Psychology

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pmier
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240023
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Psychology
Updated:
2013-10-11 00:40:00
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Test
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Development, drug, hypnosis, consciousness
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  1. What is damaged when consuming ecstasy?
    • Short term-it’s a dehydrating effect, overheating, increased blood pressure and death.
    • Long term-risk of permanently depressed mood, suppressed immune-system, impairs memory, slow thoughts, disrupts sleep
  2. Hallucinogens are what types of drugs?
    (LSD, MDMA…) distorts perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
  3. Biological Basis for Addiction?
    (dopamine reward system) dopamine influences on the reward center of the brain (hypothalamus)
  4. Sequence of prenatal development?
    • *zygote-the fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
    • *embryo-the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
    • *fetus-the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception at birth.
  5. Teratogens 2 most command forms
    • agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm(literally, “monster maker”)
    • 1.drugs- Alcohol/Smoking leads to low birth weigh (under 5lbs/ average 7lbs)
    • 2. Virus
  6. FAS(Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)-
    marked by a small, disproportioned head and lifelong brain abnormalities.
  7. Rooting reflex
    comes from spinal cord.
  8. Gauze Pad Experiment
    the baby will always roll over to its own  others breast pad
  9. Maturation
    • the orderly sequence of biological growth- decrees many of our commonalities.
    • We crawl before we walk.
  10. What are the 2 theories of Infantile Amnesia?
    • 1. Lack of linguistic skills
    • 2. Lack of cognitive development
  11. Schemas
    concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences. By adulthood we build countless schemas, ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of love. How we think the world works in a particular concept.
  12. Piagets’s Stages of Cognitive Development
    • 1.Sensorimotor Stage-(birth-2) Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping) Object permanence, Stranger Anxiety.
    • 2.Preoperational Stage-(2-6/7yrs) representing things with words and images; using intuitive thinking rather than logic reasoning. Pretend play, Egocentrism.
    • 3.Concrete Operational Stage-(7-11) thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations. Conservation, Mathematical, transformations.
    • 4.Formal Operational Stage-(12-adultood) Abstract reasoning. Abstract logic, Potential for mature moral reasoning
  13. RAD
    reactive attachment disorder(if not attached by 7yrs)
  14. Temperaments
    left alone are stable over time, level of reactivity to the environment.
  15. Know the theory of the mind
    peoples ideas about their own and others mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.
  16. Know inpared theory of mind is
    autism (mirror neurons)
  17. Harlow (monkey testing) Attachment
    body contact comfort leads to attachment
  18. Critical period in brain development
    familiarity) an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development.
  19. To access attachment to young kids Mary Ainsworth did the strange situation
    when the mother leaves the area and a stranger walks in how those the baby reacts.
  20. Types of attachments
    secure and insecure
  21. Another form of attachment-
    Relax Responsive parenting; when parents aren’t responding it causes children to stress and not attach.
  22. Styles of adult romantic relationships
    based of styles of attachment
  23. Parenting styles-
    • 1.Authoritarian-do as I say! Why because I say so- autonomy=self directive, problem solving, independent
    • 2.Permisive-parents submit to their children’s desires. They make few demands use little punishment.
    • 3.Authoritaitive-parents are both demanding and responsive
  24. Primary sex characteristics
    the body structure(ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
  25. Secondary Sex Characteristics
    non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breast and hips, male voce quality, and body hair.
  26. When do we become adults
    - Patrecide/Matreciede=being cut off emotionally, economy, and socially it extends into independent adult hood
  27. First ejaculation?
    Called a sperm menarche (at night)(a lot of anger at home)
  28. Kohlberg‘s level of moral thinking-
    • 1. Preconventional Morality- (before9) Self-interest; obey rules to avoid punishment Or gain concrete rewards. Ex: “ If you save your dying wife, you’ll be a hero”
    • 2. Conventional Morality-(early adolescence) Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order. Ex: “ if you steal the drug for her, everyone will think you’re a criminal”
    • 3. Postconventional Morality-(adolescence and beyond) Actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-define ethical principles. Ex: “People have a right to live”
  29. Moral Intuition
    our reasoning may be directed by emotions such as: disgust about evil acts, and elevated feelings about generosity and courage..
  30. Civil disobedient
    post conventional
  31. 3 fears of childhood-
    • 1. Mutilation
    • 2. Not being loved
    • 3. Abandonment
  32. Basic trust
    (responding parenting) according to Erik Erikson, sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy with responsive caregivers.
  33. Application question
    possibly and abusive parent may have had attachment issues.
  34. Pike physical ability is
    young adult hood early 20s
  35. Menopause
    - the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
  36. Cant hear well, see well, smell well, taste?
    this are stags of what?
    ageing
  37. Aerobic exercise
    improves memory, neuron geneses= increase memory/ hypocamples
  38. Contrast Flues intelligence
    younger brain learning things quickly Crystalline intelligence-is when you become and expert at 1 thing and its hard to learn new things.
  39. Social clock
    when are people getting married (25yrs or older)
  40. Moving in before marriage (engage
    divorce rate is higher than normal (more than 49%)
  41. Immune system lowers when your older
    get your shots
  42. Older people say things more bluntly
    because of the frontal lobe going throw atrophy
  43. Best predictor for relationship going to work?
    Compliments vs. put downs
  44. Bio psycho social
    numerous biology=cal psychological, and social-cultural factors affect the way we age. With the right genes, we have a good chance of aging successfully if we maintain a positive outlook and stay mentally and physically active, as well as connected to family and friends in the community.
  45. Erikson Stages of Psychosocial Development
    • Infancy (birth to 18 months) Trust vs. Mistrust Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust
    • Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
    • Preschool (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
    • School Age (6 to 11 years) Industry vs. Inferiority School Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.Adolescence (12 to 18 years) Identity vs. Role Confusion Social Relationships Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
    • Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation Relationships Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) Generativity vs. Stagnation Work and Parenthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. Maturity(65 to death) Ego Integrity vs. Despair Reflection on Life Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
  46. First period?
    Menarche (this happens faster if father is absent)
  47. developmental psychology
    examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span,
  48. Developmental Psychology 3 major issues:
    • 1. Nature and nurture
    • 2. Continuity and Stages
    • 3. Stability and Change
  49. Selective attention
    the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
  50. Change blindness
    Falling to notice change in the environment
  51. Intentional blindness
    Falling to see visible objects when our attention is directed else where
  52. Circadian rhythms
    The body’s natural 24 hr cycle, roughly matching the day/night cycle of light and dark.
  53. EEG
    Measures brain wave patterns
  54. Stages of sleep and nature?
    • Refers to distinct patterns of brain waves and muscles activity that are associated with different types of consciousness and sleep
    • AWAKEREM- dreams accrue, heart rate rises and breathing becomes rapid/ genitals are aroused not caused by dream content) Night mares
    • NREM1- Getting deeper into sleep but not dreaming yet
    • NREM2- deep sleep
    • NREM3- deep sleep/ Sleep waling and night terrors
  55. Sleeps cycle and how long?
    Refers to the patterns of shifting through all the sleep stages over the course of the night. We “cycle” through all the sleep stages in about 90 minutes on average
  56. Characteristics with what’s going on with Delta?
    The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
  57. Sleep disorders
    • narcolepsies, apnea, insomnia and characteristics
    • 1.Insomnia= persistent inability to fall asleep or stay asleep
    • 2. Narcolepsy= “numb seizure” sleep attacks, even a collapse into REM/ paralyzed sleep, at inopportune times
    • 3.Sleep Apnea= “with no breath” repeated awakening after breathing stops; time in bed is not restorative sleep
  58. Good advice to help some1 from insomnia
    Exercise, no coffee, drink milk, no coffee, turn the lights low, eat early, drink less alcohol, get up at the same time everyday, avoid naps, manage stress and anxiety.
  59. Night mares
    REM
  60. Night terrors
    delta/NREM3 a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nigh mares, night terror occurs during
  61. Children more often sleep walk and talk than adults in NONREM3
    because they spend more time in deep sleep than adults
  62. Memory consolation is in
    REM sleep
  63. REM rebound
    the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation( created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
  64. Characteristics of people who are easy hypnotize
    when people are standing upright with their eyes closed and are told that they are swaying back and forth, most will indeed sway a little. The ability to focus attention totally on task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it, to entertain fanciful possibilities.
  65. Posthypnotic suggestion
    a suggestion made during a hypnosis session to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.Ex: block awareness of pain, even enough for surgery without anesthesia.Ex: improve concentration and performance
  66. Diff between psycho active drug
    are chemicals introduced into the body which alters perceptions, mood, and other elements of conscious experience.And psycho tropic(meds) drugs
  67. Tolerance
    of drug refers to the diminished psychoactive effects after repeated use. Tolerance feeds addiction because users take increasing amounts of a drug to get the desired effect.
  68. Withdrawal
    after the benefits of a substance wear off, especially after tolerance has developed, drugs users may experience withdrawal( painful symptoms of the body read adjusting to the absence of the drug) Withdrawal worsens addiction because users want to resume taking the drug to end withdrawal symptoms.
  69. Dependence=
    Physical dependence= the body has been altered in ways that create cravings for the drug Psychological dependence= a person resource for coping with daily life wither as a drug becomes “needed” to relax, socialize, or sleep
  70. Compulsive craving
    is addiction
  71. Addiction
    Compulsive craving and use despite adverse consequences
  72. Most people that are addictive to drugs can over come the drug without professional help
    yes
  73. Depressants
    are chemicals that reduce neural activity and other body functions. Ex: alcohol,
  74. Effects of Alcohol Use
    Slow neural processing, Reduced memory formation, Impaired self-control
  75. Barbiturates
    are tranquilizer drugs that depress central nervous system activity.
  76. Stimulants
    are drugs which intensify neural activity and bodily functions. Ex; Caffeine, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, ecstasy
  77. Immune System=
    sleep deprivation affects) suppression of immune cell production and increases risk of viral infections, such as colds
  78. High on cocaine
    20-30 mins
  79. NREM2 sleep
    within two or three hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered

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