ASL 1 Midterm

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  1. 5 Parameters of ASL
    • 1. Handshape
    • 2. Location
    • 3. Movement
    • 4. Palm Orientation
    • 5. Non Manual Markers (Facial Expression)
  2. T/F When referring to the general population of people with hearing loss, the most politically correct term is "hearing-impaired".

    Preferred terms are either "hard of hearing" or "Deaf"
  3. T/F There is one sign language that is universally used around the world.

    There are many regional sign languages around the world.
  4. T/F One can become an interpreter after taking a full semester of ASL.

    It can take 5-10 years to become fluent in ASL.
  5. T/F One can become fluent in AL just by participating in classroom instruction.
  6. T/F American Sign Language is the third most used language in the United States.
  7. T/F Less than 40 years ago it was illegal for deaf children to use sign language in Ohio's public schools.

    Sadly, the Oralism movement had a stranglehold on education in this country.
  8. T/F American Sign Language is a signed version of English.

    ASL is a distinct and separate language.
  9. T/F 90% of deaf people are born to deaf parents.

    Only 10% of deaf people are born to deaf parents.
  10. T/F Alexander Graham Bell sought to make marriages between deaf people illegal.
    True (what a jerk)
  11. T/F Most Deaf people can read lips.

    Reading lips is incredibly difficult and unreliable.
  12. T/F The football huddle was invented by a deaf football team.
  13. Article 1

    One thing that may surprise people who are not
    exposed to Deaf people is that many deaf do not really consider themselves to
    be disabled and are actually proud to be deaf. Some say they would not want
    to be able to hear if they had their choice.
    Just imagine if aliens landed from outer space and were shocked to discover
    we couldn't see through walls with x-ray vision. Although the aliens might
    feel sorry for us, since we're so used to life without x-ray vision, most
    people would probably not think they're missing out just because they can't
    see through walls. Not all deaf people feel this way about being deaf, but
    many do.

    Here are just a few tips to help people who are new to interacting with
    people who are deaf, as well as to introduce them to what is known as
    "Deaf culture" or "the Deaf world." Knowing how to better
    interact with each other can help us respect and understand one another and
    help bring together the Deaf world and the hearing world, which are really
    one world with many different people.
    Just as you would not ask someone you are meeting for the first time if they
    have always been fat or other personal questions, remember it is generally
    inappropriate to ask deaf people how they became deaf or if they have always
    been deaf, at least when meeting them for the first time, unless the deaf
    person brings up the subject.

    Don't worry about using such English terminology as "Did you hear about
    what happened?" or, "I bet you hear that a lot." Not only is
    this non-offensive to deaf people, but also if there is an interpreter
    interpreting such phrases, the deaf are familiar with this use of the English
    word "hear." Besides, if there is no interpreter, it's not like
    they'll hear it anyway.

    One quick way to put up a barrier between yourself and Deaf people is to say
    you're too embarrassed to try to learn any sign except in private. Do not be
    afraid to try to use whatever sign language you know. Deaf people who sign
    will not be offended but rather very happy and excited to meet someone who is
    smart, outgoing, and culturally sensitive enough to know even just a couple
    signs. Since the majority of the population does not know sign language, they
    are happy to see someone they can communicate with, even if it's just saying
    "thank you".

    Remember that not all deaf people use sign language. Some rely solely on
    reading lips. In such cases, remember that the deaf person must be able to
    see your mouth in order to understand what you are saying. They cannot
    understand what you are saying when you cover your mouth or if one of you has
    your back turned.

    If you are having trouble communicating with a deaf person, remember you can usually resort to writing. Grab a pen and paper, a chalkboard, a computer, etc. Keep in mind that some deaf people do not have very good English because they have never
    clearly heard English and perhaps because their native language is sign language. One way to make communication easier as well as to start learning sign language is to learn how to finger spell the alphabet. Then you can at least spell out key words without
    having to find something to write on.

    The medical definition of deafness is a physical condition in which a person
    has profound or severe hearing loss; the cultural view of being deaf is a
    person with varying degrees of hearing loss who interacts with the Deaf
    community. Often, when referring to being culturally Deaf, the word is
    capitalized, and when referring to people with hearing loss in general, it is
    not capitalized (as not all people with hearing loss interact with the Deaf
    community). Very few deaf people have been absolutely deaf without any
    perception of sound their whole lives. Many people who are "Deaf" by culture are medically "hard of hearing," meaning they have a certain degree of hearing ability.

    It is generally not offensive to ask someone who is considered deaf if they are deaf or hard of hearing. However, some Deaf people understandably refrain from disclosing that they can hear some sound for fear their hearing counterparts will assume they can hear more than they actually do. A good
    rule of thumb is to assume the person cannot hear you unless the deaf person
    tells you they can.

    Also, keep in mind that not all deaf people are mute. Some people become deaf
    after speaking their whole lives. Just because a person can speak does not
    mean they are not deaf.

    Keep in mind that some deaf people may have a tendency to feel left out of
    conversations between hearing people. When talking in groups with deaf people
    present, continue to sign while talking even when you are not addressing the
    deaf person, or make sure continuous interpretation is provided. (Keep in
    mind also that not everyone who says they know sign language is a good
    interpreter.) Although this does not necessarily allow them to fully
    participate at the same pace of the conversation, the effort can mean a lot.

    In turn, deaf people often at formal gatherings have a person "voice
    interpret" what they are signing for the benefit of people who do not
    sign, with the exception of some Deaf clubs who prefer no talking. This is a
    reciprocal courtesy with signing for the deaf when hearing people speak.
    However, although deaf people are generally considerate in making sure there
    is interpretation provided for those who do not sign, if no one voice
    interprets, you do not want to complain how that is unfair that you are left
    out of the conversation. Having lived with the same challenge in the hearing
    world, most deaf people would be unsympathetic to such complaints. However,
    usually if you simply ask for voice interpretation, they will be more than
    glad to have someone provide it. Just keep in mind that sometimes there is no
    one around who can voice interpret.

    As mentioned before how many deaf people don't consider themselves to be
    disabled, one thing to avoid is expressing feeling sorry for deaf people. Of
    course, people don't mean to offend, and many deaf people will be gracious
    enough to excuse such patronizing. However, just as you would not appreciate
    someone complimenting you on being such an honest person despite your
    background or ethnicity, deaf people in general do not care to be told how
    great it is that they are outgoing, good church goers, smart, etc. despite
    their being deaf, nor do they like people telling them how sorry they are
    that they can't hear. Don't let worrying about offending deaf people preoccupy
    you though; just remember deaf people are pretty much like other people, and
    they just want to be treated the same as other people as much as possible.
  14. Article 2

    When I was all of two
    years old, my family received its first ASL (American Sign Language) lesson.
    They discovered that maybe, just maybe, this might be a useful language.

    It was 1968 and I'd just
    had my tonsils removed. I woke up in a hospital room surrounded by hearing
    relatives and a nurse. Naturally, my throat hurt.

    "Mmmph," I
    muttered. No response.

    "MMMPHH," I

    "Sh, sh, don't try
    to talk," said the nurse. "Your throat is sore."

    "MMMPHH," I
    said once again, only this time I started gesturing. Still no response. All of
    my relatives looked at each other and shrugged.

    MMMPH!" By then everyone was scrambling for the source of my angst. One by
    one my family dug up a teddy bear, a comic book, a favorite toy, and other
    stuff I had no interest in.

    Finally, my Deaf mother
    walked in the room.

    wrong?" she signed.

    I quickly made a
    "W" handshape and gently tapped it on my chin.

    "He wants
    water," my mom explained to my exasperated family. They reluctantly nodded
    and told the nurse. She said I wasn't allowed to drink yet but I could suck on
    an ice cube. Good enough for me.

    Ten minutes later, the
    same scene repeated itself only this time I made a "T" handshape and
    wiggled it. Again, all of the hearing people in the room struggled to figure
    out what was going on. It was like a game of charades gone bad.

    Once more, mom to the

    "He needs to go to the
    bathroom," she sighed.

    Most of my family didn't
    know what to think. They'd been told all along by medical and educational
    professionals that ASL was to be avoided at all costs.

    Apparently, there was
    this popular misconception that use of ASL would hinder my speech and also
    distort my ability to process English (for a rebuttal of this myth, check out
    my article ASL: Not Guilty).

    But suddenly, here was
    my family witnessing firsthand that signing is indeed a very effective means of
    communication. Even so, it took several more years before they finally felt
    comfortable with it.

    ASL is Back

    I'd like to say it was
    my "water" and "bathroom" episode in the hospital that
    brought ASL back to the forefront. Truth be told, there were many people
    fighting behind the scenes to bring this beautiful language back to the
    classroom in Deaf schools all over the United States.

    The biggest breakthrough
    came in the 1960's from William Stokoe, who shocked the world with research
    that proved ASL matched all the criteria necessary to be considered a natural
    language. Although his research and publications were initially met with scorn
    and ridicule, Stokoe's work withstood the test of time and laid the groundwork
    for Deaf Studies classes that are the norm today. Most significantly, it opened
    the door for sign language to be accepted as an appropriate language of instruction
    in the classroom. By the mid-70's, most schools for the Deaf had once again
    recognized sign language as such.

    Another breakthrough was
    the famous 1988 Deaf President Now protest at Gallaudet University. Deaf
    students shut down the campus for a week in opposition of a newly elected
    president, Elizabeth Zinser, who happened to be hearing. The deaf student
    body--and the deaf community at large--felt it was time for a deaf person to
    lead a deaf university. The DPN movement drew worldwide media coverage and
    succeeded in winning the support of politicians, civil rights leaders, and the
    general public. DPN culminated in the appointment of Dr. I. King Jordan as the
    first deaf president of Gallaudet University. The ripple effect from this turn
    of events led to greater awareness of ASL and Deaf culture.

    Since then, ASL has
    exploded in popularity. It is currently the third most-used language in
    America. It is now taught for academic credit in hearing high schools and
    colleges/universities throughout the United States.

    An Easy "A"?

    A caveat: now that many
    students can take ASL for foreign language credit, it needs to be said that
    this is definitely NOT an "easy 'A'." There are numerous students
    who, intimidated by the traditional foreign language offerings such as Spanish
    or French, wind up taking ASL because they think it will be much easier.
    Considering how there's no real written version of ASL (actually, one has been
    devised, but it's not widely used), how complicated can it get? After all, it's
    just waving your hands around in the air, right?

    Wrong. I can vouch for
    this myself. When my wife took an Introduction to Linguistics course at
    Gallaudet University, I took a peek into her textbook and found myself
    absolutely overwhelmed. There was extensive coverage of ASL phonology,
    morphology, syntax, use of classifiers, and other jargon I couldn't understand.

    Today, my wife is an ASL
    instructor. She reports that the students who sign up for her classes out of a
    sincere desire to learn tend to do well. Those who sign up because they think
    it's an easy way out of the foreign language requirement often find themselves
    in the midst of a rude awakening. They soon realize that ASL is more than just
    "gesturing" or a "mimed version of word-for-word English."
    In fact, it has little in common with English. If you interpret an ASL phrase
    word-for-word, it will not come out in perfect English, the same way as if you
    literally translated phrases from Spanish, French, or any other foreign
    language. In a nutshell: ASL is a language in its own right, as William Stokoe
    worked so hard to prove several decades ago. When you study it, expect to learn
    as much as you would as if you were taking any other foreign language course.

    That said, anyone who
    really wants to learn ASL can definitely do so if they put in the effort. It
    takes only weeks or months to become skilled enough to maintain a basic
    conversation, so it's not that long before you can use what you learn. At the
    same time, to truly master ASL, be patient; it can take anywhere between 5 and
    10 years to become fluent. And the best way to do so, quite simply, is to
    become actively involved in Deaf culture.
    ASL: A Paradigm Shift”

    Key Points

    • Many people think being involved in the Deaf
    • culture is easy and that learning ASL is easy.
    • ASL wasn’t considered a natural language until
    • 1960
    • Deaf President Now, DPN, changed history
    • Teaching hearing kids ASL isn’t going to hinder
    • their learning
    • Mid 1970’s most educators recognized ASL as a
    • mode for instruction
    • It’s important to have a ‘back-up’ language to
    • communicate
    • Many families are told to avoid using ASL.
    • It may take 5-10 years to become fluent in the
    • language
    • In the past, many medical professionals were
    • ignorant to the deaf culture and the language, slowly improving today
    • ASL is the 3rd most used language
  15. Grammar Note pg 2

    Questions asking for information (wh- questions) are signed with the eyebrows in what position? What is the position of the head?
    • eyebrows down and squeezed together
    • head tilted forward
  16. Culture Note pg 2

    What is customary in first introductions, even casual ones?
    To give first and last name.
  17. Grammar Note pg 3

    Questions asking for a "yes" or "no" answer are signed with the eyebrows in what position? What is the position of the head?

    What is special about the subject pronoun in these instances?
    • eyebrows up
    • head tilted forward

    • * The subject pronoun is sometimes repeated at the end of the sentence. 
    • Example: I STUDENT I
  18. Grammar Note pg 4

    Simple affirmative sentences are accompanied by what?
    Head nodding
  19. Grammar Note pg 4

    Simple negative sentences are accompanied by what?
    Head shaking
  20. Culture Note pg 5

    The sign DEAF is used for what two purposes?
    1. To refer to the social and cultural identification of the person.

    2.May also refer to hearing ability.
  21. Grammar Note pg 6

    What are the 3 ways the sentence "I'm a student" can be signed (specifically in reference to the subject pronoun).
    • 1. I STUDENT I
    • 2. I STUDENT
    • 3. STUDENT I
  22. Culture Note pg 7

    What is the difference in asking "WHERE LIVE YOU" and "WHERE FROM YOU"?
    WHERE LIVE YOU- refers to where you are currently living.

    WHERE FROM YOU- refers to from where you are originally - Among Deaf people it is used to ask which school for the Deaf they attended
  23. Grammar Note pg 14

    Questions which ask for a yes or no answer can be answered by repeating what?
    The verb from the question.


          YES, I TAKE-UP.
  24. Grammar Note pg 15

    1. When using the sign THERE how do you indicate a place that is not in sight?

    2. When using the sign THERE how do you indicate something with a specific nearby object?
    1. Use the sign THERE in the approximate direction of the place.

    2. Use the sign THERE looking directly at the object, use a short directional movement pointing to the object.
  25. Grammar Note pg 17

    What two ways can you set up a sentence asking for information (wh questions)?
    • 1. Wh in front of subject
    • 2. Wh after subject

    • Ex: 1. WHERE PAPER
    •       2. PAPER WHERE
  26. Grammar Note pg 24 

    What is special about Directional Verbs?
    They change the direction of their movement to show a change from one location to another.

    Ex: GO/COME

    • GO- starts near the body and points outward
    • COME- starts away from the body and points inward

    The sign is the same otherwise

    • MOVE

    Example shown in class- HELP can show I help you by starting the sign close to your body and moving it toward the person you are referencing.


    • you help me
    • Starting the sign away from the body (where the other person is) and bringing it in toward yourself.
  27. Cultural Note pg 29

    If there is no way to avoid walking between two signers having a conversation what should you sign?
  28. Grammar Note pg 36

    1. When using the sign LOOK^LIKE do you do with your head and eyebrows?

    2. What does ^ indicate in the gloss of this sign?
    1. eyebrows down, squeezed together, head tilted forward

    2. That it is a contraction of the signs APPEARANCE and SAME
  29. Grammar Note pg 39

    Where to colors appear in a sentence?
    Either before or after the noun.

    • Ex:
  30. Grammar Note pg 40

    How can you describe specific details using descriptive signs?
    You can alter them

    • Ex: STRIPES
    • Can be moved to show either vertical or horizontal based on which direction you sign it.

    Same with the length of a skirt.
  31. Grammar Note pg 42

    The subject or object of a sentence can be signed first as the topic of the sentence- how do you indicate a topic of a sentence when signing?
    Raised eyebrows


    When signing MAN you raise eyebrows.
Card Set:
ASL 1 Midterm
2013-10-10 16:53:41
ASL Midterm

ASL 1 Midterm
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