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What is damaged when consuming ecstasy?
- Short term-it’s a dehydrating effect, overheating, increased blood pressure and death.
- Long term-risk of permanently depressed mood, suppressed immune-system, impairs memory, slow thoughts, disrupts sleep
Hallucinogens are what types of drugs?
(LSD, MDMA…) distorts perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
Biological Basis for Addiction?
(dopamine reward system) dopamine influences on the reward center of the brain (hypothalamus)
Sequence of prenatal development?
- *zygote-the fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
- *embryo-the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
- *fetus-the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception at birth.
Teratogens 2 most command forms
- agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm(literally, “monster maker”)
- 1.drugs- Alcohol/Smoking leads to low birth weigh (under 5lbs/ average 7lbs)
- 2. Virus
FAS(Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)-
marked by a small, disproportioned head and lifelong brain abnormalities.
comes from spinal cord.
Gauze Pad Experiment
the baby will always roll over to its own others breast pad
- the orderly sequence of biological growth- decrees many of our commonalities.
- We crawl before we walk.
What are the 2 theories of Infantile Amnesia?
- 1. Lack of linguistic skills
- 2. Lack of cognitive development
concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences. By adulthood we build countless schemas, ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of love. How we think the world works in a particular concept.
Piagets’s Stages of Cognitive Development
- 1.Sensorimotor Stage-(birth-2) Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping) Object permanence, Stranger Anxiety.
- 2.Preoperational Stage-(2-6/7yrs) representing things with words and images; using intuitive thinking rather than logic reasoning. Pretend play, Egocentrism.
- 3.Concrete Operational Stage-(7-11) thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations. Conservation, Mathematical, transformations.
- 4.Formal Operational Stage-(12-adultood) Abstract reasoning. Abstract logic, Potential for mature moral reasoning
reactive attachment disorder(if not attached by 7yrs)
left alone are stable over time, level of reactivity to the environment.
Know the theory of the mind
peoples ideas about their own and others mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.
Know inpared theory of mind is
autism (mirror neurons)
Harlow (monkey testing) Attachment
body contact comfort leads to attachment
Critical period in brain development
familiarity) an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development.
To access attachment to young kids Mary Ainsworth did the strange situation
when the mother leaves the area and a stranger walks in how those the baby reacts.
Types of attachments
secure and insecure
Another form of attachment-
Relax Responsive parenting; when parents aren’t responding it causes children to stress and not attach.
Styles of adult romantic relationships
based of styles of attachment
- 1.Authoritarian-do as I say! Why because I say so- autonomy=self directive, problem solving, independent
- 2.Permisive-parents submit to their children’s desires. They make few demands use little punishment.
- 3.Authoritaitive-parents are both demanding and responsive
Primary sex characteristics
the body structure(ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breast and hips, male voce quality, and body hair.
When do we become adults
- Patrecide/Matreciede=being cut off emotionally, economy, and socially it extends into independent adult hood
Called a sperm menarche (at night)(a lot of anger at home)
Kohlberg‘s level of moral thinking-
- 1. Preconventional Morality- (before9) Self-interest; obey rules to avoid punishment Or gain concrete rewards. Ex: “ If you save your dying wife, you’ll be a hero”
- 2. Conventional Morality-(early adolescence) Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order. Ex: “ if you steal the drug for her, everyone will think you’re a criminal”
- 3. Postconventional Morality-(adolescence and beyond) Actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-define ethical principles. Ex: “People have a right to live”
our reasoning may be directed by emotions such as: disgust about evil acts, and elevated feelings about generosity and courage..
3 fears of childhood-
- 1. Mutilation
- 2. Not being loved
- 3. Abandonment
(responding parenting) according to Erik Erikson, sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy with responsive caregivers.
possibly and abusive parent may have had attachment issues.
Pike physical ability is
young adult hood early 20s
- the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
Cant hear well, see well, smell well, taste?
this are stags of what?
improves memory, neuron geneses= increase memory/ hypocamples
Contrast Flues intelligence
younger brain learning things quickly Crystalline intelligence-is when you become and expert at 1 thing and its hard to learn new things.
when are people getting married (25yrs or older)
Moving in before marriage (engage
divorce rate is higher than normal (more than 49%)
Immune system lowers when your older
get your shots
Older people say things more bluntly
because of the frontal lobe going throw atrophy
Best predictor for relationship going to work?
Compliments vs. put downs
Bio psycho social
numerous biology=cal psychological, and social-cultural factors affect the way we age. With the right genes, we have a good chance of aging successfully if we maintain a positive outlook and stay mentally and physically active, as well as connected to family and friends in the community.
Erikson Stages of Psychosocial Development
- Infancy (birth to 18 months) Trust vs. Mistrust Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust
- Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
- Preschool (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
- School Age (6 to 11 years) Industry vs. Inferiority School Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.Adolescence (12 to 18 years) Identity vs. Role Confusion Social Relationships Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
- Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation Relationships Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) Generativity vs. Stagnation Work and Parenthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. Maturity(65 to death) Ego Integrity vs. Despair Reflection on Life Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
Menarche (this happens faster if father is absent)
examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span,
Developmental Psychology 3 major issues:
- 1. Nature and nurture
- 2. Continuity and Stages
- 3. Stability and Change
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
Falling to notice change in the environment
Falling to see visible objects when our attention is directed else where
The body’s natural 24 hr cycle, roughly matching the day/night cycle of light and dark.
Measures brain wave patterns
Stages of sleep and nature?
- Refers to distinct patterns of brain waves and muscles activity that are associated with different types of consciousness and sleep
- AWAKEREM- dreams accrue, heart rate rises and breathing becomes rapid/ genitals are aroused not caused by dream content) Night mares
- NREM1- Getting deeper into sleep but not dreaming yet
- NREM2- deep sleep
- NREM3- deep sleep/ Sleep waling and night terrors
Sleeps cycle and how long?
Refers to the patterns of shifting through all the sleep stages over the course of the night. We “cycle” through all the sleep stages in about 90 minutes on average
Characteristics with what’s going on with Delta?
The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
- narcolepsies, apnea, insomnia and characteristics
- 1.Insomnia= persistent inability to fall asleep or stay asleep
- 2. Narcolepsy= “numb seizure” sleep attacks, even a collapse into REM/ paralyzed sleep, at inopportune times
- 3.Sleep Apnea= “with no breath” repeated awakening after breathing stops; time in bed is not restorative sleep
Good advice to help some1 from insomnia
Exercise, no coffee, drink milk, no coffee, turn the lights low, eat early, drink less alcohol, get up at the same time everyday, avoid naps, manage stress and anxiety.
delta/NREM3 a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nigh mares, night terror occurs during
Children more often sleep walk and talk than adults in NONREM3
because they spend more time in deep sleep than adults
Memory consolation is in
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation( created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
Characteristics of people who are easy hypnotize
when people are standing upright with their eyes closed and are told that they are swaying back and forth, most will indeed sway a little. The ability to focus attention totally on task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it, to entertain fanciful possibilities.
a suggestion made during a hypnosis session to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.Ex: block awareness of pain, even enough for surgery without anesthesia.Ex: improve concentration and performance
Diff between psycho active drug
are chemicals introduced into the body which alters perceptions, mood, and other elements of conscious experience.And psycho tropic(meds) drugs
of drug refers to the diminished psychoactive effects after repeated use. Tolerance feeds addiction because users take increasing amounts of a drug to get the desired effect.
after the benefits of a substance wear off, especially after tolerance has developed, drugs users may experience withdrawal( painful symptoms of the body read adjusting to the absence of the drug) Withdrawal worsens addiction because users want to resume taking the drug to end withdrawal symptoms.
Physical dependence= the body has been altered in ways that create cravings for the drug Psychological dependence= a person resource for coping with daily life wither as a drug becomes “needed” to relax, socialize, or sleep
Compulsive craving and use despite adverse consequences
Most people that are addictive to drugs can over come the drug without professional help
are chemicals that reduce neural activity and other body functions. Ex: alcohol,
Effects of Alcohol Use
Slow neural processing, Reduced memory formation, Impaired self-control
are tranquilizer drugs that depress central nervous system activity.
are drugs which intensify neural activity and bodily functions. Ex; Caffeine, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, ecstasy
sleep deprivation affects) suppression of immune cell production and increases risk of viral infections, such as colds
High on cocaine
within two or three hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered