of information 
  61. what type of neurotransmitter do neural circuits use?
  62. the brain: childhood
    during early childhood, the brain and head grow more rapidly than any other part of the body. Rapid, distinct bursts of growth occur in different areas of the brain between 3 and 15 years of age. one shift in brain activation in middle and late childhood is from diffuse, larger areas to more focal, smaller areas, especially in cognitive control. 
  63. the brain: adolescence
    • the corpus callosum thickens, and this improves information processing.
    • the amygdala develops earlier than the prefrontal cortex
    • this gap in develpment may help to explain the increase in risk taking behaior that characterizes adolescence 
  64. sleep:infancy 
    • newborn sleeps 16-17 hours a day
    • by 6months of age most infants have sleep patterns similar to those of adults 
    • REM sleep occurs more in infancy than in childhood and adulthood
    • sleeping arrangements vary accross cultures and there is controversy about shared sleeping 
    • sids is a special concern in early infancy 
  65. shared sleeping pros and cons
    • pros:promotes breast feeding and a quicker response to babies cries
    • allows the mother to detect potentially dangerous breathing pauses in the baby
    • Con: increases the risk of sudden infant death sydrome, mother might roll over her baby
  66. Sleep: adolescence 
    • many adolescents stay up later than when they were children and are getting less sleep then needed
    • reasearchers suggest that as adolescents get older, the hormone melatonin is released later at night shifting the adolescents biological clock
    • inadequate sleep is linked to an unhealthy diet, low excersize  level, depression and ineffective stress management 
  67. biological clock 
    a system in the body that controls the occurrence of natural processes (such as waking, sleeping, and aging)
  68. facts/potential reasons regarding childhood obesity 
    • there has been an increase in overweight children in recent decades
    • being over weight raises the risk of developing many medical and psycholgical problems including diabetes, hypertension, elevated blood cholesterol levels, low-selfesteem, depression and exculsion of obese children from peer groups 
    • both heredity and environment influence whether children  will become over weight
    • overweight parents tend to have overweight children(genetic analysis indicated)
    • enviorment: availability of food, use of energy saving devices, lack of physical activity, lake of parental monitoring of children eating habits