Human Anatomy

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Author:
JLonghurst
ID:
23992
Filename:
Human Anatomy
Updated:
2010-06-25 16:02:50
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Arm Muscles
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Description:
Muscles of the arm
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  1. Pectoralis Major: Clavicular Head
    Proximal Attachment
    Anterior Surface of medial half of clavicle
  2. Pectoralis Major: Clavicular Head
    Distal Attachment
    Lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
  3. Pectoralis Major: Clavicular Head
    Innervation
    Lateral and medial pectoral nerves (C5, C6)
  4. Pectoralis Major: Clavicular Head
    Actions
    Adducts and medially rotates humerus. Draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly. Also flexes humerus
  5. Pectoralis Major: Sternocostal Head
    Proximal Attachment
    Anterior surface of sternum, superior 6 costal cartilages, aponeurosis of external oblique muscles
  6. Pectoralis Major: Sternocostal Head
    Distal Attachment
    Lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
  7. Pectoralis Major: Sternocostal Head
    Innervation
    Lateral and medial pectoral nerves (C7, C8, T1)
  8. Pectoralis Major: Sternocostal Head
    Action
    Adducts and medially rotates humerus. Draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly. Also extends humerus from flexed position
  9. Pectoralis Minor: Proximal Attachment
    3rd-5th ribs near their costal cartilages
  10. Pectoralis Minor: Distal Attachment
    Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula
  11. Pectoralis Minor: Innervation
    Medial Pectoral nerve (C8, T1)
  12. Pectoralis Minor: Action
    Stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against thoracic wall
  13. Serratus Anterior: Proximal Attachment
    External Surfaces of lateral parts of 1st-8th ribs
  14. Serratus Anterior: Distal Attachment
    Anterior Surface of medial border of scapula
  15. Serratus Anterior: Innervation
    Long thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C8)
  16. Serratus Anterior: Actions
    Protracts scapula and holds it against thoracic wall. Rotates scapula
  17. Subclavius: Proximal Attachment
    Junction of 1st rib and its costal cartilage
  18. Subclavius: Distal Attachment
    Inferior surface of middle 3rd of clavicle
  19. Subclavius: Innervation
    Nerve to Subclavius (C5, C6)
  20. Subclavius: Action
    Anchors and depresses clavicle
  21. Biceps Brachii: Short Head
    Proximal Attachment
    Tip of coracoid process of scapula
  22. Biceps Brachii: Short Head
    Distal Attachment
    Tuberosity of radius and fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis
  23. Biceps Brachii: Short Head
    Innervation
    Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5, C6, C7)
  24. Biceps Brachii: Short Head
    Action
    Supinates forearm and flexes elbow. Alone resists dislocation of shoulder.
  25. Biceps Brachii: Short Head
    Action
    Supinates forearm and flexes elbow. Alone resists dislocation of shoulder.
  26. Biceps Brachii: Long Head
    Proximal Attachment
    Aupraglenoid tubercle of scapula
  27. Biceps Brachii: Long Head
    Distal Attachment
    Tuberosity of radius and fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis
  28. Biceps Brachii: Long Head
    Innervation
    Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5, C6, C7)
  29. Biceps Brachii: Long Head
    Action
    Supinates forearm and flexes elbow.
  30. Brachialis: Proximal Attachment
    Distal half of anterior surface of humerus
  31. Brachialis: Distal Attachment
    Coronoid process and ulnar tuberosity
  32. Brachialis: Innervation
    Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5, C6) and Radial Nerve (C5, C7)
  33. Brachialis: Action
    Flexes forearm in all positions
  34. Coracobrachialis: Proximal Attachment
    Tip of coracoid process of scapula
  35. Coracobrachialis: Distal Attachment
    Middle 3rd of medial surface of humerus
  36. Coracobrachialis: Innervation
    Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5, C6, C7)
  37. Coracobrachialis: Action
    Helps flex and adduct arm; resists dislocation of shoulder
  38. Triceps Brachii: Long Head Proximal Attachments
    Infraglenoid Tubercle of scapula
  39. Triceps Brachii: Long Head
    Distal Attachments
    Proximal end of olecranon of ulna and fascia of forearm
  40. Triceps BrachiiL Long Head
    Innervation
    Radial Nerve (C5-T1)
  41. Triceps Brachii: Long Head
    Action
    Chief elbow extensor. Resists dislocation of humerus
  42. Triceps Brachii: Lateral Head
    Proximal Attachments
    Posterior surface of humerus, superior to radial groove
  43. Triceps Brachii: Lateral Head
    Distal Attachments
    Proximal end of olecranon of ulna and fascia of forearm
  44. Triceps Brachii: Lateral Head
    Innervations
    Radial Nerve (C5-T1)
  45. Triceps Brachii: Lateral Head
    Actions
    Chief elbow extensor
  46. Triceps Brachii: Medial Head
    Proximal Attachments
    Posterior surface of humerus, inferior to radial groove
  47. Triceps Brachii: Medial Head
    Distal Attachments
    Proximal end of olecranon of ulna and fascia of forearm
  48. Triceps Brachii: Medial Head
    Innervation
    Radial Nerve (C5-T1)
  49. Triceps Brachii: Medial Head
    Actions
    Chief Elbow extensor
  50. Anconeus
    Proximal Attachment
    Lateral epicondyle of humerus
  51. Anconeus
    Distal Attachments
    Lateral surface of olecranon and superior part of posterior surface of ulna
  52. Anconeus
    Innervations
    Radial Nerve (C5-T1)
  53. Anconeus
    Actions
    Assists in elbow extension, stabilizes elbow joint, may abduct ulna during pronation
  54. Pronator Teres: Ulnar Head
    Proximal Attachments
    Coraniod Process
  55. Pronator Teres: Humeral Head
    Proximal Attachments
    Medial Epicondyle of humerus
  56. Pronator Teres
    Distal Attachments
    Middle of convexity of lateral surface of radius
  57. Pronator Teres
    Innervation
    Median Nerve (C6-T1)
  58. Pronator Teres
    Actions
    Pronates forearm and assists in elbow flexion
  59. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    Proximal Attachments
    Medial Epicondyle of humerus
  60. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    Distal Attachments
    Base of 2nd epicondyle
  61. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    Innervations
    Median Nerve (C6-T1)
  62. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    Actions
    Flexes wrist and radial deviation
  63. Palmaris Longus
    Proximal Attachments
    Medial Epicondyle of humerus
  64. Palmaris Longus
    Distal Attachments
    Distal half of flexor retinaculum and apex of palmar aponeurosis
  65. Palmaris Longus
    Innervations
    Median Nerve (C6-T1)
  66. Palmaris Longus
    Actions
    Wrist flexor and tenses palmar aponeurosis
  67. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris: Humeral Head
    Proximal Attachments
    Medial Epicondyle of humerus
  68. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris: Ulnar Head
    Proximal Attachments
    Olecranon and posterior border (via aponeurosis)
  69. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    Distal Attachments
    Pisiform, Hook of Hamate, 5th metacarpal
  70. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    Innervations
    Ulnar Nerve (C8, T1)
  71. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    Actions
    Flexes wrist and ulnar deviation
  72. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis: Humeroulnar Head
    Proximal Attachments
    Medial epicondyle and coranoid process
  73. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis: Radial Head
    Proximal Attachments
    Superior half of anterior border
  74. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    Distal Attachments
    Shafts of medial phalanges of digits 2-4
  75. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    Innervations
    Median Nerve (C6-T1)
  76. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    Actions
    Flexes phalanges of digits 2-4 at proximal interphalangeal joints. Also flexes proximal phalanges at metacarpophalangeal joints.
  77. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    Proximal Attachments
    Anterior surface of radius and adjacent interosseous membrane
  78. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    Distal Attachments
    Base of distal phalanx of thumb
  79. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    Innervations
    Base of distal phalanx of thumb
  80. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    Actions
    Flexes phalanges of 1st digit
  81. Flexor Digitorum Profundus: Medial Part
    Proximal Attachments
    Proximal 3 quarters of medial and anterior surfaces of ulna and interosseous membrane
  82. Flexor Digitorum Profundus: Lateral Part
    Proximal Attachments
    Proximal 3 quarters of medial and anterior surfaces of ulna and interosseous membrane
  83. Flexor Digitorum Profundus: Medial Head
    Distal Attachments
    Bases of distal phalanges of 4th and 5th digits
  84. Flexor Digitorum Profundus: Medial Head
    Innervations
    Ulnar Nerve (C8, T1)
  85. Flexor Digitorum Profundus: Lateral Head
    Innervations
    Ulnar Nerve (C8, T1)
  86. Flexor Digitorum Profundus: MEdial Head
    Actions
    Flexes distal phalangesof 4th and 5th digits at distal interphalangeal joints
  87. Flexor Digitorum Profundus: Lateral Head
    Distal Attachments
    Bases of distal phalanges of 2nd and 3rd digits
  88. Flexor Digitorum Profundus: Lateral Head
    Actions
    Flexes distal phalangesof 2nd and 3rd digits at distal interphalangeal joints
  89. Pronator Quadratus
    Proximal Attachments
    Distal quarter of anterior surface of ulna
  90. Pronator Quadratus
    Distal Attachments
    Distal quarter of anterior surface of radius
  91. Pronator Quadratus
    Innervations
    Ulnar Nerve (C8, T1)
  92. Pronator Quadratus
    Actions
    Pronates forearm. Deep fibers bind radius and ulna together
  93. Flexor Pollicis Brevis
    Proximal Attachments
    Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
  94. Flexor Pollicis Brevis
    Distal Attachments
    Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
  95. Flexor Pollicis Brevis
    Innervations
    Recurrent Branch of Median Nerve (C8, T1)
  96. Flexor Pollicis Brevis
    Actions
    Flexes the thumb at the MCP joint
  97. Abductor Pollicis Brevis
    Proximal Attachments
    Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
  98. Abductor Pollicis Brevis
    Distal Attachments
    Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
  99. Abductor Pollicis Brevis
    Innervations
    Recurrent Branch of Median Nerve (C8, T1)
  100. Abductor Pollicis Brevis
    Actions
    Abducts thumb; Helps oppose it
  101. Opponens Pollicis
    Proximal Attachments
    Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium
  102. Opponens Pollicis
    Distal Attachments
    Lateral side of 1st metacarpal
  103. Opponens Pollicis
    Innervations
    Recurrent Branch of Median Nerve (C8, T1)
  104. Opponens Pollicis
    Actions
    To oppose thumb, it draws 1st metacarpal medially to center of palm and rotates it medially
  105. Adductor Pollicis: Transverse Head
    Proximal Attachments
    Anterior surface of shaft of 3rd metacarpal
  106. Adductor Pollicis: Oblique Head
    Proximal Attachments
    Bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals, capitate, and adjacent carpals
  107. Adductor Pollicis
    Distal Attachments
    Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
  108. Adductor Pollicis
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
  109. Adductor Pollicis
    Actions
    Adducts thumb toward lateral border of palm
  110. Abductor Digit Minimi
    Proximal Attachments
    Pisiform
  111. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    Distal Attachments
    Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit
  112. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
  113. Abductor Digiti Minimi
    Actions
    Abducts 5th digit; assists in flexion of its proximal phalanx
  114. Flexor Digit Minimi
    Proximal Attachments
    Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
  115. Flexor Digiti Minimi
    Distal Attachments
    Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit
  116. Flexor Digiti Minimi
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
  117. Flexor Digit Minimi
    Actions
    Flexes Proximal phalanx of 5th digit
  118. Opponens Digit Minimi
    Proximal Head
    Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum
  119. Opponenes Digit Minimi
    Distal Attachments
    Medial border of 5th metacarpal
  120. Opponens Digiti Minimi
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
  121. Opponens Digiti Minimi
    Actions
    Draws 5th metacarpal anterior and rotates it, bringing 5th digit into opposition with thumb
  122. Lumbricals: 1st and 2nd
    Proximal Attachments
    Lateral two tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (as unipennate muscles)
  123. Lumbricals: 1st and 2nd
    Distal Attachments
    Lateral sides of extensor expansions of 2nd - 5th digits
  124. Lumbricals: 1st and 2nd
    Innervations
    Median Nerve (C6-T1)
  125. Lumbricals: 1st and 2nd
    Actions
    Flex metacarpophalangeal joint; extend interphalangeal joints of 2nd - 5th digits
  126. Lumbricals: 3rd and 4th
    Proximal Attachments
    Medial three tnedons of flexor digitorum profundus (as bipennate muscles)
  127. Lumbricals: 3rd and 4th
    Distal Attachments
    Lateral sides of extensor expansions of 2nd - 5th digits
  128. Lumbricals: 3rd and 4th
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
  129. Lumbricals: 3rd and 4th
    Actions
    Flex metacarpophalangeal joint; extend interphalangeal joints of 2nd - 5th digits
  130. Palmar Interosseous: 1st-3rd
    Proximal Attachments
    Palmar surfaces of 2nd, 4th, and 5th metacarpals (as unipennate muscles)
  131. Palmar Interosseous: 1st-3rd
    Distal Attachments
    Bases of proximal phalanges; extensor expansions of 2nd, 4th, and 5th digits
  132. Palmar Interosseous: 1st-3rd
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
  133. Palmar Interosseous: 1st-3rd
    Actions
    Adduct 2nd, 4th and 5th digits toward axial line. Assist lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints; extensor expansions of 2nd-4th digits
  134. Dorsal Interosseous: 1st-4th
    Proximal Attachments
    Adjacent sides o9f two metacarpals (as bipennate muscles)
  135. Dorsal Interosseous: 1st-4th
    Distal Attachments
    Bases of proximal phalanges; extensor expansions of 2nd-4th digits
  136. Dorsal Interosseous: 1st-4th
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
  137. Dorsal Interosseous: 1st-4th
    Actions
    Abduct 2nd-4th digits; act with lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints
  138. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    Proximal Attachments
    Lateral suprauepicondylar ridge of humerus
  139. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    Distal Attachments
    Dorsal aspect of base of 2nd metacarpal
  140. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    Innervations
    Radial Nerve (C5-T1)
  141. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    Actions
    Extend wrist and radial deviation; active during fist clenching
  142. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    Proximal Attachments
    Lateral epicondyle of humerus
  143. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    Distal Attachments
    Dorsal aspect of base of 3rd metacarpal
  144. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of Radial Nerve (C7, C8)
  145. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    Actions
    Extend wrist and radial deviation
  146. Brachioradialis
    Proximal Attachments
    Proximal two thrids of supraepicondylar ridge of humerus
  147. Brachioradialis
    Distal Attachments
    Lateral surface of distal end of radius proximal to styloid process
  148. Brachoradialis
    Innervations
    Radial Nerve (C5-T1)
  149. Brachioradialis
    Actions
    Relatively weak flexion of forearm; maximal when forearm is in mid-pronated position
  150. Supinator
    Proximal Attachments
    Lateral epicondyle of humerus; radial collateral and anular ligaments; supinator fossa; crest of ulna
  151. Supinator
    Distal Attachments
    Lareral, posterior, and anterior surfaces of proximal third of radius
  152. Supinator
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of Radial Nerve (C7, C8)
  153. Supinator
    Actions
    Supinates forearml rotates radius to turn palm anteriorly or superiorly (if elbow is flexed)
  154. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    Proximal Attachments
    Lateral epicondyle of humerus; posterior border of ulna via a shared aponeurosis
  155. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    Distal Attachments
    Dorsal aspect of base of 5th metacarpal
  156. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of Radial Nerve (C7, C8)
  157. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    Actions
    Extends and wrist and ulnar deviates; also active during fist clenching
  158. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    Proximal Attachments
    Posterior surface of proximal halves of ulna, radius, and interosseous membrane
  159. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    Distal Attachments
    Base of 1st metacarpal
  160. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    Innervations
    Posterior Interosseous Nerve (C7, C8), continuation of Deep Branch of Radial Nerve
  161. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    Actions
    Abducts thumb and extends it at carpometacarpal joint
  162. Extensor Pollicis Longus
    Proximal Attachments
    Posterior surface of middle thrid of ulna and interosseous membrane
  163. Extensor Pollicis Longus
    Distal Atachments
    Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of thumb
  164. Extensor Pollicis Longus
    Innervations
    Posterior Interosseous Nerve (C7, C8), continuation of Deep Branch of Radial Nerve
  165. Extensor Pollicis Longus
    Actions
    Extends distal phalanx of thumb at interphalangeal joint; extends metacarpophalangeal and carpometacarpal joints
  166. Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    Proximal Attachments
    Posterior surface of distal third of radius and interosseous membrane
  167. Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    Distal Attachments
    Dorsal aspect of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
  168. Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    Innervations
    Posterior Interosseous Nerve (C7, C8), continuation of Deep Branch of Radial Nerve
  169. Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    Actions
    Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint; extends carpometacarpal joint
  170. Extensor Indicis
    Proximal Attachments
    Posterior Surface of distal third of ulna and interosseous membrane
  171. Extensor Indicis
    Distal Attachments
    Extensor expansion of 2nd digit
  172. Extensor Indicis
    Innervations
    Posterior Interosseous Nerve (C7, C8), continuation of Deep Branch of Radial Nerve
  173. Extensor Indicis
    Actions
    Extends 2nd digit (enabling its independent extension); helps extend hand at wrist
  174. Extensor Digitorum
    Proximal Attachments
    Lateral epicondyle of humerus
  175. Extensor Digitorum
    Distal Attachments
    Extensor expansions of medial four digits
  176. Extensor Digitorum
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of Radial Nerve (C7, C8)
  177. Extensor Digitorum
    Actions
    Extends medial four digits primarily at metacarpophalangeal joints, secondarily at interphalangeal joints
  178. Extensor Digiti Minimi
    Proximal Attachments
    Lateral epicondyle of humerus
  179. Extensor Digiti Minimi
    Distal Attachments
    Extensor expansion of 5th digit
  180. Extensor Digiti Minimi
    Innervations
    Deep Branch of Radial Nerve (C7, C8)
  181. Extensor Digiti Minimi
    Actions
    Extends 5th digit primarily at metacarpophalangeal joint, secondarily at interphalangeal joint

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