RAD-171 Ch.9 Radiation Protection Procedures for Patients & Personnel

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RAD-171 Ch.9 Radiation Protection Procedures for Patients & Personnel
2013-10-18 08:44:26

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  1. in what year was xrays created
  2. why is it important and the primary reason to set limits for the protection of the radiation worker and the general public
    because of the known biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation
  3. describe stochastic and non stochastic effects
    stochastic effects are syaing that all doses of radiation are possible of causing certain effects, theres a possibility cancer might arise, there is a probablilty that these effects can happen to the whole body and shorten lifespan = probablistic

    non stochastic effects are effects that happen to a specific area (like radiaition therapy), it is the exact number of radiaition that this disease will happen it is deterministic
  4. List the REM doses for the student RT worker and the general public
    • 5 REM/year for RT worker
    • .1 REM/year for student
    • .1 REM/year for general public
  5. which effect has threshold and does not have a threshold
    then explain what that means
    stochastic effects have a non threshold b/c every piece of radiation can cause something to the whole body, its a possibility

    nonstochastic effects have a threshold because the effect has to occure once a certain limit of radiation is reached to break the threshold causing a disease or condition to occur like cataracts, skin erythema etc..
  6. what is alara
    as low as reasonably achievable
  7. what is the dose limits for the whole body of a tech and the specific areas like the, skin knee, head, elbow?
    • RT = 5 REM whole body
    • lens of eyes = 15 REM
    • skin, knee, head, elbow = 50 REM
  8. how do you figure out the cumulative dose per year
    age x 1 will give you the cumulative REM
  9. what is the dose limits for the whole body of a student and the general public
    • whole body for student = .1REM
    • lens of eyes 1.5 REM
    • skin,elbow, head 5 REM
  10. what is the dose equivalent limit for fetal exposures per month according to the NCRP regulations
    .05 REM
  11. what is the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy according to the NRC regulations
    .5 REM
  12. when does personnel exposure occur
    during fluoroscopy, mobile examinations, interventional procedures, cardiac catheterization
  13. where should personnel be during most radiographic exposures
    behind protective barriers
  14. should radiographers hold patients who are unable to cooperate during an x-ray exposure
    then should we use instead
    • no
    • immobilizers
  15. what are the three principles of personnel exposure reduction
    • time - reduced time spent in the vicinity of an operable radiation source
    • distance - increase the distance between you and the source of radiation
    • shielding - interpose material between you and the source of radiation
  16. what are protective barriers
    sturctural protective barriers are built into the design of the xray room to insure radiation protection to personnel and members of the general public
  17. what two categories are protective barriers classified in
    primary or secondary barriers
  18. what are primary barriers
    • they are barriers that are struck first by the primary beam
    • the floor and the wall that the vertical bucky device is on
    • 1/16'' of Pb/Eq (lead)
  19. what are secondary barriers
    what types of radiation are these walls struck by
    all the other walls, ceiling, control booth, and overlaps the primary barrier by 1'' after 7ft and continue the full height of the wall

    struck by scatter and leakage
  20. what are the most common protective devices
    lead aprons, thyroid shields, lead gloves
  21. what should personnel wear during fluoros and mobile xrays
    lead aprons
  22. list all the factors in protecting the patient
    • beam limitation
    • technique (kvp and mas)
    • grids
    • gonadal shielding
    • image receptors
    • equipment
    • patient exposure estimates