COA study

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COA study
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ophthalmic assistant certification
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  1. Agents for relief of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis
    patanol, pataday, allaway, bepreve, lastacaft
  2. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
    introduced b/c of significant side effects of topical corticosteroids- acular (ketorolac), nevanac (nepafanac), Bromday (bromfenac)
  3. Refractive index
    ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in a specific substance
  4. Focal point
    the point somewhere along the principal axis of a lens at which the pariaxial rays converge or diverge
  5. Focal length
    the distance between the focal point and the lens
  6. Diopter
    the unit of measure of the power of a lens
  7. A convex lens ___ light rays while a concave lens ___ light.
    converges, diverges
  8. Emmetropia
    the normal refractive state of the eye in which light rays from distant objects are focused clearly on the retinal by relaxed lens without any accomidation
  9. Ametropia
    abnormal refractive state of eye, in which light rays from distant objects cannot be focused clearly on retina due to refractive error
  10. State the principal refractive characteristic of a prism
    refracts light rays toward its base
  11. Name 2 main components of refraction
    refractometry and clear judgement
  12. To correct hyperopia
    + convex
  13. Purpose of incorporating prism into corrective lens
    to correct diplopia caused by visual misalignments
  14. Combination gtt agents
    • cosopt-dorzolamide/timolol
    • combigan-brimonidine/timolol
    • duotrav-travaprost/timolol
    • 1/2 of glauc pts require more than one type of medication to lower pressure
  15. Antimicrobials
    • antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals
    • -antibiotics kill/inhibit bacterial growth
    • bacitracin ung, tobramycin gtts/ung (tobrex),
    • mycin ung, azithromycin (azasite), gentamycin, sulfonamide
  16. Fluoroquinolone group antibiotics
    ciprofloxacin(ciloxan), ofloxacin(ocuflox), levofloxacin(quixin, iquix), gatifloxacin(zymar, zymaxid), moxifloxacin(vigamox), besifloxacin(besivance)
  17. Other combo drugs (antibiotic)
    • poly-trim or trimethoprim-polymyxinB
    • maxitrol polymyxinB-dexamethasone-neomycin
    • tobramycin-dexamethasone or tobradex
  18. Antiviral agents
    inhibit the ability of virus to reproduce- used to treat herpes simplex/zoster virus
  19. Antifungal agents
    kill fungi and used to treat a variety of external ocular fungal injections-natamycin, ketoconazole, voriconozole
  20. Antiallergenic & Anti-inflammatory agents- corticosteroids
    Chief use to reduce inflammation and treat allergic reactions.prednisolone acetate(PF, M, Omnipred)fluorometholone(FML, Fluor-op, FML forte)loteprednol etabonate(Alrex, Lotemax)difluprednate(Durezol)
  21. Ocular decongestants
    • constrict superficial blood vessels in the conj but do nothing to treat the cause of redness
    • visine, murine, Ak-nefrin, clear eyes
  22. List 3 principal delivery systems for oph meds
    topical, inj, oral
  23. 3 principal forms of topical oph meds
    solutions, suspensions, ung/gtts, inserts
  24. 3 possible eye irritations caused by preservatives in AFT's
    tearing, redness, pain
  25. Cycloplegics
    drugs that paralyze iris sphincter and dilate pupil
  26. Mydriatic agents are used to:
    dilate pupil
  27. Hyperosmotics
    decrease IOP by drawing fluid out of aqueous and vit humors by mechanism of osmosis (the creation of fluid force across permeable membrane)  Oral:glycerin(osmoglyn) or inj:mannitol(osmitrol) in case of acute angle closure and during intraocular sx
  28. Prostaglandins
    a single evening effective in lowering IOP, also side effects include eyelash growth, hyperemia, pigment change
  29. Alpha2 selective agonists
    decrease the rate of aqueous humor production and can be used alone or in combo with other gtts but may cause itching red eyes, UL elevation, mildly dilated pupils.  brimonidine .2% .15% .1% (alphagan)
  30. Oral and topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    decrease formation and secretion of aqueous humor, may cause tingling of the extremeties, appetite loss, metallic taste, kidney stones. Azopt, trusopt, oral Diamox, neptazane
  31. Adrenergic-stimulating agent
    • infrequently used in US
    • increases aqueous flow
    • used to use epinephrine but now only dipivefrin is rx'd
  32. Beta-adrenergic blockers
    • decrease aqueous production
    • often rx as adjunct to or in combo with prostaglandins.
    • potential to decrease heart rate-avoid in pt with obstructive lung disease: timolol, betaxolol, levobunolol, carteolol, metipranolol
  33. Myotics
    cause iris sphincter to contract constricting pupil and opening of trab mesh drainage system- pilocarpine
  34. To correct astigmatism
    sphero-cylindrical
  35. refraction
    process of measuring one's refractive error and determining the optical correction required to provide clear vision.
  36. lateral rectus
    outward(abduction) temporal
  37. inferior rectus
    downward (secondary excyclotorsion)
  38. medial rectus
    inward (nasal) adduction
  39. superior rectus
    upward (secondary inclyclotorsion)
  40. inferior oblique
    up+out (excyclotorsion)
  41. superior oblique
    down+in (incyclotorsion)
  42. At a 10 inch reading distance a +10D lens magnifies-
    2.5x
  43. 4 primary structures of adnexa
    eyelids, orbit, muscles, lacrimal apparatus
  44. Wavefront error measurement is called:
    abberometry
  45. 4 types of suture needle points
    taper, cutting, reverse-cutting, spatula
  46. How does observation of ductions and versions differ?
    • versions-observing with ou open
    • ductions-occluding one eye and observing uncovered and vice versa
  47. When are adjunctive oph tests indicated?
    when basic assessment reveals deficiency or oph condition
  48. A person sees an object superotemporal quad of VF.  In what quad of retina is view focused?
    inferonasal
  49. State in degrees of eccentricity the approx. boundaries of the 4 quads of normal VF
    90* temporal, 60* nasal, inferior, superior
  50. Scotoma
    • area of reduced sensitivity-shallow:mild defect
    • deep-serious defect
    • absolute-could not elicit response from the largest, brightest target available on particular machine
  51. Define visual acuity
    ability to discern visual detail
  52. Incomitant
    misalignments have different degrees of deviation in different fields of gaze
  53. Pinhole acuity
    can reveal whether a pts below normal va is result of refractive error or is due to another cause
  54. Physiologic process and purpose of accomodation
    curvature of lens can change becoming rounder to focus images of objects that are closer to the eye
  55. Healthy asymptomatic 40-64 yo should have CE every:
    2-4 years
  56. Eye irritations caused by preservatives in eye gtts
    tearing, redness, pain
  57. 3 kinds of organisms that antimicrobials kill:
    bacteria, fungi, viruses
  58. fluoroquinolone
    an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections
  59. Visual pathway
    • Optic nerves merge at optic chiasm
    • Axon fibers from N retina cross opposite sides while T retina axons cont on respective sides
    • Realigned axons emerge from chiasm as LR optic tracts ending@LR lateral geniculate bodies
    • Axons connect to optic radiations which travel to RL halves of visual cortex of brain
  60. 4 groups of microorganisms that cause eye disease
    bacteria, protozoa, fungi, viruses
  61. Purpose of aseptic technique (microbial control)
    to prevent the spread of infection to staff and pt
  62. 6 basic infection control techniques (activities)
    handwashing, gloves, gown, special recepticles, sterilization of objects in contact between pts, disposing of materials with bodily fluids
  63. Difference between sterilization and disinfection
    • sterilization-destroys all microorganisms
    • disinfection-inactivates or eliminates most microorganisms
  64. 6 cardinal positions of gaze
    • right and up
    • right
    • right and down
    • left and up
    • left
    • left and down
  65. Purpose of prism and alternate cover test
    to measure deviation of eye misalignment
  66. Swinging light test checks:
    for APD
  67. What cells are mostly contained in macula?
    cones
  68. Main hormones produced by endocrine glands
    insulin, thyroid hormone, estrogen, testosterone
  69. RD
    separation of sensory and pigment layers of retina
  70. endophthalmitis:
    infection of vitreous and adjacent tissues
  71. 4 possible causes of damage to nerve cells of visual pathway
    tumor, stroke, trauma, inflammation
  72. keratoconus
    central k thins causing cone shaped k affecting vision
  73. How herpes k ulcer differs from bacterial/fungal ulcer
    • less severe symptoms
    • dense k opacity
    • dendritic appearance
  74. 2 principal methods of sterilization
    moist heat & ethylene oxide gas
  75. Purpose of comprehensive exam
    to reveal both existing and potential problems even in the absence of specific symptoms
  76. 5 principal areas covered by history taking interview
    CC, HPI, ocular hx, general med/social hx, family ocular/med hx, allergy meds vits or supplements
  77. 5 causes of low vision
    cat, trauma, high refractive error, k scarring, AMD, glauc, onchocerciasis, BDR, congenital ROP
  78. World Health Organization definition of low vision
    <20/60 and = or better than 20/40 in better eye
  79. Sarcoidosis causes
    • inflammation and microscopic nodules (granulomas) that affect almost all systems in the body
    • *commonly causes uveitis
  80. conjugate
    both eyes simultaneously move in the same direction
  81. disconjugate
    both eyes simultaneously move in opposite directions
  82. versions
    observing movements of ou together
  83. 5 elements may be required in determining specification of cl
    • lens thickness
    • sph pwr
    • k readings
    • diameter/bc
    • material
    • water content
    • tint
    • wearing sched
  84. cl cleaning vs disinfection
    • cleaning-removes protein, deposits, debris that blur/irritate eye
    • disinfection-prevents bacterial, viral, fungal growth on lens
  85. 2 methods for disinfection
    heat, chemical
  86. inferior oblique (3 I's = opposite)
    up and out
  87. superior oblique (2 I's opposite and in)
    down and in
  88. k problems from cls
    edema, ulcer, abrasion, vascularization, keratitis, infection
  89. cause of warping caused by cl wear
    warping is a semi-permanent change in k curvature caused by improper fit, usually due to RGP
  90. 5 symptoms may indicate allergy/sensitivity to solution
    irritation, fogging, redness, tearing, decreased wearing time, blurry va
  91. myasthenia gravis
    chronic autoimmune disease that interferes with proper nerve transmission in skeletal muscles
  92. AIDS can cause
    CMV, herpes zoster, Kaposi sarcoma
  93. AIDS cannot cause
    rubella retinitis
  94. MS frequently presents with
    optic neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve)
  95. transparent
    describes substances that permit passage of light s significant disruption
  96. The myopic eye focuses light
    in front of the retina
  97. A convex () lens with a focal length of 0.50 meter
    has a power of 2.00 D
  98. +1.00+2.00x090 transpose
    +3.00-2.00x180
  99. neutralization
    retinoscopy-finding the lens power that affects the movement of retina reflex filling pupil with light (objective refraction)
  100. first step in lensometry or keratometry is
    focusing the eyepiece
  101. 2 drugs that possibly can induce angle closure glaucoma
    mydriatics and cycloplegics
  102. miotics function to
    reduce IOP by contraction ciliary body muscle, opening outflow channels for aqueous
  103. Drugs used to treat bacterial infections
    neomycin, sulfonamides, bactrim
  104. Phenylephrine is a
    mydriatic
  105. generic drugs ending in "lol"
    beta blockers
  106. Indirect contact transmission
    infection caused by contaminated metal fragment penetrating eye
  107. direct contact transmission
    person to person thru close personal contact
  108. common vehicle transmission
    one reservoir to many people ie: contaminated gtts
  109. vector borne
    caused by organism that transmits pathogen to hose ie: trachoma via flies
  110. prism and alternate cover test
    used to measure deviation in misaligned eye
  111. sixth cranial nerve
    powers the lateral rectus muscle
  112. herschberg test
    a k light reflex used for strabismus detection
  113. third cranial nerve
    • levator palpebral
    • inferior oblique
    • medial rectus
    • superior rectus
    • inferior rectus
    • LP, IO, IR, MR, SR
  114. interferometer
    laser or special light beams to project parallel lines onto macula
  115. threshold perimetry
    target of given size in VF+gradually increasing brightness until pt sees
  116. IPD
    from the center of one pupil to the center of the other
  117. monocular PD
    center to the bridge of each then add results
  118. as a starting point most opticians recommend
    fitting top of bifocal segment level with lower lid margin
  119. WHO definition of low vision
    < 20/60 ou
  120. PMMC lens allows
    oxygen only thru tear pump
  121. spatula point needle
    rhomboid shaped used in k and sclera where plane of penetration must be precise
  122. hyperopia corrected by sx that
    steepens the k
  123. intracorneal ring segments
    treat- early KCN, low myopia and ectasia post lasik sx
  124. one limitation in pre op refractive sx eval is
    production of spherical abberations
  125. PRK laser is applied to
    bowman's layer
  126. E&M codes do not include
    dx
  127. what % of worldwide va impairment is tx/preventable
    80%
  128. example of a handheld lens
    hruby
  129. example of lens that comes in contact with eye
    koeppe lens
  130. keratometer measures
    central 3.3 mm of k in 2 meridians
  131. PAM used to
    determine va potential in pts with cataracts
  132. how should lenses that contact the eye be disinfected
    mixture of 1-10 dilution of bleach to water for 5 min
  133. 3 tear film layers and functions
    • oil-prevents evaporation of moisture from aqueous layer
    • aqueous-provides moisture, oxygen, and nutrients to k
    • mucin-inner promotes even spread of tear film
  134. taper
    cone shaped on round shaft used for soft tissues
  135. cutting
    triangular cutting edge (common)
  136. reverse cutting
    2 side cutting edges +bottom sutting edge for resistant tissue
  137. titmus stereopsis test requires
    pt to wear light polarizing spectacles
  138. k light reflex test/purpose
    Hirschberg- to detect strabismus
  139. prostagladnins
    • single evening dose very effective in lowering IOP
    • lash growth, hyperemia, increased iris pigmentation and lid skin
    • (lumigan, travatan, xalatan)
  140. How retina works to produce sensation of sight
    rods+cones receive light rays that generate electric nerve impulses that are transferred to brain where visual images are converted to sensation of sight
  141. Anti VEGF- antivascular endothelium growth factor
    pegaptanib (macugen)
    renibizumab (lucentis)
    bevicizumab (avastin)
    A therapeutic drug used in intravitrial inj that targets vascular endo growth factor.  Acts by diminishing the stimulus for abnormal new vessel growth (angiogenesis) a known cause for wet amd
  142. 10 types of disease/injury processes
    • inflammatory           
    • ischemic
    • metabolic                 
    • infectious
    • traumatic                 
    • congenital
    • allergic
    • degenerative
    • neoplastic
    • developmental
  143. under normal conditions aqueous leaves eye in sequence
    • anterior chamber angle
    • trab mesh
    • canal of schlemm
  144. Methods scl, poly cl, and RGP cl provide oxygen to k
    • scl- diffuse oxygen and c dioxide thru material w min tear pump
    • PPMA-deliver oxygen only by pumping tear under lens
    • RGP- provide oxy and cd diffusion thru lens material and tear pump
  145. 4 objectives cl must meet to maintain healthy cornea
    • allow oxygen
    • promote flushing waste
    • sustain integrity of epithelium
    • normal k temp
  146. some problems with placement of pciol
    • pigment dispersion
    • pupillary block
    • cataract
  147. indications for conductive keratoplasty
    • -low degrees of hyperopia
    • -monovision, induction of myopia in ND eye of one with emmetropic presbyopia
  148. 2 aspects of pupil examination are important in determining risk of post optical distortions
    • pupil centration
    • size under various lighting
  149. why cyclo refraction important in pre op for ref sx
    • eliminates accommodation
    • exact refraction
  150. focal point
    the point somewhere along the principal axis of a lens at which the paraxial rays converge and diverge
  151. blindness among DM pt is __ times that of general population
    25
  152. tonotip best disinfected by
    germicide
  153. At a 10 inch reading distance how much magnification would a +10 D lens provide
    2.5x
  154. significant haze occurs in lasik when
    flap is too thin
  155. phoropter should be maintenance every
    2 years
  156. Trachoma
    eye infx caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis and transmitted by flies
  157. Evaluation and Management
    key components- hx, exam, med decision making
  158. cosmetic restorative lenses are most appropriate for pt who
    has disfigured eyes
  159. How many cm is the customary reading distance of 16 inches
    40cm
  160. observing movements with one eye covered
    observing versions
  161. main function of sclera
    to protect intraocular contents
  162. function of ciliary process
    to produce and secrete aqueous humor
  163. function of choroid
    supply blood and nourish outer retina layers
  164. purpose of vitreous
    • shock absorber
    • maintain spherical shape of globe
  165. rods and cones
    • rods-dimly lit vision (night) +peripheral
    • cones-sharp central vision and color perception
  166. proptosis (exophthalmos)
    increased orbital volume resulting in protrusion of eyeballs
  167. 2 principal functions of lacrimal apparatus
    produce/drain tears
  168. relationship between lacrimal gland, sac, nasolacrimal duct
    lacrimal gland produces tears that are then collected by the lacrimal sac draining into the nasal cavity by way of the nasolacrimal duct
  169. 3 layers of eyelids
    outer skin, middle fibrous muscle layer, inner conj
  170. orthoptist
    evaluates diplopia, visual function, particularly in infants and children, as well as muscle disorders
  171. how does contact lens provide new refractive surface for cornea and correct refractive error
    • keratometry
    • sph power
    • diameter
    • bc
    • thickness
    • material
    • wearing sched
  172. with low vision pt should avoid what while reading
    glare
  173. oculomotor or 3rd cranial nerve powers
    • superior rectus
    • inferior rectus
    • medial rectus
    • inferior oblique
  174. 6th cranial nerve or abducen's powers
    lateral rectus
  175. what are the limitations of strabismus assessment with k light reflex testing
    reflex light testing can be confounded by deformed pupils or abnormal retinal architecture
  176. 2 types of reference coordinates used for mapping VF
    • circles off center
    • radial meridians
  177. An example of Anti VEGF agent is
    ranibizumab
  178. 4 common deficits of visual impairment
    • no peripheral va but good cva
    • no cva but good peripheral va
    • less than 20/200 va
    • only portions of VF perceived
    • LP only
    • NLP
    • fluctuations in vision
  179. 3 main substances that may cause chem burn to eye
    • acid
    • organic solvent
    • alkali
  180. miotics function to reduce iop by
    contracting the ciliary body and opening outflow channels for aqueous humor
  181. 4 principal categories of adjunctive tests
    • vision testing in pt with media opacities
    • testing for k structure/disease
    • photog ext and fundus
    • ultrasonography
  182. physiologic blindspot located on map of R/L VF
    about 15* off center on the 0* or 180* horizontal meridian in the temporal field
  183. isopter
    a contour of the vf obtained with a single target of particular size and brightness representing a line of = or better sensitivity to stimulus
  184. How does the pupil dilate/contract and muscles involved
    dilate: fibers of dilator muscle extending from pupil to boundary of iris contract to dilate pupil

    constrict: sphincter muscle contracts and makes pupil smaller
  185. 5 categories of systemic disease having ocular manifestations
    • inflammatory and autoimmune
    • infetions
    • metabolic
    • vascular
    • malignant
  186. purpose of titmus stereo test
    fine depth perception and qualify it in terms of binocular cooperation
  187. purpose of the 4 worth-dot test
    to determine whether the eyes are aligned and if so, whether brain acknowledges visual info from ou or suppresses info from one eye, test reveals diplopia 
  188. myasthenia gravis
    chronic autoimmune disease that interferes with proper nerve transmission in skeletal muscles causing muscle weakness

    often ptosis, diplopia and limited eye movements are reported
  189. appropriate code linking requires
    medical necessity
  190. refractive index
    ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in a specific substance
  191. 2 classifications of suture materials and 2 materials used for each kind
    absorbable-collagen, surgical gut, polyglactin 910

    non absorbable-silk, nylon, polypropylene, polyester
  192. 4 indications for refractive sx
    • occupational requirements
    • cosmetic/recreational needs
    • cl intolerance
    • unsafe in an emergency without glasses
  193. lasik vs prk
    lasik-flap, stromal, laser tx

    prk-bowman's membrane ablated
  194. 6 measures of practice productivity
    • # new/established pts
    • # pt per hr per dr
    • # visits per tx room per hr
    • # wk ups per asst
    • revenue generated per pt visit
    • annual revenue per full time equivalent staff
    • annual revenue per full time equivalent tech
  195. how many people will dissatisfied pt tell about your practice
    10
  196. prepping pt
    cleansing operative site with germicidal solution
  197. name elements of sterile field
    • sterile table/trays containing instruments
    • portions of pt that have been prepped/draped
    • portions of surg personnel that have been cleansed and gloved
  198. purpose of drape
    provide clean operating field and sterile area personnel may rest hands and instruments on
  199. principal purpose for aseptic technique
    reduce microorganisms that come in contact with wound, minimizing infection risk
  200. dm pt should be encouraged to maintain glycosylated hemoglobin level of
    7%
  201. primary cause of eye problems associated with interrupted ocular blood flow
    clot of cholesterol, blood cells or calcium
  202. 2 opportunistic infections seen in the eyes of AIDS pt
    • cytomegalovirus
    • herpes zoster
  203. s/s bacterial conjunctivitis
    mucopurulent discharge
  204. s/s viral conjunctivitis
    watery discharge, palpebral conj is covered with small bumps
  205. how do you see
    light reflects off of object focused by k and lens to produce upside down image on retina which then convers image to electric impulses carried by optic nerve to brain's visual cortex producing sensation of sight
  206. what are the functions of the eyelids
    • protect
    • exclude light
    • lubricate
  207. comitant
    eye misalignments constant in all fields of gaze
  208. alteration in appearance that may be caused by orbital cellulitis
    grossly swollen lids, redness
  209. indirect contact transmission
    eye penetrated by metal fragment
  210. tangent screen test
    big black or grey screen stare at central point target in from different points
  211. If the distance portion of the lens is +2.00D and the bifocal add is +1.00 then the bifocal power is
    +3.00D
  212. Beta-Adrenergic Blockers
    "lol"
  213. sign vs symptom
    sign-objective (seen by doctor)

    symptom- subjective (experienced by pt)
  214. name process by which Dr. and pt discuss r/b
    informed consent
  215. 1st step for pt feeling faint
    try getting head below the heart
  216. name contraindications for cl wear
    • allergy
    • des
    • ptery
    • nervous/emotional temperment
    • poor blinking
  217. 4 eye conditions that preclude ref sx
    • uncontrolled oc surface or other eye disease
    • immunosuppression
    • autoimmune diseases that alter healing
    • corneal ectasias
    • cl induced warpage
  218. A patient in need of a prosthetic eye should be referred to an
    ocularist
  219. An ophthalmologist who concentrates on one area of the eye or focuses on a specific ocular disease is called
    subspecialist
  220. The level directly above certified ophthalmic medical assistant on JCAHPO’s certification ladder is
    cot
  221. An orthoptist is a specialized member of the eye care team who
    evaluates double vision
  222. JCAHPO is an abbreviation for
    Joint Commission on Allied Health Personnel in Ophthalmology
  223. The medial rectus muscle rotates the eye
    inward toward the nose
  224. The membrane that lines the inner eyelid is the
    palpebral conjunctiva
  225. The structures of the uveal tract, or uvea, are
    iris, ciliary body, choroid
  226. Under normal conditions, aqueous fluid leaves the eye in the sequence
    anterior chamber angle, through trabecular meshwork, to canal of Schlemm
  227. An abnormal change observed by a physician while examining a patient is referred to as
    a sign
  228. Inward deviation of an eye that occurs only when that eye is covered is called
    esophoria
  229. The following is a waste product of metabolism
    carbon dioxide
  230. a chronic autoimmune condition that interferes with proper nerve transmission in the skeletal muscles
    myasthenia gravis
  231. The occurrence of blindness among people with diabetes is ___ times that of the general population.
    25
  232. The form of herpes simplex virus that usually produces genital infections is
    type 2
  233. Multiple sclerosis frequently presents with
    optic neuritis
  234. The most common cause of exophthalmos in an adult is
    thyroid eye disease
  235. Substances that permit the passage of light without significant disruption are termed
    transparent
  236. A convex lens with a focal length of 0.50 meter has a power of
    2.00 D
  237. The difference between the power of the upper segment and the power of the lower segment in a bifocal lens is referred to as the
    add
  238. The correct transposition of the plus-cylinder prescription +100 +200 × 90 to its minus-cylinder form is
    +300 –200 × 180
  239. The term neutralization in retinoscopy refers to
    finding the lens power that affects movement of the retinal reflex and fills the pupil with light
  240. Of the following, the type of injection classified as a form of systemic drug delivery is the
    subcutaneous
  241. The 2 types of drugs that could stimulate an attack of angle-closure glaucoma in patients with narrow anterior chamber angles are
    mydriatics and cycloplegics
  242. Miotics function to reduce intraocular pressure by
    contracting the ciliary body muscle and opening the outflow channels for aqueous humor
  243. All of the following are used to treat bacterial infections except
    • neomycin
    • sulfonamides
    • -------------nystatin
    • bacitracin
  244. The topical drug phenylephrine is classified as
    a mydriatic
  245. Generic drugs that have a name that ends with “lol” are
    beta adrenergic blockers

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