A&P Midterm 1 (Part 2)
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What are mast cells?
they are cells in connective tissue, that have granules that contain histamine and heparin. They can initiate an inflammatory response.
Connective Tissue is composed of 3 distinct components. What are they?
- 1. Ground substance (can be liquid, gel, or solid)
- 2. Fibers (can be collagenous, reticular, or elastic)
- 3. Cells (can be fibroblasts, mast cells, leukocytes a.k.a white blood cells, adipocytes, reticular cells, or wandering cells)
What 3 types of fiber are in connective tissue?
- 1. collagenous fibers- strong&thick. made of collagen. Resists stretching ex: tendons and ligaments. a.k.a white fibers2. Reticular fibers- made of collagen, but thin and branched/netted around very cellular organs. (ex:liver, ateries, spleen. ect)gives them support.
3. Elastic fibers-
composed of protein elastin. branched and very stretchy. a.k.a yellow fibers
(ex:lungs, skin, vocal chords ect)
Connective Tissue is classified by being Loose or Dense. What types of loose connective tissue are there?
- 1.Areolar2. Adipose
- 3. Reticular
Connective Tissue is classified by being Loose or Dense. What types of Dense Connective tissue are there?
- 1. Dense regular
- 2. Dense irregular
- 3. Elastic
What is Areolar connective tissue?
It is a loose
- **Most common type in the body.
- --packages organs and supports them
What is Adipose connective tissue?
"FAT". It's a loose connective tissue. Areolar tissue with adipocytes in it.
*for warmth/insulation, energy storage, and cushioning.
Theres white and brown adipose
What is Reticular connective tissue?
It is a loose
- **3D framework on organs.
- ex: liver, spleen
What is dense regular connective tissue?
- It is a dense connective tissue. ex:tendon, ligament (no bloodflow)
- **strong, 1 direction. Does not stretch. you will tear it.
What is dense irregular connective tissue?
- it is dense connective tissue.
- **strong, and multiple directions.
- ex: skin, testis, joint capsule ect.
What is elastic connective tissue?
- dense connective tissue.
- Very stretchy.
- ex: walls of stomach, intervertebral space
What is Cartilage?
What 3 types are there?
- it is a specialized connective tissue.
- It is flexible and cushions. But poor healing ability.
- 1. Hyaline
- 2. Elastic
- 3. Fibrocartilage
What is Hyaline cartilage?
- it is articular cartilage, growth plates too (joint cartilage)
- **most common in the body!
- ***cannot be regenerated once destroyed!
What is Elastic Cartilage?
very flexible and resilient. ex: pinna, and epiglottis.
*elastic fibers look black
What is cortical/compact bone?
means "shell". It is a thin connective tissue layer on the outside of bone
What is cancellous/spongy bone?
it is yellow and spongy on the inside of bone.
What are tendons/ligaments made of?
collagenous connective tissue
What are vocal chords made of?
Elastic connective tissue
What are mucous membranes?
an important barrier from outside. the outside meets inside
*linked with capillary refill time.
What is synovial membranes?
They line joints (synovial joints and the bursa).
They make fluid so there is not friction between joints.
What is cutaneous membrane?
It is skin.
What is the serous membrane? a.k.a serosae
consists of a parietal layer(lines cavity walls) and visceral layer(lines organs)
1.Where is pleural fluid located?
2.Where is paritoneal fluid located?
3.Where is pericardial fluid located?
- 1. Thorax
- 2. Abdomen
- 3. Heart
What is a hemothorax?
blood/fluid mix in the thorax region.
What is the epidermis?
- the top layer of epithelial tissue.
- composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
- -above the dermis
What is the dermis?
- its below the epidermis.
- composed of dense fibro-elastic connective tissue
What is the hypodermis/subcutaneous layer?
- below the dermis.
- composed of adipose tissue (fat.)
what is the integumentary system?
the skin and structures like horns, hair, claws, hooves.
What are keratinocytes?
They are found in the epidermis. they produce keratin.
What is keratinization?
cell death in the epidermis. shedding of dead skin cells
what is a melanocyte?
a cell that produces melanin (dark pigment)
What are melanosomes?
They store melanin....keratinocytes absorb melanosomes!
What is the langerhans cell?
macrophage specific cell!
What is merkel cells?
- aid in sensory of touch(nerve endings)
- *in epidermis
What is Stratum Basale (Germinatium)
- the deepest layer of epidermis.
- *consists of a single row of keratinoyctes attached to the basement membrane. (active cell division)
What is stratum spinosum?
- "spiny layer" cells contract spiny looking and resemble sea urchins.
- *langerhorn's cells here
What is the stratum granulosum?
the middle layer of skin in epidermis.
2-4 layers of diamond shaped keratinocytes
What is the stratum lucidum?
- "clear layer" in epidermis.
- found in very thick skin. most skin lacks this layer
What is the stratum corneum?
- "horny layer". it is the outermost layer and dominates the epidermis.
- 20-30 rows of keratinocytes
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