Patho Lab 4
Card Set Information
Patho Lab 4
Patho Lab 4
Innate (natural) immunity
Born with it
Chemical and physical barriers
Protection that is always present. Includes phagocytic (cells that eat other cells) macrophages and dendritic cells.
Adaptive (acquired) immunity
Exposed to it
both adaptive and specific
Protection that arises by an immune response, including humoral immunity producing antibodies and cellular immunity.
First line of defense
Innate (natural) (native) immunity
: skin, mucous membranes, vomiting, coughing, urination, defecation
: Mucus, perspiration, saliva, tears, cerumen (ear wax), chemicals derived from normal flora, sebum
Second line of defense
Non-specific mechanisms of immunity
search and destroy
Third line of defense:Adaptive, specific immunity
Antigen Presenting Cell (APC)
cells that consume and present an antigen to the immune system starting the process of producing antibodies to that antigen
Macrophages, dendritic cells, and some B lymphocytes
Macrophages attack and engulf the antigen
antigen is digested and processed
then it is displayed on the APCs surface
They are recruited by advertising of antigens displayed on the APC
When they see the antigen, they release cytokines and stimulate cell division by autocrine activation
As they divide they form:
-T-memory cells- speed future response
-T-helper1 cells- cell mediated immunity
-T-helper2 cells- activate antibody-mediated immunity
Activated by T
When activated, release compounds that kill cancerous or virally infected cells
Apoptosis is preferred for virally infected cells
-DNA fragmentation reduces risk of virus re-infection
used to trigger cytolysis
Flagging for destruciton
auto-, allo-, or heterophile cell markers
Anything causing an immune response, usually foreign material but may be our own tissues.
phagocyte -dives into puss and dies
poor antigen presenter
professional antigen presenter
targeted self antigens
A failure of tolerance, the immune system reacts to self.
Any disease causing microorganism
Signaled by macrophage
and B cells
Target virally infected cells
a specific immunity blood cell
prominent in secondary immune response
75% of plasma antibody
Actively transported across the placenta (maternal-fetal)
Longest half-life of the immunoglobulins
Signaling molecules released by one cell to cause a response in another. Signaling is extremely important in our immune response.
present in plasma and body secretions
contains sIgA- secretory component- protects from enzymatic destruction
Lacrimal glands, salivary glands, and lymphoid tissues in the breasts, bronchi, intestines, and GI tract
Protects against pathogens that are inhaled, swallowed, or come in contact with external serfaces.
The immune system
Cells in our bone marrow, thymus, and the lymphatic system of ducts and nodes, spleen, and blood that function to protect us.
Non-reactivity of the immune system, usually refers to "self" but may include foreign tissue in organ transplants.
Molecules released by pathogens and infected tissues to attract cells of the immune system.