Midterm

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shortnin
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Midterm
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2010-06-18 02:47:53
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Midterm
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  1. Etiology
    Causation; the study of causes; specifically disease
  2. Etiopathic
    Relating to specific lesions concerned with the cause of a disease
  3. Epidemiology
    The science of epidemics and epidemic diseases
  4. Morbid
    Refers to a diseased state and in psychology refers to abnormal or deviant
  5. Nosology
    The classification of diseases
  6. Ontology
    The study of the evolutionary development of the species
  7. Psychopathology
    Psychiatry; the science that deals with the pathology of the psyche or mind; the science of mental disorders
  8. Taxonomy
    • 1. The classification of various plants and animals
    • 2. Systematic classification or orderly arrangement
  9. Reliability
    The capacity of individuals to agree on the same diagnosis given the same information.
  10. Validity
    Whether or not the diagnostic criteria are good (valid) indicators of the presence or absence of a particular disease
  11. What does cortex mean?
    Surface; often used to refer to cerebral cortex
  12. What does the term 'cerebrum' encompass?
    Both hemispheres, plus subcortical
  13. The hindbrain & midbrain =
    Brain Stem
  14. Limbic & Cerebrum =
    Forebrain
  15. What does limbic mean?
    Border
  16. What controls motor activity?
    Cerebellum
  17. What is the function of the brain stem?
    Essential automatic functions; breathing, sleeping, moving
  18. What system is responsible for the hairs on your arm standing up?
    Limbic
  19. What type of memory is associated with the amygdala?
    Implicit and body memory
  20. What part of the brain is essentially a smoke detector?
    Amygdala
  21. What type of memory is associated with the hippocampus?
    Explicit
  22. Without the ____, you wouldn't remember what you had for lunch yesterday.
    Hippocampus
  23. Parkinson's is due to problems with ______?
    The basal ganglia
  24. What part of the brain is concerned with keeping you safe?
    Basal ganglia
  25. OCD, hoarding, excessive hand washing are attributed to this brian structure:
    Basal ganglia
  26. The cerebral cortex is made up of 4 lobes. Name them
    Frontal, Temporal, Occipital, Parietal
  27. Which lobe is involved with the planning of movements, recent memory and some aspects of emotions?
    Frontal lobe
  28. Which lobe is involved with body sensations?
    Parietal lobe
  29. Which lobe is involved with hearing and advanced visual processing?
    Temporal lobe
  30. Which lobe is involved with vision?
    Occipital lobe
  31. Which hemisphere is involvedwith language, verbal and cognitive processes?
    Left
  32. Which hemisphere is non-verbal and associated with perceiving the world, visual-spatial and emotional behavior?
    Right
  33. Which portion of the brain contains 80% of all neurons?
    Cerebral Cortex
  34. What is the function of the prefrontal cortex?
    Orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals
  35. It is the job of the ______ to put a damper on signals that come from the amygdala.
    Prefrontal cortex
  36. What part of the brain is the "affective core"?
    Right orbitofrontal cortex
  37. What part of the brain is involved with social adjustment and the control of mood, drive and responsibility, traits that are crucial in defining the "personality" of an individual?
    Right orbitofrontal cortex
  38. What brain structure shuts down signals from the amygdala?
    Right orbitofrontal cortex
  39. What brain structure is involved with war vets "shutting down"?
    Right orbitofrontal cortex
  40. The glands of what system produce hormones?
    Endocrine
  41. What does HPA axis stand for?
    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
  42. What are the structures of the HPA Axis?
    Hypothalamus, pituitary glands and adrenal glands
  43. What happens when the HPA Axis senses stress?
    • Pituitary signals the adrenal gland to release epinephrine (adrenaline)
    • and cortisol
  44. The adrenal glad releases these chemicals when stressed:
    Epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol
  45. What signals the adrenal gland to release epinephrine and cortisol?
    the Pituitary Gland
  46. What is a neuron?
    A brain cell, or cell in the nervous system.
  47. What is a neurotransmitter?
    Chemical used by neurons to send signals to each other.
  48. What is a vesicle?
    A chamber in a neuron, which stores neurotransmitter molecules. Some neurotransmitters are synthesized inside vesicles, while others are synthesized elsewhere in the neuron, and piped into vesicles for storage.
  49. What is a synapse?
    The gap between the signal-transmitting region (an axon terminal) of one neuron, and the signal-receiving portion (receptors) of an adjacent neuron.
  50. What is monoamine oxidase?
    A family of enzymes (chemicals that break down other chemicals) that metabolize (destroy) neurotransmitters.
  51. What is dopamine?
    Dopamine is typically identified as the neurotransmitter most directly associated with pleasure. "Pleasure" includes emotions such as joy, and more physically-oriented sensations such as sensuality, libido, and sexual pleasure.
  52. Dopamine is a precursor to...
    Norepinephrine
  53. What is Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)?
    A "message-altering"neurotransmitter. It is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and regulates the transmission of signals in the brain.
  54. What is Glutamate?
    An excitatory neurotransmitter.
  55. What is the most common neurotransmitter?
    Glutamate
  56. What is Norepinephrine?
    A neurotransmitter most directly associated with energy, meaning the feeling of vigor, and capacity for physical labor. It is also associated with the ability to concentrate.
  57. What is Serotonin?
    The neurotransmitter most directly associated with calmness and general feelings of well-being.
  58. Problems involving this neurotransmitter may cause severe emotional disturbance, such as dramatic over-sensitivity to disappointment, extreme melancholia, and feelings of worthlessness.
    Serotonin
  59. DA is short for what neurotransmitter?
    Dopamine
  60. Early antipsychotic medications block ______ receptor sites
    Dopamine
  61. ____ is similar to epinephrine and norepinephrine.
    Dopamine
  62. This is associated with outgoing, pleasure seeking behavior.
    Dopamine
  63. Opposite of GABA
    Glutamate
  64. Think MSG
    Glutamate
  65. GABA stands for
    Gamma Aminobutyric Acid
  66. This inhibits a variety of behaviors and emotions, reduces anxiety
    GABA
  67. _____ is abbreviated NE
    Norepinephrine
  68. This neurotransmitter is a part of the endocrine system
    Norepoinephrine
  69. Beta blocker drugs block one type of _____ receptor sites
    Norepinephrine
  70. This neurotransmitter influences emergency response
    Norepinephrine
  71. Aka 5HT
    Serotonin
  72. Most antidepressant meds target this neurotransmitter
    Serotonin
  73. Low levels of this neurotransmitter are associated with impulsivity and tendency to overreact
    Serotonin
  74. What is Axis I?
    Clinical Disorders/Symptoms
  75. What is Axis II?
    Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
  76. What is Axis III?
    General Medical Conditions
  77. What is Axis IV?
    Psychosocial and environmental functioning
  78. What is Axis V?
    Global Assessment of Functioning
  79. For which Axis would the following questions be asked:
    What is the focus of treatment going to be?
    Why are they in your office?
    What will you be working on with them?
    Axis I
  80. For which Axis would the following questions be asked:
    What are relationships like?
    How do you relate to the world, self, others?
    Axis II
  81. For which Axis would the following questions be asked:
    How big of a problem is this?
    What has this looked like in the past?
    Axis V
  82. What are the "factors" of the Five Factor Model?
    • Neuroticism (v. Emotional Stability)
    • Extroversion (v. Introversion)
    • Openness to Experience (v. Closedness)
    • Agreeableness (v. Antagonism)
    • Conscientiousness (v. Undependability)
  83. What are the 3 polarities in Millon's theory?
    • Pleasure/Pain
    • Passive/Active
    • Self/Other
  84. What does introjection mean?
    "To put inside"
  85. What are the 3 perspectives Millon refers to?
    Iterpersonal, Cognitive, Psychodynamic

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