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Reconstruction-Presidential and Radical and Reconstruction Amendments
250 Black Ministers held public office during Reconstruction. President Andrew Johnson ordered nearly all land in Federal hands to return to its former owners. Majority of Freedman remained poor and without property during reconstruction. Andrew Johnson had to restore the Union. Johnson offered a pardon to nearly all white southerners who took an oath of allegiance. Johnson also appointed provisional governors and ordered them to call state conventions, elected by whites alone, that would establish loyal governments in the South. The conduct of the southern governments elected under Johnson's program turned most of the Republican North against the president. 14th Amendment- Principle of citizenship for all persons born in the U.S. Reconstruction Act- Temporarily divided the South into 5 military districts and called for the creation of the new state governments, with black men given the right to vote. 15th Amendment- Prohibited the federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of race. 2,000 African-Americanns held public office during Reconstruction marked a fundamental shift of power in the South and a radical departure in American government. Reconstruction governments established the South's first state-supported public schools. Their laws made it illegal for railroads, hotels, and other institutions to discriminate on the basis of race. Most African Americans remained in poverty.
Laws passed by the new southern governments that attempted to regulate the lives of the former slaves. They denied them to the right to testify against whites, to serve on juries or in state militias, or to vote. They declared that those who failed to sign yearly labor contracts could be arrested and hired out to white landowners.
Many Reconstruction officials were northerns and made their homes in the South after the war. People dubbed them carpetbaggers because they had packed up all their belongings and left their homes in order to reap the spoils of office in the South.
Many were wartime unionists who now cooperated with the Republicans in order to prevent " rebels from returning to power. Former Confederates considered them traitors to their race and region.
Experiment on government social policy. Bureau agents were supposed to establish schools, provide aid to the poor, settle disputes between whites and blacks, and secure for former slaves and white Unionists equal treatments before the court. It lasted from 1865 to 1870. The Bureau agents ran hospitals established during the war, and provided medical care to both black and white southerners.
The system allowed each black family to rent a part of a plantation. It guaranteed the planters a stable resident labor force. Sharecropper's economic opportunities were limited by a world market in which the price of a farm products suffered a prolonged decline
Second Industrial Revolution
The country enjoyed abundant natural resources, a growing supply of labor, and expanding market for manufactured goods, and the availability of capital for investment. The federal government enacted high tariffs that protected American Industry from foreign competition. It also used the army to remove Indians from western lands desired by farmers and mining companies. BY 1913, the U.S. produced 1/3 of the worlds industrial output- more then the total of Great Britain, France and Germany combined. People were drawn to factories by the promise of employment. The number of miles of railroad track in the U.S. tripled between 1860 and 1880 and tripled again in 1920. In 1883, the major railroad companies divided the nation into the four time zones still used today. The Atlantic Cable of 1866 made it possible to send electronic telegraph messages instantaneously b/t the U.S. and Europe. The telephone, typewriter and handheld camera also came into use. The country's economic growth distributed its benefits very unevenly. By 1990, the richest 1% of Americans received the same total income as the bottom half of the population and owned more property than the remaining 99 %.
A company or group of people organized to act as a single entity
Legal devices whereby the affairs of several rival companies were managed by a single director.
Sherman Antitrust act of 1890
First law to restrict monopolistic trusts and business combinations.
Lassiez- Faire Economics
Opposition to government action to regulate economic or personal behavior
The idea of natural superiority of some groups reemerged in the vocabulary of modern science to explain the success and failure of individuals and social class. The giant industrial corporation, Social Darwinists believed, had emerged because it was better adapted to its environment than earlier forms of enterprise. Sumner believed freedom required frank acceptance of inequalities.
They insisted that freedom and spiritual social development required and equalization of wealth and power and that unbridled competition mocked Christian ideal of brotherhood. The Social Gospel movement originated as an effort to reform protestant churches by expanding their appeal in poor urban neighborhoods and making them more attentive to the era's social ills. Argued that religious communities had a role in solving the problems of the poor and supported labor movement.
Homestead Act of 1862
Hundreds of thousands of families acquired farms under the Homestead Act. Many settlers poured into the West including blacks and immigrants.
Exodusters was a name given to African Americans who migrated from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas in the late nineteenth century, as part of the Exoduster Movement or Exodus of 1879. It was the first general migration of blacks following the Civil War.
Chinese Exclusion act of 1882
Beginning in 2882, Congress temporarily excluded immigrants from China entering the country altogether. Congress renewed the restriction 10 years later and made it permanent in 1902. Many Chinese living on the West coast suffered intense discrimination and periodic violence.
Dawes act of 1887
The Act broke up the land of nearly all tribes into small parcels to be distributed to Indian families with the remainder auctioned to white purchasers. Indians lost 86 million of the 138 million acres of land in their possession in 1887.
Carlisle Indian Industrial School
Carlisle Indian Industrial School (1879–1918) was an Indian boarding school in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1879 by Captain Richard Henry Pratt, the school was the first off-reservation boarding school, and it became a model for Indian boarding schools in other locations. It was one of a series of 19th-century efforts by the United States government toassimilate over 1000 Native American children from 39 tribes into the majority culture. The goal of total assimilation can be summed up in the school's slogan: "To civilize the Indian, get him into civilization. To keep him civilized, let him stay."
The sharecropping system locked millions of tenent farmers in poverty. Farmers increasingly believed that their problems derived from the high freight rates charged by railroad companies. The Farmer's Alliance, the largest citizens movement of the 19th century, farmers sought to remedy their condition. The Alliance proposed that the federal government establish warehouses where farmers could store their crops until they were sold. The government would then issue loans to farmers at low interest rates, thereby ending their dependence on bankers and merchants.
Populism- Populist Party
The party which formed in the early 1890's form the Alliance, attempted to speak for all " producing classes ", not just farmers. They promoted agricultural education and believed farmers should adopt modern scientific methods of cultivation. its major base lay in the cotton and wheat belts of the South and West.
The coalition of merchants, planters. and business entrepreneurs who dominated the South's politics after 1877 called them selves the Redeemers, since they claimed to have redeemed the region from the alleged horrors of misgovernment and the " black rule ". They moved to undo as much as possible of Reconstruction. New laws authorized the arrest of virtually any person without employment and greatly increased the penalties for petty crimes.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws made by white southerners that tried to prevent blacks from achieving full equality under the law. They demoralized blacks and stunted their social an economic growth
Plessy V. Ferguson
The Court gave its approval to state laws requiring separate facilities for blacks and whites. In an 8-1 decision, the Court upheld the Louisiana law, arguing that segregated facilities did not discriminate so long as they were " separate but equal ". States reacted to the Plessy V. Ferguson decision by passing laws mandating racial segregation in every aspect of southern life, from schools to hospitals, waiting rooms, toilets, and cemeteries.
Those blacks who sought to challenge the system faced not only over-whelming political and legal power but also the threat of violence. In every year b/t 1883 and 1905, more than fifty persons, the majority of them black were lynched in the South. Mobs engaged in activities that shocked the civilized world. Many were accused of raping white women.
Ida B. Wells
Ida B.Wells was an African-American journalist, newspaper editor, suffragist,sociologist and, with her husband, newspaper owner Ferdinand L. Barnett, an early leader in the civil rights movement. She documented lynching in the United States, showing how it was often a way to control or punish blacks who competed with whites. She was active in the women's rights and the women's suffrage movement, establishing several notable women's organizations.
Anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic feeling especially prominent in the 1830's throughout the 1850's
Imperialism- Spanish American War
President McKinley spoke of receiving a divine revelation that Americans had a duty to " uplift and civilize " the Filipino people and to train them for self-government. In the treaty with Spain that ended the war, the U.S. acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific island of Guam. Secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door policy, demanding that European powers that had recently divided China into commercial spheres of influence grant equal access to American exports. Once Mckinley decided to retain possession of the island, the Filipino movement turned against the U.S. Once in control of the Philippines, the U.S. expanded railroads and harbors, brought in American schoolteachers and public health officials. The U.S. said it had an obligation to its " little brown brothers ". White man's burden of imperialism. The Supreme Court held that the constitution did not fully apply to the territories recently acquired by the U.S.
Progressives- The Progressive Era
- Economic expansion produced
- millions of new jobs. Cities
- expanded rapidly. Immigrants were the majority of
- the population in the largest cities in the country. Overcrowding in tenements led to public health concerns. Garbage and raw sewage in the streets,
- contaminated water. Landlords
- often bribed officials to avoid penalties or fines for housing problems. Corporations bribed officials to avoid
- regulation of their processes or penalties for contaminated water or food.
- Progressives- Members of the educated middle class who believed experts and specialists
- could solve social problems and that regulation was necessary. Middle class grew from 6 to 20% or
- workforce between 1870 and 1910.
- Progressives pursued, Reform in government/democracy. Efficiency in business and government.
- Anti trust regulations. Social
- justice for the poor and working classes
- The use of journalistic skills to expose the
- underside of American life. Upton
- Sinclair revealed dangerous and unsanitary conditions in Chicago’s meat packing
- industry in The Jungle. Led to
- passage of Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Ida Tarbell expose of Standard Oil’s
- business practices History of the Standard Oil Company. Caused reformers to demand government
- •Sanger was a nurse
- who worked with women in the Lower East Side of New York City
- •Saw the negative
- effects of poverty and large families on immigrant women
- •Wrote articles about
- contraception in socialist newspaper, Call, and her own magazine The Woman Rebel
- –Wrote pamphlet
- “Family Limitation”
- •Opened birth control
- clinic with her sister Ethel Byrne and taught women how to use birth control
- •Arrested for her
- •In 1921, started
- American Birth Control League (Planned Parenthood)
Eugene V. Debs
Railroad Union leader, who had been jailed during the Pullman Strike if 1894. For 2 decades, Debs crisscrossed the country preaching that control of the economy by a democratic government held out the hope of uniting " political and economic freedom" Debs would receive more then 900,000 votes for president.
- 1.7 million children under 16 worked for wages
- by 1900. 10% of girls 10-15 years
- old. 20% of boys 10-15 years
- old. Worked in textile factories,
- canneries, and in the fields.
- Progressives with National Child Labor Committee successfully lobbied
- for reduced workday and limits on age of child laborer. Companies ignored legislation. Families needed money. Legislation did not apply to
- agriculture labor
In 1889 she founded the Hull House in Chicago, a " settlement house " devoted to improving the lives of the immigrant poor. They built kinder gardens and playgrounds for children, established employment bureaus and health clinics. Hull house instigated an array of reforms in Chicago, soon adopted elsewhere including stronger building and sanitation codes, shorter working hours and safer labor conditions, and the right to organize
Roosevelt insisted that only the "controlling and directing power of the government " could restore " the liberty of the oppressed. " He called for heavy taxes on persona; and corporate fortunes and federal regulation of industries, including railroads, mining and coal.
Wilson envisioned the federal government strengthening antitrust laws, protecting the right of workers to unionize, and actively encouraging small businesses- creating the conditions for the renewal of economic competition without increasing government regulation of the economy.
Big Stick Diplomacy
Policy named by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt to describe the assertion of U.S. dominance as a moral imperative. It was taken from an African proverb, "Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far." Roosevelt first used it when he asked Congress for money to increase U.S. naval preparedness to support his diplomatic objectives. The press used the phrase to describe Roosevelt's Latin America policy and his domestic policy of regulating monopolies.
Woodrow Wilson's 14 points
Party to ensure the country that the war was being fought for a moral cause, Wilson issued the 14 points in January 1918. They were the clearest statement of American war aims of his vision of a new international order. They included, self-determination for all nations, freedom of the seas, free trade, open diplomacy, the readjustment of colonial claims with colonized people given equal eight in deciding their futures, and the creation of a general association of nations to preserve the peace. Led to the establish of the League of Nations.
Alice Paul- Suffrage and the 19th Amendment
Alice Paul was an American suffragist and women's rights activist. As the main leader and strategist of the campaign, and along with Lucy Burns and others, she led a successful campaign forwomen's suffrage that resulted in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. 19th Amendment- Guaranteed women the right to vote.
Prohibition and Temperance and the 18th Amendment
Women reformers hoped Prohibition would protect wives and children from husbands who engaged in domestic violence when drunk. It achieved success during the war. Employers hoped it would create a more disciplined labor force. In December 1917, Congress passed the 18th Amendment prohibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor.
The combination of increased war time production and a drastic falloff in immigration from Europe once war broke out opened thousands of industrial jobs to black laborers for the first time, inspiring a large scale migration from South to North. Motives for the migration included higher wages in northern factories than were available in the South, opportunities for educating their children, escape from the threat of lynching, and the prospect of exercising the right to vote.
W. E. B Du Bois
The unifying theme of Du Bois's career was his effort to reconcile the contradiction b/t what he called " American freedom for whites and the continuing subjection of Negroes. He believed that educated African Americans like himself must use their education to challenge inequality. He understood the necessity of political action . Organized the Niagara movement. Helped organize the NAACP.
Committee of public information
The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917, to August 21, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. It primarily used the propaganda techniques of progressive Edward Bernays, author of the book "Propaganda", to accomplish these goals.
League of Nations
Organization of nations to mediate disputes and avoid war established after WW1 as part of the Treaty of Versailles. The U.S. never joined
The Red Summer refers to the race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities in the United States during the summer and early autumn of 1919. In most instances, whites attacked African Americans. In some cases many blacks fought back, notably in Chicago, where, along with Washington, D.C. and Elaine, Arkansas, the greatest number of fatalities occurred. The riots followed postwar social tensions related to the demobilization of veterans ofWorld War I, both black and white, and competition for jobs among ethnic whites and blacks.
The New Women of the 1920's
- Women had short hair, short skirts, smoked in public and had unapologetic use of birth-control. Sexual freedom now meant individual autonomy or personal rebellion. Associated with the “ flapper “ Interested in private life not public
- change. Invested in self-
- fulfillment not service
Women and Labor
- Women were able to join the Knights of Labor. Many women died in the Triangle Shirt Factory fire.
- Women’s Era took place during Progressive Era
- because of new opportunities for women.
- Women’s participation in paid labor grew for factory workers, secretaries,
- shop girls, and telephone operators.
- Middle class women became physicians, lawyers, engineers, scientists,
- social workers, nurses, and teachers because of education. Women promoted the place of experts in
- reform to improve the lives of the poor and working class.
- Some progressives promoted political activism for the vote
- as necessary to give women power to change society, American Women Suffrage Association leading organization. Women’s Christian Temperance.
- Most female workers did domestic labor. Women in industrial labor were
- unskilled or semiskilled. Average
- age was 25 years old. Average
- salary was 6 to 8 dollars a week.
- Male industrial workers earned an average of $579 a year but women
- earned $314 a year. Some
- progressives reformers pushed for 8-hour work day and minimum wager for women
- workers. Others wanted protective
- legislation to cover all workers not just women.
- Union. Frances Willard advocated
- for women to receive the vote to help them promote temperance…
- Alice Paul and Lucy Burns organized the National
- Women’s Party(1913) and used parades, public demonstrations, and lobbying to
- gain support for suffrage. Split
- with Carrie Chapman Catt and the National Woman Suffrage Association over goals
- and tactics. Picketed the White
- House in 1917. Arrested for
- obstructing traffic. Attempted a
- hunger strike. Force-fed and
- brutally beaten by guards.
- Embarrassed the government and actions helped gain support for women’s
- suggested that genes dictated a person’s intellectual abilities: State governments used these theories
- to justify the forced sterilization of citizens sterilization boards identified
- as unfit. Psychologists created
- tests to measure intelligence.
- Lewis Terman and the Intelligence Quotient. Government used tests to screen men entering the military
- during WW1
Black Tuesday/ Reason for Depression
- Result of:
- Lack of diversification in American economy. Uneven distribution of nation’s wealth. Credit structure in U.S. U.S. trade relations with Europe. International debt structure. Stock
- market crash did not cause the great Depression. Black Tuesday was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the U.S.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation and Emergency Relief act of 1932
- Finance Corporation in 1932 to provide loans to struggling businesses. Passes the Emergency Relief Act of 1932
- to provide loans for state relief, state construction projects, and federal
- public projects
Consumer Culture/ Consumer Credit
- Consumer Culture= Self Improvement through
- participation in mass consumption of popular ideas and items. Consumer Credit= Buying in installments
- or going into debt to purchase consumer goods.
- Theodore Roosevelt
- Promoted Environment
- Conservation by expanding the National Parks System and the National Forest