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beginning of solfege
hildeguard von bingen
- wrote spiritui sancto and O Ecclesia
- oldest codex
- instructions for pilgrimage to compostela
- music (prayers to saint james)
- first written polyphony
a drone with words
one syllable - many notes
singing in 5ths or 4ths
- written by perotin (france)
- first 4 part organum
King. Mary. Cantigas de Santa Maria (472 songs).
- translated, "new art". Started by Machaut.
- the ars nova period started standardized notation.
everything before machaut