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- Scientific study of the human mind
- Begins at the time of death or anticipation of death and ends with the acceptance of death
Study and treatment of mental disease
study of social groups and thier functions
Sociology of Funeral Service:
- Study of group functions while dealing with death and dying
- the basics of looking at the effects of death on the family of the deceased and family's response to that death
- begins with the arrangement conference and ends with final disposition (final disposal of body)
To be scientific in observing the influences of social structures, interrelationships and interactions on human thinking, feeling and behavior while in the confines of funeral service
Psychology vs. Sociology
- In psychology, the study focuses on the individual behavior patterns while in sociology the focus is on group behavior patterns.
- The response of death is reflected in the family's attitudes, reactions and emotions
To be___________________, ________________________ funeral service practitioner, one must understand the cultural requirements of each family he or she encounters.
What does tangible mean?
- Something you can touch
- Examples of tangible request: flowers, religious items, casket, programs (something you can touch)
what are examples of intangible request?
- something you can't touch
- music, location, poems etc.
- has individual wants
- has individual needs
- has own established opionion of what would be an appropriate fair well for there loved one
- meet there wants and needs
- be responsive (notice) there tangiable and intangiable request
- you must notice and be alert to details
families base their needs and wants on __________________ ____________________.
- cultural, prefrence
- ex. their way of life
Cultural Preference gives families:
Mores ____________________ generally tied to religious beliefs
- must be-haviors
- ex. #1 Catholic rosary
- ex. #2 Disallowing the use of instruments in a Church of Christ service
- informal practices or "should" ways
- Ex. #1 dressing up to attend church services
- Ex. #2 Attending the graveside ceremony after the funeral
- Social behaviors considered to be the norm that are usually based on traditions.
- Ex. #1 Cuacasian families burying their dead 3 days after the death
- Ex. #2 African American families bury their dead on Saturdays
- Ex. #3 Traditionally Hispanic families will watch the casket being lowered into the ground and even watch the soil being replaced in the grave before they leave.
Mores, Folways and Customs are those examples still relevant today?
Some but all culturals al lwatch the body lowered
a must behavior not necessarily a basic or important pattern of a people (related to death) but one which is enforced by those governing; a rule of action prescribed by an authority able to enforce its (realted to death) but one which is enforced by those governing; a will rule of action prescribed by an authority able to enforce it's will
specific methods of procedure
Culture is defined as a
system of abstract patterns of and for both living and dying which are learned either directly or indirectly
- this comes from parents and/or formal education
- These are general things learned in childhood as well as customs instilled in you by those closest to you.
this comes from social influences & social observation such as how to act in a group setting
culture can be divided into subcultures....
subcultures are a
divisions of culture, connected to a larger culture by common traits, while having unique traits of it's owns
acculturation is the process in which
members of one culture assimilate the traits of another; a basic blending of two or more cultures
What is important when looking at a subculture?
4 factors that influence subculture:
- 1. Location-geographic
- 2. religion-families in more recent years tend to have more than one religion affilation
- 3. ethnic-self explanatory
- 4. language-some families may have people speak more than one language and this may affect how a service is conducted
Subcultures have increased more in recent years because of
urbanization is defined as
the change from rural to urban areas
Cultural Universals include:
- 1. Government: the establishment of rules and regulations for orderly living
- 2. marriage: the establishment of family
- 3. funeral rites: the response to the death of another member of the culutre
the feeling that one's culture is superior to others
An all inclusive term to encompass all funerals and or/memorial service
funeral rites with the body present
funeral rites with the body not present
an event that allows those who have something in common with eachother to deal with one another in regards to that which they share.
5 types of Funeral Services:
- 1. Traditional Funeral Rite
- 2. Adaptive Funeral Rite (Nontraditional Funeral Rite)
- 3. Humanistic Funeral Rite
- 4. Immediate Disposition
- 5. Primitive Funeral Rite
Traditional Funeral Rite:
a well defined ritual or ceremony which is based on either religious beliefs or social customs
Adaptive Funeral Rite (Nontraditional Funeral Rite):
Altered to suit the needs of the family or trends of the time
Humanistic Funeral Rite:
Devoid of any religious connotation
Primitive Funeral Rite:
Preliterate Society/Tribal services
4 Sociological Responses to Death
- 1. The funeral is a social function
- 2. The funeral rite is a cultural universal
- 3. The funeral rite expresses the relationship between the type of family you will serve and how they operate
- 4. The funeral rite reflects both modern and contemporary tendencies
present or recent times
of the same time or occurring at the same time
forms of disposition
- Burial-interment or earth burial (without a recepticle or vault)
- Body donation to science
- burial at sea
- the process by which a person learns the social values of a society.
- (this process begins at birth. From childhood you learn what your family's expectations are of you through direct learning. This contributes to your cultural traits.
custom is a
social behaviro considered to be normal and are generally based on tradition of people involved. They outline the individual procedures a family will follow when making funeral arrangements.
Though the family determines which customs to follow when making arrangements, society does have an impact. Society indicates what behaviors they consider to be moral obligations of the family. These are called
Mores are the
basic and important patterns, ideas and acts of people. Society expects/requires us to be respectful and to care for the dead. Mores indicated what we are and allowed to do in regard to the dead.
actions that are considered forbidden by society when dealing with the dead
actions that are considered forbidden by govermental agencies when dealing with the dead
taboos and laws are considered
actions performed during a rite which may or may not have symbolic meaning to the participants or observers of the actions
rituals and ceremonies
ceremony is a
formal, religious or public occasion celebrating a particular event
ritual is the
prescribed order of performing rites; procedure regularly followed
the family unit is the
basic focus in funeral service. your main concern of all services offered as a funeral director is how the family is impacted by the death of one of its members. Meeting the family's needs should be your goal.
families where the male places the dominant role where all power is given to the next oldest male after the death of the first
Families where the female plays the dominant role and where all the power is given to the next oldest female after the death of the first
families where all members have a voice and where everyone in the unit plays a role in decision making; children are often a part and sometimes influence the final decision made by the family
family structures define
who controls the family and it's members
family systems tell
you who or what type of people make up the family
4 main types of family structures:
- 1. Extended (join) Family
- 2. Nuclear Family
- 3. Modified Extended Nuclear Family
- 4. Single Parent Family
Extended (joint) Family
- Father and a mother; unmarried children; married sons and their wives/children
- married daughters become a part of their husband's family system and are no longer considered a part of their parents' household
- may be seen in immigrant families and some of the first 2 generations of an American family
- typically patriarchal and women subservient to the dominant male
- generally farm based or agrarian and self sufficient
- strong religious affiliations show in public and at home
- conservative in their thinking, dress and act
- have little mobility and tied to their land
- father and mother and their unmarried children
- governing factor not clearly defined
- total family income-both parents work
- more liveral in dress, thought and action
- prone to mobility/take vactions
- typically smaller-death does have a great impact
nuclear families (blended families)
married with children from previous relationships and children together. this can cause a conflict with who holds the position of authority in the family
modified extended nuclear family
family created by two or more nuclear, famlies