anatomy & physiology

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anatomy & physiology
2015-08-10 15:28:07
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  1. the pedal region refers to this body part
    • foot
    • ankle
    • heel
    • leg
  2. this body cavity contains the lungs
    • thoracic
    • axial
    • pericardial
    • dorsal
  3. the body's ability to maintain itself in a steady state is known as this
    • negative feedback
    • positive feedback
    • veriable
    • homeostasis
  4. this is the smallest unit of an organism that carries out the basic function of life:
    • organelle
    • molecule
    • cell
    • organ
  5. this organ system transports nutrients, waste products, gases and hormones throughout the body and regulates body temperature
    • lymphatic
    • cardiovascular
    • respiratory
    • endocrine
  6. this component of feedback loop senses changes in the body
    • receptor
    • control (integration) center
    • effector
    • none of these
  7. this statement about negative feedback is true
    • maintains homeostasis
    • deviation from the set point is resisted/corrected
    • usually functions to keep in the normal range
    • all of these are true
  8. this structure separates the ventral body cavity into the thoracic and adbominopelvic
    • pelvic brim
    • mediastinum
    • diaphragm
    • lungs
  9. this serous membrane covers the surface of the heart
    • visceral pleura
    • visceral pericardium
    • parietal pericardium
    • visceral peritoneum
  10. this kind of bonding, though quite weak, causes large molecules to fold into 3 dimensional shape
    • polar covalent
    • non polar covalent
    • ionic bond
    • hydrogen bond
  11. the function of a buffer is to do this
    • slow down chemical reaction
    • speed up chemical reactions
    • decrease pH of solutions
    • maintain a steady pH
  12. substances that specifically serve to speed up rate of a chemical reaction, usually w/o being permanently changed themselves, are this
    • reactants
    • products
    • catalysts
    • buffers
  13. these substances completely dissociate into water and releases lots of H*
    • weak acid
    • weak base
    • strong acid
    • strong base
  14. oven cleaner, which has a pH of 14 , is ---- and contains---- OH- than a neutral solutions
    • basic, more
    • basic, less
    • acid, more
    • acid, less
  15. this occurs when an excess of H* are added to a solution
    • pH decreases, acidity decreases
    • pH decreases, acidity increases
    • pH increases, acidity decreases
    • pH increases, acidity increases
  16. the ____ structure of a protein comes from the further bending and folding of pleated sheets and helices into a more condensed, globular shape
    • primary
    • secondary
    • tertiary
    • quaternary
  17. a non polar covalent bond occurs when this happens
    • an atom loses it electron completely
    • one atom attracts the shared electron more than the other
    • atoms attract electrons equally
    • two water molecules are attracted to each other
  18. sodium chloride (NaCl) is held together by this kind of bonding
    • polar covalent
    • non-polar covalent
    • ionic bond
    • hydrogen bond
  19. DNA contains the complementary base pairs, cytosine-guanine & adenine-thymine
    true or false
  20. motility structure that sweep mucus from the respiratory tract
  21. energy production centers for the cell
  22. "garbage Disposal " containing digestive enzymes
  23. controls what may enter and leave the cell
    Cell Membrane
  24. Contains chromosomes, the genetic material of the cell
  25. translate messenger RNA into protein
  26. Cell membrane folds that increase surface area for absorption
  27. Modification and distribution center for manufacture proteins
    Golgi Apparatus
  28. the site of protein or lipid synthesis
    Endoplasmic Reticulum
  29. Gel-like fluid matrix of the cell containing organelles
  30. in the fluid mosaic model, these molecules make up the bilayer matrix of the cell membrane
  31. movement of molecule across a plasma membrane because of a pressure gradient is call_____ while movement of a solute across a membrane down a concentration gradients called_____
    filtration, diffusion
  32. a red blood cell is places into an unknown solution. later, the cells appear to be swollen and some have burst. you conclude that the solution is this
  33. catabolic reactions occur by____ while anabolic reactions occur by____
    hydrolysis, dehydration synthesis
  34. some enzymes only becomes active when they combine with a non-protein component called a
    • catalyst
    • substrate
    • cofactor
    • phospholipids
  35. the molecule that is the primary "energy currency" of the cell is called ATP
            true or false
  36. Glycolysis occurs in the____ while cellular respiration reactions like the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain occurs in the ____
    Cytosol, Mitochondria
  37. Rough ER is covered with ribosomes because this organelle is one location where___ are synthesized from messenger RNA in a process called translation
  38. the epidermis is made of this tissue
    dense irregular connective tissue
  39. this tough substance, produced by outer epidermal cells, is responsible for the ability of the epidermis to resist abrasion and reduce water loss
    • keratin
    • gelatin
    • sebum
    • melanin
  40. this actively dividing layer of epidermis replaces older cells that desquamate with newer cells
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum basale
    • stratum lucidum
    • stratum corneum
  41. the dermis is primarily made of this kind of tissue
    • muscle
    • epithelium
    • connective
    • neural
  42. these smooth muscles are attached to hair follicles and contraction of them produces "goose bumps"
    • hairbulb
    • arrector pili
    • dermal root sheath
    • epithelial root sheath
  43. Melanocytes are located in the epidermis
          true or false
  44. this white crescent-shaped area is seen at the base of the nail
    • stratum basale
    • nail fold
    • lunula
    • eponychium
    • hyponychium
  45. these widely distributed sweat glands are primarily responsible for cooling the body;
    • eccrine
    • apocrine
    • ceruminous
    • sebaceous
  46. these glands produce a substance that protects the external ear canal;
    • ceruminous
    • sabaceous
    • mammary
    • mucous
  47. Sebaceous glands produce sebum, prevent drying of the skin, protect against some bacteria, and are classified as holocrine.
          true or false
  48. the flexible tensile strength of bone is attributed to this constituent of the matrix;
    • mineral deposits
    • collagen fibers
    • ligaments
    • perichondrium
  49. endochondral ossification of cartilage templates begins at this time;
    • during fatal development
    • during puberty
    • adulthood
    • around age 50
  50. these cells move into a bone fracture site and tear down the damaged bone, and they dissolve bone in response to hormonal signal to raise calcium levels;
    • osteoblasts
    • osteoclasts
    • osteocytes
    • chondrocytes
  51. this kind of tissue has many small spaces, is found mainly in the epiphysis of bone, and is arranged into trabeculae;
    • compact bone
    • cancellous (spongy) bone
    • hyaline cartilage
    • endosteum
  52. this best describes the function of red bone marrow
    • stores adipose
    • produces blood cells
    • stores osteocytes
    • produces articular cartilage
  53. this structure covers the outer surface of bones and serves as an attachment site for tendons and ligaments;
    • endosteum
    • lamellae
    • periosteum
    • perichondrium
  54. the anatomical term for a hole in a bone that allows passage of a nerve or blood vessel is known as this;
    • foramen
    • meatus
    • fossa
    • tuberosity
  55. the brain and spinal cord are connected through this opening in the skull;
    • foramen rotundum
    • foramen oval
    • foramen magnum
    • mental foramen
  56. there are this many lumbar vertebrae
    • 12
    • 5
    • 7
    • 1
  57. the clavicle and first rib articulate with this specific part of the sternum
    • body
    • xiphoid process
    • manubrium
    • scapula
  58. this part of your ulna is commonly referred to as the elbow
    • ulnar tuberosity
    • styloid process
    • medial epicondyle
    • olecranon process
  59. this type of joint has no joint cavity and exhibits little or no movement (exp: skull bone sutures)
    • fibrous
    • cartilagenous
    • synovial
  60. this extension of the synovial membrane of a joint extends as a pocket to provide a cushion btwn structures that would brub against each other
    • bursa
    • tendon sheath
    • joint capsule
    • meniscus
  61. the shoulder joint is a ball and socket joint btwn the head of the humerus and glenoid cavity (fossa) of the scapula
               true or false
  62. the hip joint is formed by these bony structures:
    • pubic symphysis and lesser trochanter
    • femoral head and acetabulum
    • greater trochanter and acetabulum
    • femoral head and ischial tuberosity
  63. each  muscle cell (fiber) is surrounded by this tissue:
    • perimysium
    • endomysium
    • epimysium
    • sarcolemma
  64. all of the following events occur during contraction except:
    • exposure of active sites on actin
    • active transport of Ca* into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • cross-bridges are form and released
    • actin and myosin filaments slide along each other, drawing Z lines together and shortening the sarcomere
  65. energy is needed to make muscles both contract and relax
              true or false
  66. the following events
    1) Ca2* ions are actively transported back into sarcoplasmic reticulum
    2) troponin & tropomyosin move to block myosin binding sites on actin
    3) muscle fibers lengthen passively
    best describe:
    • tetanus
    • lag phase
    • contraction
    • relaxation phase
  67. the most important neurotransmitters that regulate smooth muscle include:
    • acetylcholine
    • norepinephrine
    • dopamine
    • epinephrine
    • a and b
  68. when a skeletal muscle contracts to cause a given movement, the relatively stationary end of attachment of the muscle is termed this:
    • origin
    • insertion
    • antagonist
    • belly
  69. when a muscle contracts, it usually has an opposing muscle that can cause movement in the opposite direction called this:
    • prime mover
    • agonist
    • antagonist
    • synergist
  70. knowing that muscles are often named for their anatomical location, the brachialis, coracobrachialis and brachioradialis would all be found in this region:
    • arm
    • forearm
    • trunk
    • thigh
    • leg
  71. winking or blinking the eye is controlled by this muscle:
    • platysma
    • buccinator
    • orbicularis oculi
    • temporalis
    • orbicularis oris
  72. this muscle of the neck tilts the head forward and rotates it to the side:
    • deltoid
    • sternocleidomastoid
    • splenius capitis
    • semispinalis
  73. this is the deepest abdominal muscle:
    • external oblique
    • internal oblique
    • transversus abdominis
    • rectus abdominis
  74. the "six pack" seen on a body builder's abdomen is caused by the tendinous intersections in this muscle:
    • external abdominal oblique
    • internal abdominal oblique
    • linea abdominis
    • transversus abdominis
    • rectus abdominis
  75. the pelvic diaphragm, which forms the pelvic floor, is made up of which of the following:
    • coccygeus muscle
    • levator ani muscle
    • bulbospongiosus
    • a only
    • a and b
  76. this muscle flexes both the arm and the forearm:
    • biceps brachii
    • brachialis
    • deltoid
    • triceps brachii
  77. most of the anterior forearm muscle are responsible for this:
    • extension of the wrist and fingers
    • extension of the forearm
    • flexion of the wrist and fingers
    • flexion of the forearm
  78. the tendon of the flexor carpi radialis is an important landmark because the radial pulse can be felt just lateral to the tendon

                 true or false
  79. the medial group of thigh muscles is involved primarily in this movement:
    • abduction of the thigh
    • extension of the thigh
    • flexion of the thigh
    • flexion of the leg
  80. this muscle flexes the thigh and extends the knee
    • vastus medialis
    • vastus lateralis
    • rectus femoris
    • biceps femoris
  81. anterior leg muscle produce this movement
    • dorsiflex the foot
    • flex the leg
    • plantarflex the  foot
    • extend the leg
  82. which of the following muscle attaches to the heel by way of the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon
    • tibialis anterior
    • peroneus longus
    • gastrocnemius
    • soleus
    • c and d only
  83. these structures are all part of the external ear except:
    • auricle (pinna)
    • external acoustic meatus (external auditory canal)
    • auditory (Eustachian) tube
    • eardrum (tympanic membrane)
  84. this small structure at the back of the brain is influenced by light/dark exposure and plays role in the onset of puberty and maintenance of sleep wake cycles and other circadian biorythums:
    • mammillary bodies
    • pineal gland
    • pituitary gland
    • pons
    • thalamus
  85. the numerous folds found on the surface of each cerebral hemisphere are called
    • sulci
    • gyri
    • folia
    • fissures
  86. the cerebellum has centrally located white matter arranged into a structure resembling the branches of a tree. this structure is called the
    • superior pedunclles
    • tentorium
    • vermis
    • arbor vitae
  87. all of the following are major function of the cerebellum except:
    • posture
    • fine motor coordination
    • learning complex movement
    • regulation of intentional
    • mood and emotion
  88. cerebrospinal fluid is normally found circulating through which of the following spaces
    • subarachnoid space
    • epidural space
    • ventricles
    • a and c
  89. olfactory nerves pass from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulbs through this
    • external auditory meatus
    • cribriform plate
    • nasolacrimal duct
    • olfactory tract
  90. this large dural fold btwn the two cerebral hemispheres keep the brain from moving around too freely by anchoring the brain to the crista galli of the skull
    • falx cerebelli
    • falx cerebri
    • tentorium cerebelli
    • internal capsule
  91. which of the following is NOT a part of the peripheral nervous system
    • cranial nerve
    • ganglion
    • spinal cord
    • spinal nerve
  92. an extensive network of axons located outside of the CNS is called_____ (exp: brachial and lumbosacral)
    • ganglion
    • plexus
    • sensory receptor
    • spinal cord
  93. this portion of the motor division of the nervous system conducts action potentials from the CNS to skeletal muscle fibers (signals voluntary movement)
    • visceral afferent
    • somatic efferent
    • sympathetic
    • somatic afferent
  94. the cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in the dorsal root ganglion near the spinal cord
               true false
  95. ____pairs of cranial nerves originate form the brain, and ____ pairs of spinal nerves originate from the spinal cord
    • eight, twenty-four
    • twelve, thirty-one
    • fifteen, thirty-six
    • sixteen, thirty-eight
  96. these cell types produce and help circulate cerebrospinal fluid:
    ependymal cells
  97. which is not true about the myelin sheath
    • made from schwann cells or oligodendrocytes
    • covering surrounding axon
    • provides insulation from other axon
    • helps conduct the action potential more rapidly
    • only found in the peripheral nervous system
  98. the following are characteristics of action potentials except
    • an all-or-non response to stimuli
    • elicited when graded potentials reach a certain threshold
    • the magnitude of the action potential is variable with the strength of the stimulus
    • depolarization is followed by repolarization of the membrane

  99. during salutatory conduction along myelinated axon, action potentials jump from
    one node of ranvier to another
  100. what combination represents a convergent pathways in the nervous system
    3 presynaptic neurons synapse with 1 postsynaptic neuron
  101. these types of receptors respond to pain stimuli
  102. the primary motor area is located in the ___ gyrus of each ___ lobe
    precentral, frontal
  103. one major function of the basal nuclei is ___
    to decrease muscle tone and inhibit unwanted muscular activity
  104. where is the Multipolar Neurons located in the nervous system
    the brain and spinal cord
  105. where is the Unipolar Neurons located in the nervous system
    the ganglia outside the CNS
  106. where is the Bipolar Neurons located in the nervous system
    the eyes, nose and ears
  107. the neuron cell maintain the___ by using ____, in the form of a sodium/potassium pump, to keep a greater concentration of sodium ions outside its cell membrane and a greater concentration of potassium ions inside its cell membrane.
    resting potential, active transport
  108. some neurotransmitters actually decease the likelihood of an action potential being elicited at a synapse

  109. in the spinal code, tracts of axons carrying sensory information to the brain and called___, and one example is the ___.
    ascending tracts, spinothalamic tract
  110. Describe the primary function of the thalamus
    the thalamus is a central relay station for sensory impulses ascending from other parts of the nervous system to the cerebral cortex. It receives all sensory impulses and channels to the cortex for interpretation
  111. Describe the primary functions of the hypothalamus
    maintains homeostasis by regulating a variety of visceral activities and by linking the nervous and endocrine system
  112. the junction btwn two communicating neurons is called a __
  113. the right and left cerebral hemispheres are separated by this broad band of ttracts at the base of the longitudinal fissure
    corpus callosum
  114. this activity is mostly associated with the left cerebral hemisphere in most ppl
    mathematics and speech
  115. the limbic system is most involved in the control of this
    emotions and basic instinctual "drivers"
  116. Decreased sensitivity to a continued stimulus is called this:
  117. the receptors involved in taste and smell are both ___
  118. free nerve endings are the receptor type for___
    • pain
    • temperature
    • itch
  119. ___ means pain from the viscera gets associated with certain areas of the musculature and skin o the body because of the shared nerve pathways of visceral and somatic pain fibers
    referred pain
  120. thin, unmyelinated (slow carrier) nerve fibers carry acute pain impulses

  121. Pain and other sensory impulses travel up the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to the ___ for integration and processing in the brain
  122. taste buds are location on the ___ of the tongue
  123. the middle ear is an air-filled space that contains the ___, which function(s) as ___.
    auditory ossicles, transmitters and amplifiers of sound vibrations
  124. the semicircular canals of the inner ear are the organs of equilibrium

  125. the epithelium covering the surface of the eye and lining the inside of the eyelid is called the ___
  126. the posterior cavity of the eye contains the
    vitreous humor
  127. the ability of the lens to adjust shape to facilitate focusing is called___
  128. rods contain the extremely light-sensitive pigment rhodopsin and function mainly in dim light

  129. the ___ is the part of the cerebral cortex most involved in processing visual input
    occipital lobe
  130. ___ make up the great majority of the "formed elements" of the blood
  131. what type of nutrients is necessary for adequate production of red blood cells and the prevention of anemia
    • vitamin B12
    • folic acid
    • iron
  132. Bilirubin and biliverdin are products of _____ degradation
  133. plasma albumins maintain the ____ of the blood
    Osmotic pressure
  134. the plasma protein ____ is crucial for blood clotting
  135. name the 3 layers of the heart
    • the outer most layer, the epicardium= connective tissue
    • the middle is the thickest layer, the myocardium= cardiac muscle
    • the endocardium, contains purkinje fibers
  136. the ___ are fibrous structures that anchor the cardiac valve leaflets to the ventricular walls during systole
    chordae tendinae
  137. the ___ are modified cardiac muscle fibers that conduct electrical impulses from the AV node to the ventricles
    vaso vasorum
  138. Anatomy is
    the study of the structure and organization (morphology) of the body and its part
  139. Physiology
    is the study of the functions and processes of the parts and systems of the part and systems of the body
  140. the two disciplines are closely interrelated because the functional of a part depends on how it is constructed and structure is determined by function
    anatomy and physiology are ancient but ongoing fields of study
  141. anatomists rely on observation and dissection, while physiologists employ experimentation
    it is more common to discover new information about physiology but anatomical discoveries are being made as well
  142. atom are
    the basic structural units of matter
  143. two or more atoms comprise a
  144. macromolecules are
    large, biologically important molecule inside cells
  145. organelles are
    aggregates of macromolecules used to carry out a specific function in the cell
  146. cell are
    the basic unit of life
  147. tissues are
    groups of cells living and functioning together
  148. organs are
    made of several tissues
  149. groups of organs function together as
    organ systems
  150. organ systems functioning together make up an
  151. movement=internal or gross
    responsiveness=reaction to internal or external change
    growth=increase in size w/o change in shape
    reproduction= new organism or new cells
    respiration= use of O2, removal of CO2, obtaining energy from food
    • digestion= breakdown of food into simpler forms
    • absorption= movement of substances through membranes and into body fluids
    • circulation=movement w/I body/cellular fluids
    • assimilation= changing nutrients into chemically different usable forms
    • Excretion= removal of metabolic waste
  152. ___ is the sum ttl of all the chemical reactions in the body that break substances down for energy or building block molecules and then use those to build up structures or perform life processes
  153. life depends on the availability of what 5 factors
    • water
    • food (carbon source)
    • oxygen (energy source)
    • Heat (temperature: measure of the degree of heat)
    • pressure (both atmospheric and hydrostatic)
  154. maintenance of a stable internal environment is called
  155. homeostasis is regulated through control system =s which have ___, a ___ and ___ in common
    receptors, set point, and effectors
  156. ____ regulate body temperature in a manner similar to the functioning of a home heating thermostat
    homeostatic mechanisms
  157. another homeostatic mechanism employs ____ ____ ____ to regulate blood pressure
    pressure sensitive receptors
  158. each individual uses ____ to keep body levels w/I a normal range
    negative feedback
  159. ____ is used by the body to create a rapid response, as in blood clotting
    positive feedback
  160. major features of the human body include its cavities, membranes, and organ systems.

    the body can be divided into an___ portion (head, neck, and trunk), and an ___ portion (upper and lower limbs)
    axial, and appendicular
  161. the axial portion contains the
    cranial cavity, vertebral canal, thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic caity, mediastinum and viscera
  162. a broad, thin muscle called the ___ separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
  163. smaller cavites w/I the head include the
    • oral cavity
    • nasal cavity
    • orbital cavities
    • middle ear cavities
  164. ___attaches to the wall cavityand the ___ covers the internal organ
    parietal and Visceral
  165. the parietal pleura lines the cavities while the visceral pleura covers the ___
  166. the heart is surround by pericardial covers the, the ____ _____ makes up the outter sac and the ____ ____ the heart
    parietal pericardium, visceral pericardium
  167. peritoneal membranes line the abdominopelvic cavity, a parietal peritoneum lines the ____ while the visceral peritoneum covers the ____
    lines the wall, covers the organs
  168. the _____ system, including skin, hair, nails, and various glands, covers the body. it protects underlying tissue, helps regulate body temp, senses changes, and synthesizes certain products
    integumentary system
  169. the ____ system is made up of bones and ligaments. it supports, protects, provides framework, stores inorganic salts, and houses blood forming tissues
    cartilage is part of this system
    skeletal system
  170. the ___ system consists of the muscles that provide body movement, posture, and body heat
    muscular system
  171. the ___ system consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs. it integrates incoming info from receptors and sends impulses to muscles and glands
    nervouse system
  172. the ___ system include all of the glands that secrete hormones, helps to integrate metabolic fnctions
    endocrine system
  173. the ___ system, made up of the heart and blood vessels, distributes oxygen and nutrients throughout the body while removing wastes from the cells
    cardiovascular sysem
  174. the ___ consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen, drain excess tissue fluid and includes cells of the immunity
    lymphatic system
  175. the ___ system is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs. it receives, breaks down, and absorbs nutrients
    digestive system
  176. the ___ system exchanges gases btwn the blood and air and is made up of the lungs and passageways.
    respiratory system
  177. the ___ system, consisting of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance
    urinary system
  178. the reproductive systems produces new ___

    the male reproductive system consists of the ______ _____ _____ ______

    the female reproductive system consists of ______ _____ _____ ______
    new organism

    Male: testes, accessory organs, and vessels that conduct sperm to the penis

    Female: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia.
  179. what is the anatomical position
    body erect, face forward, upper limbs at side with palm forward
  180. terms of relative position include
    superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, bilateral, ipsilateral, contralateral, proximal, distal, superficial, peripheral, and deep
  181. a sagittal section divides the body into ___ and ___ portions
    right and left
  182. if it passes along side the midline and divides the body into equal parts it is a ___
  183. a section lateral to the midline is _____
  184. a transverse (horizontal) section divides the body into ___ and ___ portion
    superior and inferior
  185. a frontal (coronal) section divides  the body into ___ and ___ portions
    anterior and posterior
  186. the abdominal area can be divided into 9 regions, what is it
    • epigastric ( top middle)
    • hypochondriac (top right and left)
    • umbilical (middle)
    • lumbar (right and left)
    • hypogastric (bottom middle)
    • iliac (right and left)
  187. chemistry deals withwhat
    deals with the composition of matter and how this composition changs
  188. anything that takes p space and has mass is
  189. ___ is the amount of matter something has
  190. ___ is the gravitational pull on that mass
  191. ___ the smallest chemical units of matter, 93 types (elements) known; only about 20 are used by organisms
  192. ___ negatively charged subatomic particles circling a nucleus, negligible atomic mass
  193. ____ is structure containing neutrons and protons
  194. ___ is uncharged particles, atomic mass 1
  195. ___ are positively charged particles; atomic mass 1 the only particles that are counted in the atomic #
  196. ___ is composed of a single type of atom
  197. ___ is equal to the # of protons in the nucleus
    atomic #
  198. ____ is the sum of masses of protons (1Da), neutrons (1Da), and electrons (0.00054Da- often not counted b/c so small) of the atoms of a particular element
    atomic mass
  199. isotopes are
    atoms of a given element that differ in the # of neutrons in their nclei
  200. unstable isotopes are
    released energy during radioactive decay by giving up their extra particles and moving toward more stable states
  201. what does pH measure
    measure the Hydrogen ion concentration.

    pH of 7 is alkaline (basic)

    pH less than 7 is acidic
  202. all the synthesis reactions in an organism are called ___; to remember this, think anabolic steroids
  203. proteins mostly composed of what 5 elements
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
  204. most organisms use only _(#) amino acid in the synthesis of proteins although others exist
  205. a ___ (peptide bond) is formed bwtn the carboxyl carbon and the amino nitrogen of sequential amino acids by dehydration synthesis reaction
    a covalent bond
  206. Protein folding and shape (conformation) determines its function. slight changes may take place as part of its function (ie. enzymatic catalysis). Heat, pH, radiation, electricity or chemicals may irreversibly alter or break the hydrogen bonds holding a protein together. this is called___, and it usually destroys the protein's function
  207. Nucleic Acids are ___ and ___, they are genetic material of organisms

    ____ also acts as enzyme, binds amino acids, and help form polypeptides
    DNA, RNA

  208. nucleotides are ___ that make up nucleic acids
  209. monomer are composed of what three parts

    pentose sugar- deoxyribose or ribose

    one of 5 cyclic nitrogenous bases- adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil
  210. what is the nucleic acid structure

    3 H bonds form btwn ___ and ___
    2 H bonds form btwn ___ and ___ in DNA or btwn ___ and ___ in RNA
    • 3=C/G
    • 2=T/A
    • RNA=U/A
  211. DNA is double stranded in most cells

    2 strands are ___ and 2 strands are____
    complementary and antiparallel
  212. decomposition reactions
    -break bonds w/I larger molecules to form smaller atoms, ions, and molecules
    -they release energy (exothermic)
    -most common type is ____ (a water molecule is consumed)
    -all the decomposition reactions in an organism are called ____
    most common type is hydrolysis

    reactions in an organism are called  catabolism
  213. exchange reactions
    -involve breaking and forming covalent bonds, and involve endothermic and exothermic steps
    -involve atoms moving from one molecule to another
    -sum of all chemical reactions in an organism is called___
  214. ___ increase the speed and efficiency of chemical reactions
  215. lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are ____ which are large molecules used by all organisms
  216. ___ are basic building blocks of macromolecules that are called polymers (beads on a string)- not lipids
  217. Carbohydrates is an organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
    what are some of their functions
    • -long-term storage of chemical energy
    • -ready energy source
    • -part of the backbone of nucleic acids
    • -converted to amino acids
    • -constituents of cell walls
    • -involved in intracellular interaction btwn animal cells
  218. what are the three different types of carbohydrates
    monosaccharides-one sure unit

    disaccharides- 2 sugars units

    polysaccharides- multiple sugar units, linked in chains, may be huge molecules
  219. lipids are not composed of regular subunits, but are all hydrophobic
    what are the four groups of lipids
    • -fats= energy storage; mostly hydrophobic
    • -phospholipids- cell membranes, have one end that is hydrophilic
    • -waxes=completely water insoluble
    • -steroids= signaling molecule; increases the fluidity of membranes
  220. ______ fatty acids have no double bonds, so the chains are straight and will pack tightly against each other. this is why these fats (animal fats, coconut oil) are solid at room temp.

    (lots of hydrogen, gain weight)
    saturated fatty acids
  221. ____ fatty acids have double bonds, so the chains that causes a kink, disrupting the tight packing of the chains and making the melting point much lower. these fatty acids (olive oil) tend to be liquid at room temp.

    (food we should be eating)
    unsaturated fatty acids
  222. what are the main 3 parts of a cell
    nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane
  223. w/I the cytoplasm are specialized ___ that perform specific functions for the cell
  224. the cell membrane regulates the ___ of ___ in and out of the cell, participates in signal transduction, and help cells adhere to other cells.
    movement of substances
  225. the cell membrane is extremely thin and selectively _____

    it has a complex surface with adaptations to ___ surface area
    selectively permeable

    increase surface area
  226. the basic framework of the cell membrane consists of a double layer (bilayer) of ____, with fatty acid tails turned inward.

    molecules that are soluble in lipids (gases, steroids hormones) can pass through the lipid
  227. Embedded cholesterol molecules strengthen the membrane and help make the membrane less permeable to ____ substances.

    many types of proteins are found in the cell membrane, including transmembrane proteins and peripheral membrane proteins
  228. membrane proteins perform a variety of functions and very in shape

    some proteins function as receptors on the cell surface, starting signal transduction

    other proteins aid the passage of ___ and ___
    molecules and ions
  229. Proteins protruding into the cell anchor supportive rods and tubules

    still other proteins have carbohydrates attaches (glycoproteins); these complexes are used in cell identification.

    membranes proteins called ___ ___ ___ (CAMs) help determine one cell's interactions with others
    Cellular adhesion Molecules
  230. the cytoplasm consists of clear liquid (cytosol), a supportive ____, and networks of membrane and organelles.
  231. ____ is made p of membranes, flattened sacs, and vesicles, and provides a tubular transport system inside the cell
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  232. with ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is ROUGH ER and functions in ____ synthesis
    protein synthesis
  233. w/o ribosomes, rough ER is SMOOTH ER and functions in ____ synthesis
    lipid synthesis
  234. ribosomes are found with ER and are scattered throughout the cytoplasm. they are composed of proteins and RNA and provide a structural support for RNA molecules that come together in protein synthesis. Clusters of ribosomes in the cytoplasm are called ____
  235. the ___ ___ (quality control) is composed of flattened sacs, and refines, packages, modifies, and delivers proteins.
    -vesicles formed on ER travel to this which modifies their contents chemically.
    -the vesicle may then move to the cell membrane and secrete its contents to the outside (exocytosis-leaves the cell)
    -vesicles form a "delivery service" (UPS), carrying chemicals throughout the cell
    Golgi apparatus
  236. ___ are the powerhouse of the cell and contain enzymes needed for aerobic respiration (the production od energy using oxygen)
    - this inner membrane is folded into cristae which hold the enzymes needed in energy transformations to make ATP
    -very active cells contain thousands of this
  237. ___ are the "garbage disposals" of the cell and contains digestive enzymes to break up old cell components and bacteria
  238. ____ contains enzymes that function in the synthesis of bile acid, breakdown of lipids, degradation of rare biochemical, and detoxification of alcohol
  239. ____ and ____ are thin, threadlike structures that serve as the cytoskeleton of the cell
    microfilaments and microtubules
  240. ____, made of actin, caused various cellular movements

    ____,made of the globular protein tubulin, are attached in a spiral to form a long tube. 

    what will group together to form myofibrils
    microfilament made of actin

    microtubules made of the globular protein

    microfilaments make myofilbrils
  241. the ___ is a structure made up of two hollow cylinders called centrioles that function in the separation of chromosomes during cell division
  242. ____ and ____ are motile extension from the cell;

    shorter ___ are abundant on the free surfaces of curtain epithelial cells (respiratory lining)

    a lengthy ____ can be found on sperm cells
    cilia and flagella

    cilia are shorter

    flagellum are lengthy
  243. ____ form from part of the cell membrane or the Golgi and store materials
  244. the fairly large nucleus is bounded by a double-layered _____ _____ containing relatively nuclear pores that allow the passage of certain substances.
    nuclear envelope
  245. the ___ is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of ribosome production
  246. ____ consists of loosely coiled fibers of protein and DNA
  247. condensed DNA is referred to as _____
  248. mechanism of movement across the mebrance may be passive requiring no energy form the cell

    what are some examples
    diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and filtration
  249. active mechanisms, requiring cellular energy

    what are some examples
    active transport, endocytosis and exocytosis
  250. ____ is caused by the random motion of molecules and involves the movement of molecules from an area of GREATER concentration to one of LESSER concentration until EQUILIBRIUM is reached
  251. ____ enables oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules to be exchanged btwn the air and the blood in the lungs, and btwn blood and tissue cells
  252. ____ _____ used membrane proteins that function as carries to move molecules (such as glucose) across the cell membrane
    facilitated diffusion
  253. ____ is a special case of diffusion in which water moves from an area of GREATER water concentration (where there is less ____ pressure) across a selectively permeable membrane to an area of LOWER water concentration (where there is greater ___ pressure)
  254. ___ is the ability of osmosis to lift a volume of water
    osmotic pressure
  255. a solution with the SAME osmotic pressure as body fluids is called
  256. one with HIGHER osmotic pressure than the body is called
  257. one with LOWER osmotic pressure than the body is called
  258. because of hydrostatic pressure, molecules can be FORCED through membranes by the process of what

    blood pressure is a type of hydrostatic pressure
  259. ____ uses ATP to move molecules from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration through carrier molecules in cell membranes
    active transport
  260. in ____, molecules that are too large to be transported by other means are conveyed inside that forms from a section of the cell membrane

    exocytosis is the reverse of endocytosis
  261. ____ is a formed of endocytosis in which cells engulf liquids
  262. ___ is a form of endocytosis in which the cell takes in larger particle, such as a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium
  263. ____ allows the cell to take in very specific molecules (ligands) that pair up with specific receptors on the cell surface
    receptor-mediated endocytosis
  264. what are three forms of endocytosis
    • pinocytosis
    • phagocytosis
    • receptor-mediated endocytosis
  265. what does the cell cycle consist of
    interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis and differentiation
  266. ____ is a period of great metabolic activity in which the cell grows and synthesize new molecules and organelles
  267. during the ___ phase of interphase, the DNA of the cell is replaced in preparation for cell division
    the S phase
  268. during the ___ and ___ phase of interphase, the cell grows and other structures are duplicated
    G1 and G2
  269. in one type of cell division ____, takes four cells (sperm or ova) are produces, each of which contains half of the parent cell's genetic information
  270. ____ is a carefully orchestrated division of the nucleus of the cell that results in each daughter cell receiving an exact material.
  271. ___ is the division of the cytoplasm
  272. what are the four phase of mitosis
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  273. ____ is the phase of mitosis, results in the DNA condensing into chromosomes, centrioles migrating to the poles, microtubules of the cytoskeleton reorganizing into spindles fibers, and the disappearance of the nuclear membrane
  274. ____ occurs as spindle fibers attach to centromeres on the chromosomes and the chromosomes align midway btwn centrioles
  275. ____ occurs as the spindle fibers contract and pull the sister chromatids toward the centrioles
  276. ___ is the final stage of mitosis, begins when the chromosomes have completed their migrations, the chromosomes begin to unwind
  277. ____ begins during anaphase of mitosis and continues as a contractile ring pinches (cleavage furrow) the two new cells apart.

    the two daughter cells may have varying amounts of cytoplasm and organelles, but they share identical genetic information
  278. the process by wich cells develop into different types of cells with specialized function is called
  279. _______ retain the ability to divide without specialization
    stem cells
  280. _____ cells are daughter of stem cells that are partially specialized
    progenitor cells
  281. _____ is a form of cell death that is a normal part of development
  282. cellular structure that stores inactive forms of protein-splitting enzymes in a pancreatic cell
    zymogen granule
  283. cell produced when an egg and a sperm fuse; fertilized ovum
  284. fat stored tissue in certain bone cavities
    yellow marrrow
  285. water produced as a by-product of aerobic metabolism
    water of metabolism
  286. when the volume of water entering the body is equal to the volume leaving it
    water balance
  287. external female reproductive parts that surround the vaginal opening
  288. fold of tissue of the larynx that produces sound when it vibrates
    vocal cord
  289. fluid btwn the lens and the retina of the eye
    vitreous humor
  290. organic compound other than carbohydrate, lipid, or protein needed for normal metabolism that the body cannot synthesize in adequate amounts and must therefore be obtained in the diet
  291. tendency for a fluid to resist flowing due to the internal friction of its molecules
  292. membrane that covers the surfaces of the lungs
    visceral pleura
  293. membrane that covers organ surfaces in the abdominal cavity
    visceral peritoneum
  294. membrane that covers the surface of the heart
    visceral pericardium
  295. organs in the body cavity
  296. membranous cytoplasmic sac formed by an infolding of the cell membrane
  297. pertaining to the bones of the spinal column
  298. vessel that carries blood from capillaries to the vein
  299. cavity, such as a brain ventricle filled with cerebrospinal fluid, or heart ventricle that contains blood
  300. motor branch of a spinal nerve by which it connects with the spinal cord
    ventral root
  301. one of two large veins (superior and inferior) that convey deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart
    vena cava
  302. vessels that carries blood towards the heart
  303. increase in the diameter of a blood vessel
  304. decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel
  305. tubular organ that leads from the uterus to the vestibule of the female reproductive tract
  306. preparation that includes antigens that stimulate an immune response to prevent an infectious disease
  307. fleshy part of the soft palate that extends down above the root of the tongue
  308. enlarged part of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear
  309. hollow, muscular organ in the female pelvis where a fetus develops
  310. tube that extends from the uterus on each side toward an ovary and transports sex cells; oviduct or Fallopian tube.
    uterine tube
  311. wastes and excess water and electrolytes removed from the blood and excreted by the kidneys into the ureters, to the urinary bladder, and out of the body through the urethra
  312. tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of body
  313. muscular tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
  314. nonprotein nitrogenous substance resulting from protein metabolism
  315. fatty acid molecule with one or more double carbon bonds
    unsaturated fatty acid
  316. central portion of the abdomen
    umbilical region
  317. cordlike structure, containing one vein and two arteries, that connects the fetus to the placenta
    umbilical cord
  318. single contraction of a muscle fiber followed by relaxation
  319. enzyme in pancreatic juice that breaks down protein molecule
  320. type of thyroid hormone
  321. composed of fatty acids and a glycerol molecule
  322. heart valve btwn the right atrium and the right ventricle
    tricuspid valve
  323. membranous channel that extends inward from a muscle fiber membrane
    transverse tubule
  324. plane that divides a structure into superior and inferior portions
  325. Assembly of an amino acid chain according to the sequence of base triplets in an mRNA molecule
  326. RNA molecule that carries an amino acid to a ribosome in protein synthesis
    transfer RNA
  327. manufacturing a complementary RNA from DNA
  328. part of the extracellular fluid, includes the fluid w/I special body cavities
    transcellular fluid
  329. tubular organ that leads from the larynx to the bronchi
  330. Group of similar cells that performs a specialized function
  331. hormone secreted by the thyroid gland
  332. hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary that controls secretion from the thyroid gland
    thyroid-stimulating hormone
  333. Endocrine gland located just below the larynx and in front of the trachea that secretes thyroid hormones
    thyroid gland
  334. glandular organ in the mediastinum behind the sternum and btwn the lung
  335. group of peptides the thymus secretes that increases production of certain types of white blood cells
  336. blood clot that remains where it forms in a blood vessel
  337. stimulation level that must be exceeded to elicit an action potential or a muscle contraction
    threshold potential
  338. hollow space inside the chest containing the thoracic organs
    thoracic cavity
  339. sensory receptor sensitive to temperature changes, heat and cold receptors
  340. mass of gray matter at the base of the cerebrum in the wall of the third ventricle
  341. continuous, forceful muscular contraction without relaxation
    tetanic contraction
  342. male sex hormone secreted by the interstitial cells of the testes
  343. primary male reproductive organ, sperm-cell-producing organ
  344. cordlike or bandlike mass of white fibrous connective tissue that tissue that connects a muscle to a bone
  345. stage in mitosis when newly formed cells separate
  346. a type of lymphocypte that interacts directly with antigens, producing the cellular immune response
  347. organ containing receptors associated with the sense of taste
    taste bud
  348. ankle bone
  349. cell with specific receptors on which a hormone exerts its effect
    target cell
  350. arterial blood pressure reached during the cardiac cycle
    systolic pressure
  351. phase of the cardiac cycle when a heart chamber wall contracts
  352. vessel that conduct blood btwn the heart and all body tissues except the lungs
    systemic circuit
  353. building large molecules from smaller one
  354. membrane that forms the inner lining of the capsule of a freely movable joint
    synovial membrane
  355. freely moveable joint
    synovial joint
  356. muscle that assists the action of a of prime mover
  357. tiny enlargement at the end of an axon that secretes a neurotransmitter
    synaptic knob
  358. space btwn two cell forming a synapse
    synaptic cleft
  359. functional connection btwn the axon of a neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another cell type
  360. part of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord
    sympathetic nervous system
  361. exocrine gland in skin that secretes a mixture of water, salt, urea, and other body parts
    sweat gland
  362. substances produced by the lungs that reduces the surface tension in alveoli
  363. force that adheres moist membranes due to the attraction of water molecules
    surface tension
  364. structure above another structure
  365. increased force of contraction by a skeletal muscle fiber when a twitch occurs before the previous twitch relaxes
  366. shallow groove such as that btwn gyri on the brain surface
  367. digestive enzymes that catalyzes the breakdown of sucrose
  368. target of enzyme action
  369. layer of the alimentary canal underneath the mucosa
  370. beneath the tongue
  371. loose connective tissue layer that is mostly fat and beneath the skin
    subcutaneous layer
  372. space in the menings btwn the arachnoid mater and the pia mater
    subarachnoid space
  373. representation of the way atoms bond to form a molecule, using symbols for each element and lines to indicate chemical bonds
    structural formula
  374. volume of blood the ventricle discharges with each heartbeat
    stroke volume
  375. factor capable of stimulating a stress response
  376. outer, horny  layer of the epidermis
    stratum corneum
  377. deepest layer of the epidermis, where cells divide; stratum germinativum
    stratum basale
  378. digestive organ btwn the esophagus and small intestine
  379. type of lipid including complex rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms
  380. undifferentiated cell that can be divide to yield two daughter stem cell, or a stem cell and a progenitor cell
    stem cell
  381. maintenance of balance when the head and body are motionless
    static equilibrium
  382. bone that consists of bars and plates separated by irregular spaces; cancellous bone
    spongy bone
  383. large organ in the upper left region of the abdomen that is a blood reservoir
  384. nerve that arises from the spinal cord
    spinal nerve
  385. part of the central nervous system extending from the brainstem below the foramen magnum through the vertebral canal
    spinal cord
  386. undifferentiated spermatogenic cell in the outer part of a seminiferous tubule
  387. spermatogonium
  388. sperm cell production
  389. intermediate stage in sperm cell formation
  390. sense that stems from receptors associated with specialized sensory organs, such as the eyes and ears
    special sense
  391. motor pathways of the peripheral nervous system that lead to skeletal muscles
    somatic nervous system
  392. liquid portion of a solution in which a solute is dissolved
  393. chemical dissolved in a solution
  394. type of involuntary muscle tissue
    smooth muscle tissue
  395. type of voluntary muscle tissue in muscles attached to bones
    skeletal muscle tissue
  396. specialized tissue in the wall of the right atrium that initiates cardiac cycles; pacemaker
    sinoatrial node (SA node)
  397. nonosaccharide
    simple sugar
  398. chromosome that carries genes responsible for the development of characteristics associated with maleness or femaleness; an X or Y chromosome
    sex chromosome
  399. target value of a physiological measure maintained in the body by homeostasis
    set point
  400. membrane that lines a cavity that does not open to the outside of the body
    serous membrane
  401. glandular cell that secretes a watery fluid (serous fluid) with high enzme content
    serous cell
  402. vasoconstrictor released from blood platelets when blood vessels break, controlling bleeding. Also a neurotransmitter
  403. outer covering of the alimentary canal
  404. region of the parietal lobe and the temporal lobe just posterior to the lateral sulcus, that is necessary for understanding written and spoken language; Wernicke's area
    sensory speech area
  405. specialized structure associated with the peripheral end of a sensory neuron specific to detecting a nerve impulse in response
    sensory receptor
  406. neuron that transmits impulses from sensory receptors to the central nervous system
    sensory neuron
  407. a nerve composed of sensory fibers
    sensory nerve
  408. part of the cerebral cortex that receives and interprets sensory nerve impulses
    sensory area
  409. a feeling resulting from the brain's interpretation of sensory nerve impulses
  410. tubule in the teates where sperm cells form
    seminiferous tubule
  411. tubular structure in the inner ear that houses receptors providing the sense of dynamic equilibrium
    semicircular canal
  412. fluid containing sperm cells and secretions discharged from the male reproductive tract at ejaculation
  413. membrane that allows some types of molecules through but not others; semipermeable
    selectively permeable
  414. hormone from the small intestine that stimulates the pancreas to release pancreatic juice
  415. oily secretion of sebaceous glands
  416. skin gland that secretes sebum
    sebaceous glands
  417. pouch of skin that encloses that testes