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Name the two different types of parasites.
- Obligate: adapted to a single host or a group of very closely related hosts (e.g, human crab louse)
- Facultative: capable of completing it's life on a variety of host species that may not be closely related.
Difference between ectoparasites and endoparasites?
- ecto - feed externally on the host
- endo - feed internally on the host
An infestation of lice.
Name the two types of disease...
- Noninfectious - A detrimental change from what is considered normal - not involving a pathogen: mental abnormalities, genetic abnormalities, delusory parasitosis.
- Infectious - caused and spread by the invasion and establishment of an outside agent
The disease causing agent: usually virus, bacteria, microorganism.
The organism that transports the pathogen. (arthropods)
any animal system capable of maintaining a pathogen over time
The two types of disease transmission are...
- Mechanical - simple movement of pathogens through contact.
- Biological - involves development and/or propagation in the vector. Vector is necessary for the life cycle development of the pathogen.
Name some diseases that, if found anywhere in the world, must be reported to the WHO.
- Yellow fever
Name some disease that, if found in washington, must be reported to the WHO.
- -Lyme disease
- -Relapsing fever
- -West nile virus
- -Yellow fever
What is stridulation?
The rubbing together of body parts to produce noises (ex crickets)
- Pulse - train of sounds
- Chirp - series of pulses
- Song - chirps in a pattern
Sound reception. (Ex, katydid leg or the abdomen of a moth)
How do cicadas produce sound?
A vibrating membrane.
How do mosquitoes hear?
Advantages of using chemical signals
- -Visual cues impossible or unreliable
- -Effective range flexibility
- -Relatively persistent
- -Highly specific or general in nature
Disadvantages of using chemical signals
- -May be slow in reaching the receiver.
- -Cannot be modulated once released (but can be modulated over time)
- -Can be copied to the benefit of other species
Types of signaling chemicals
- Hormones - used WITHIN the body to regulate bodily functions
- Semiochemicals - communication between individuals (intraspecific and interspecific)
Interspecific action. Benefits the sender.
Fork shaped protrusions from a caterpillar that lets them smear the enemy with some type of chemical (often an acid)
- -Interspecific action
- -Benefits the receiver (ex scents being released from a plant)
Name the 6 types of pheromones
- 1) alarm pheromones (ex aphids flee when one is attacked)
- 2) trail pheromones (ex ant trails)
- 3) aggregation pheromones (ex lady bug huddle, bark beetles)
- 4) sex pheromones (ex moth mating)
- 5) oviposition deterrent pheromones (ex fly that lays eggs in fruit)
- 6) aphrodisiac pheromones (ex hair pencils on a butterfly)
Eyes for sight perception and intensity.