Critical Thinking Midterm

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Melina.gonzales
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239979
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Critical Thinking Midterm
Updated:
2013-10-10 22:04:15
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Philosophy Critical Thinking Midterm Review
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Dr. Barber, Philosophy
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  1. What are the two essential components of any argument?
    • premises
    • conclusions
  2. What is the essential characteristic of a statement?
    A) a statement is sincere
    B) a statement has truth value
    C) a statement is true
    D) a statement is forceful
    E) a statement is persuasive
    B) a statement has truth value

    A statement must be either true or false
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Know premise indicator words and conclusion indicator words
    okay!
  4. Argument in standard form
    • 1. This is the first premise.
    • 2. This is the second premise.
    • 3. This is the third premise.

    Therefore...

    4. This is the conclusion.
  5. Is a statement the same thing as a sentence?
    No. A statement is not the same thing as a sentence, and a sentence is not the same thing as a statement.
  6. What are the two ‘tests’ we can perform to evaluate an argument?
    • True premises test
    • Proper form test
  7. True or false: The True Premises and Proper Form tests are independent of one another
    True. The True Premises and Proper Form tests are independent of one another
  8. True or False: An argument is a good argument if it passes either the True Premises test OR the Proper Form test.
    False: It is a good argument ONLY if it passes both tests.
  9. The Proper Form test focuses on:
    a) structure
    b) content
    a) structure

    The Proper Form test focuses on STRUCTURE.
  10. The True Premises test focuses on:
    a) structure
    b) content
    b) content

    The True Premises test focuses on CONTENT
  11. What is wrong with this argument?
    The earth is the largest planet in the solar system, therefore it is the only one capable of sustaining life.

    A) Fails the proper form test only.
    B) Nothing– It passes both tests.
    C) Fails the true premises test only.
    D) Fails both tests.
    D) fails both tests
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. What is wrong with this argument?
    The earth is the third planet from the sun, so it likely has the most powerful gravitational pull.

    a) Fails the proper form test only.
    b) Fails the true premises test only.
    c) Fails both tests.
    d) Nothing– It passes both tests.
    a) Fails the proper form test only.
  13. What is wrong with this argument?
    The earth is the largest planet in the solar system, so it should have the strongest gravitational pull.

    a) Fails the proper form test only.
    b) Fails the true premises test only.
    c) Fails both tests.
    d) Nothing– It passes both tests.
    b) Fails the true premises test only.
  14. What are the three kinds of premises that we can generally assume to pass the True Premises test?
    • Empirical statements
    • Definitional statements
    • Statements by experts
  15. True or False: If a premise can not be assumed to be true, it is false.
    False: Just because an argument cannot be assumed to be true does not mean that it is false.
  16. What are the two features of a conclusion that can help us assess the strength of the argument?
    • Strength
    • Scope
  17. If the conclusion is made stronger, then the argument is made __________?
    weaker
  18. If the conclusion is made more narrow, then the argument is made _________?
    stronger
  19. What two types of meanings to class terms have?
    • Extensional Meanings
    • Intensional Meanings
  20. The extension of a class term is...?
    the collection of things in its class
  21. The intension of a class term is...?
    the collection of features that all of the members of the class have in common
  22. What type of definition is this?
    In the field of computers, 'memory' refers to the physical devices used to store programs or data.
    a) technical
    b) persuasive
    c) common usage
    a) technical
  23. What is the species of this definition?
    Biology is a branch of science that focuses on living things.
    a) branch
    b) branch of science
    c) focused on living things
    c) focused on living things
  24. What is the genus of this definition?
    Water polo is an aquatic sport.
    a) water polo
    b) aquatic sport
    c) sport
    c) sport
  25. What is personification?
    Making things that are not people have human characteristics
  26. What are rhetorical questions?
    Questions that do not seek an actual answer, the answer is obvious, or are only asked to prove a point
  27. What is alliteration?
    When sounds or letters are repeated multiple times
  28. What is anaphora?
    When words or phrases are repeated multiple times
  29. Name the logical fallacy.
    "A feather is light. Anything light cannot be dark. Therefore, a feather cannot be dark"
    Equivocation
  30. Name the logical fallacy.
    "I just heard about a new diet book. It just came out 2 weeks ago, so it is probably a great plan"
    Appeal to Novelty
  31. Name the logical fallacy.
    "Any plan put forth by a bleeding heart liberal like Senator Smith is bound to fail"
    Ad hominem
  32. Name the logical fallacy.
    "The gun rights crowd is still obsessed with helping more Americans kill each other"
    Easy Target
  33. Name the logical fallacy.
    "A bank is a place by the river. People put money in banks. Therefore, there should be a lot of money down by the river"
    Equivocation
  34. Name the logical fallacy.
    "This artist is #1 on the Billboard Pop charts. Clearly, she is the most talented singer in America"
    Appeal to Popularity
  35. Name the logical fallacy.
    "If you cannot travel back in time, then how can you know for sure that aliens did not build the pyramids?"
    Appeal to Ignorance
  36. Name the logical fallacy.
    "We have been using this system to organize our files for 10 years now. Clearly, it is a good way of doing things"
    Appeal to Tradition
  37. Name the logical fallacy.
    "That cop should not have given me a speeding ticket. I was having a bad day and I was only driving so fast because I was late to work"
    Appeal to Emotions
  38. Name the logical fallacy.
    "The death penalty is immoral. Why? Because it is wrong to kill"
    Begging the Question

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