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process of coming to an agreement on term in corner of the sheet. theoretical definition.
identified to mark the presence or absence of a concept.
eg. love=holding hands, not touching shoulders
subcategories of a concept
eg. family love, romantic love, platonic love
created to define the procedures or steps used in measuring a concept. must be specific and unambiguous. HOW.
At the levels of measurement, the attributes must be...
exhaustive and mutually exclusive
Categorical--Offers names or labels for attribute characteristics
eg. what is your primary source of news: internet, newspaper, radio, other
Ordinal level of measurement
Categorical-ranked ordered attributes. distance between is irrelevant.
eg. what is class standing: freshman, sophomore, junior, senior
Categorical levels of measurement
nominal and ordinal
continuous levels of measurement
interval and ratio
interval level of measurement
Continuous--distance relevant & standard, rank ordered, no true zero.
eg. choose the appropriate response: Newspapers are an important source of news for me: SA, A, N, D, SD
ratio level of measurement
continuous--measurements are based on a true zero point.
eg. what is your age? __
consistency. do you get the same results every single time?
eg. standing on a scale 100 times and getting the same number (even if that number is wrong).
correctness. are we measuring what we say we're measuring?
eg. standing on a scale that says 392834 lbs, would be invalid.
Can results be reliable but not valid?
Can results be valid but not reliable?
Which is the highest level of measurement?
Ratio: You can transform a high level measurement into a lower level, but you can't do the reverse.
Types of non probability samping
convenience, purposive, snowball, quota
asking the people most convenient to fill out a survey
choosing people based on your knowledge of the population
eg. needing business students, waiting outside upper-level buisness class
ask a few, get them to locate the others
create a matrix of characteristics, assign proportions (%), collect people who match this. then use convenience, purposive, snowball or quota
About probability sampling
Sample should represent population, not have potential bias, ensure representativeness of all members of the population. Gives everyone an equal chance.
group you want to study
group you want to participate in the study
the list of sampling units
WHO is the data collected from
simple random sampling
establish a frame (list of people), use random # generator to choose people from the list.
population size divided by sample size to get K. every kth person.
create subsets (like m/f), create a matrix that allows you to determine how many of each you need, then use simple or systematic sampling
Name some challenges
- 1. Factual question, questionable answer.
- 2. Actions and reports of actions are different.
- -social desirability/acquiescence response bias
- 3. Respondent's attitudes, interests can appear unstable
- -result of taking survey, learning from survey, tiredness
- 4. Small changes in wording, big changes in answer.
- 5. Misinterpretation of word "often"
- 6. Respondents will answer even if they don't know
researcher provides response options, mutually exclusive, exhaustive
respondent answers in her/her own words
how to make good questions
- -avoid double-barelled
- -avoid "not"
- -avoid bias writing (language)
- -write questions respondent is willing to answer
- -write questions relevant to respondent
strengths of survey research
- ·It is useful in describing a large population
- ·It enables the use of large samples
- ·It is flexible
- ·It offers many strengths with regard to measurement
weaknesses of survey research
- -in constructing response options, all participants' social experiences may not be accounted for
- -often removes social context from the study of communication
how well a measure covers the range of meanings or the dimensions, included within the concept
based on logical relationships among variables
are measure's categories meaningful to the people who are being assessed?