Biology 30s

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Biology 30s
2013-10-11 03:50:13
Biology 30s

Biology 30s
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  1. define scientific fact
    a scientific fact is an observation that has been confirmed repeatedly and accepted as true
  2. define scientific theory
    a scientific theory is a theory that explains scientific observations
  3. what is the difference between physical and biological science
    physical science is learning about moving things while biological science is learning about cells, human beings, living things, and non-living things
  4. define human physiology
    human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans
  5. what are the branches we focus on in grade 11 biology
    • human physiology
    • anatomy
  6. what properties do living things have (9)
    • 1. highly organized and contain mainly complex chemical substances
    • 2. either unicellular or multicellular
    • 3. use energy
    • 4. has a definite shape and unlimited size
    • 5. has a limited lifespan
    • 6. respond to changes in the environment
    • 7. they grow
    • 8. they reproduce
    • 9. they evolve or change over time
  7. what are the properties of non-living things (viruses) (6)
    • 1. attack healthy cells within living things
    • 2. cannot reproduce on its own
    • 3. non-cellular
    • 4. do not contain cytoplasm or organelles
    • 5. do not have an organized cell structure
    • 6. no chromosomes
  8. define autotrophs
    plants and other organisms that make their own food from inorganic substances through the process of photosynthesis
  9. what is an example of an autotroph
  10. define heterotrophs
    organisms that cannot synthesizer their own food and must obtain it ready-made
  11. what are the 3 things that are essential to all living things
    • 1. water
    • 2. nutrients
    • 3. energy
  12. why is a virus not considered living (5)
    • 1. cannot reproduce on its own
    • 2. non-cellular
    • 3. no cytoplasm or organelles
    • 4. do not have an organized cell structure
    • 5. no chromosomes
  13. how are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells unique to each other (2)
    • vesicles
    • vacuoles
  14. what are the 3 main things in scientific study
    • 1. observation and inference
    • 2. analysing evidence
    • 3. considering different points of view
  15. define observation
    an actual fact that can be learned using the senses
  16. define inference
    a logical, educated guess on the oberservation
  17. define direct evidence
    gathered by evidence
  18. define indirect evidence
    inferred by how something behaves
  19. define wellness
    awareness by the individual that their physical structures and functions are working harmoniously as a whole unit
  20. define homeostasis
    the body's ability to maintain a constant internal environment despite a changing external environments
  21. examples of homeostasis (4)
    • 1. thermoregulation
    • 2. waste management
    • 3. osmoregulation
    • 4. repairing tissues
  22. what is the mechanism that maintains homeostasis
    the negative feedback
  23. what are the 3 essential components of the negative feedback
    • 1. control centre
    • 2. receptor
    • 3. effector
  24. what is the basic unit of all living organisms
  25. what are the 3 statements of the cell theory
    • 1. all organisms are made up of one or more cells and the product of those cells
    • 2. all cells carry on life activities
    • 3. new cells arise only from other living cells by the process of cell division
  26. what did robert hooke discover
    discovered substance that were made of boxlike structures that he called 'cells' while examining thin slices of cork and other plant tissues with a microscope
  27. what did leeuwenhoek discover
    made single-lens microscope with amazing power. using these microscopes he found single-celled organisms and observed and described human blood cells
  28. what did schleiden discover
    developed the theory that all plants were made of cells
  29. what did schwann discover
    proposed that all animals were made of cells
  30. define organelles
    organized structures within a living cell that function as organs for cells
  31. what is the function of the cell membrane
    surrounds the cell and controls the movement materials into and out of the cell
  32. what is the function of the ER
    transports materials in its canals
  33. what is the function of the ribosomes
    makes proteins
  34. what is the function of the cytoplasm
    contains organelles often called cytosol
  35. what is the function of the mitochondria
    provides releases the energy in food molecules for use by the cell
  36. what is the function of the chloroplasts
    the site of photosynthesis
  37. what is the function of the golgi bodies
    sorts, stores, packages, and secretes proteins
  38. what is the function of the centrioles
    involved in cell division
  39. what is the function of the cell wall
    rigid structures outside the cell membrane tha provides strength
  40. what is the function of the cilia and flagella
    involved in cell movement
  41. what is the function of the vacuoles
    used for storing waste and support in plant cells
  42. what is the function of the lysosomes
    breaks down and digest wastes
  43. what is the function of the nucleolus
    make the parts for ribosomes
  44. what is the function of the nucleus
    the brain centre of the cell that controls the metabolism and reproduction
  45. what is the function of the nuclear membrane
    encloses genetic material
  46. what are the organelles unique to only plant cells (2)
    • 1. chloroplasts
    • 2. cell wall
  47. what are the organelles that are unique to animal cells (1)
  48. what are the organelles that you can see under a light microscope (5)
    • 1. cell membrane
    • 2. cilia and flagella
    • 3. vacuole
    • 4. nucleus
    • 5. cell wall
  49. define selective permeability
    only allows some substance to pass through but not all
  50. what is an example of selective permeability
    cell membrane
  51. what are the 3 functions of the cell membrane
    • 1. allows substances to move in and out of the cell
    • 2. protects the cell
    • 3. provides structure for the cell
  52. define hydrophobic
    repels or fails to mix with water
  53. define hydrophillic
    tends to mix or dissolve in water
  54. what is an example of hydrophobic
  55. what is an example of hydrophillic
  56. what is the function of the intergral proteins
    transports substances across the cell membrane
  57. why are cells referred to as 'name tags'
    because cells contain your genetic material which defines who you are
  58. why do cell membranes need cholesterol
    cell membranes need cholesterol to regulate the fluidity of the cell membrane
  59. why do many organelles have membrane systems
    many organelles have membrane systems to keep substances in the organelle and to form vesicles to transport substances to the cell membrane
  60. why is the cell membrane described as the 'fluid mosaic'
    because like a mosaic that is made up of different parts, a cell membrane is made up of many phosphilipids
  61. define passive transport
    when molecules travel from a region of high concentration to low concentration without using cellular energy
  62. define active transport
    when molecules travel from a region of high concentration to low concentration while using cellular energy
  63. what are the 3 types of passive transport
    • 1. diffusion
    • 2. osmosis
    • 3. facilitated diffusion
  64. what are the 2 types of active transport
    • 1. ion pumps
    • 2. vesicle mediated
  65. how are osmosis and diffusion similar
    they are both the movement of molecules
  66. how are osmosis and diffusion different
    osmosis only involves water while diffusion involves molecules in any place
  67. define concentration gradient
    the change in the concentration of solutes in a solution as a function of distance through a solution
  68. define isotonic
    environment has the same concentration of solutes as inside the cell
  69. define hypertonic
    environment has a higher concentration of solutes than inside the cell
  70. define hypotonic
    environment has a lower concentration of solutes than inside the cell
  71. what happens to the cell if it is in an isotonic environment
    the cell stays the same
  72. what happens to the cell if it is in an hypertonic environment
    the cell grows
  73. what happens to the cell if it is in an hypotonic environment
    the cell shrinks
  74. how is facilitated diffusion different from diffusion
    facilitated diffusion uses protein carrier molecules to allow substances to diffuse through a cell membrane
  75. what happens during cellular exocytosis
    vesicles form from within the cell carrying substances toward the cell membrane
  76. what happens during cellular endocytosis
    vesicles form from the cell membrane and carry substances from outside the cell to the inside
  77. define vesicle mediation
    a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bound vesicles
  78. how do ion pumps differ from channel proteins
    ion pumps require energy
  79. what is the term of cellular fluids and cellular solids