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Briefly describe the components of the axial skeleton.
- 80 of 126 bones
- Vertebral column
Describe the overall structure of the skull, including how many and what types of bones are present.
- 22 bones
- Flat bones
- Cranial bones (8)
- Facial bones (14)
- United by sutures (except mandible)—immovable joints
What is cleft palate? What consequence does cleft palate have for an infant?
- Failure of palatine processes to unite during embryonic development
- Consequence—oral and nasal passages are opened to one another so hard to swallow food
Where are fontanelles found in an infant? What is their function? How do they change over time?
- Found in skull of infant
- Function: allow head compression during birth; accommodate brain growth
- Large anterior fontanelle is palpable (able to be touched) for 1.5-2 years after birth, posterior fontanelle closes after ~1 year of birth
Describe the overall structure of the vertebral column, including the number of each type of vertebra and where each type is found.
- 26 bones in adult vertebral column
- Cervical—neck (7)
- Thoracic—upper and mid back (12)
- Lumbar— lower back (5)
- Sacrum—5 fused vertebrae
- Coccyx—4 fused vertebrae
Describe the normal curvature of the spine.
- "S" shapedCervical and lumbar curvatures (concave)
- Thoracic and sacral curvatures (convex)
What are scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis?
- Scoliosis—abnormal lateral curvature in thoracic region
- Kyphosis—"hunchback"; dorsally exaggerated thoracic curvature; common in elderly with osteoporosis
- Lordosis—accentuated lumbar curvature; common in pregnant women
Name and describe the structure of the ligaments of the vertebral column.
- Anterior longitudinal ligament—attached to body of vertebrae and discs; prevents hyperextension of spine
- Posterior longitudinal ligament— attached to discs; prevents hyperflexion of spine
- Ligamentum flavum—contains elastic connective tissue; connects adjacent vertebrae
Describe the structure of intervertebral discs.
- Nucleus pulposus: inner, gelatinous portion
- Anulus fibrosus: strong fibrocartilage collar
What is a herneated disc?
Rupture of anulus fibrosus and protrusion of the nucleus pulposus that can press on spinal cord or spinal nerves causing pain and numbness
Describe the structure of the thoracic cage, including the types of ribs and the numbers of each type, and how they are anchored to the sternum.
- Thoracic vertebrae
- Ribs (12 pairs; true—#1-7; false—#8-12; floating—#11-12)
- Costal cartilages (hyaline; secures ribs to sternum)
Describe the structure of the sternum.
- Flat bones
- Fusion of 3 bones:
- 1. manubrium
- 2. body
- 3. xiphoid process
Briefly describe the components of the appendicular skeleton.
- 126 of 206 bones
- Bones of limbs and girdles
You should know the major bones of the pectoral girdle.
You should know the major bones of the upper limb.
You should know the major bones of the pelvic girdle.
- Coxal (ilium, ischium, pubis)
You should know the major bones of the lower limb.