Genetics

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Author:
mct
ID:
240190
Filename:
Genetics
Updated:
2013-10-12 13:16:39
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Lectures Two
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Description:
The cell and its division
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  1. Parts of the eukaryote cell (11)
    • 1. Nucleus
    • 2. Nucleolus
    • 3. Ribosome
    • 4. Rough endoplasmic Reticulum (rER)
    • 5. Golgi apparatus
    • 6. Cytoskeleton
    • 7. Smooth ER
    • 8. Mitochondria
    • 9. Cytosol
    • 10. Visicles
    • 11. Centrosome
  2. Nucleus
    Enclosed by nuclear envelope & contains chromosomes
  3. Nucleolus
    Contained within nucleus, helps with formation of ribosomes (Predominantly a protein structure)
  4. Ribosome
    Composed of protein and rRNA, site of translation
  5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)
    Protein assembly/folding
  6. Golgi Allaratus
    Post-translational modifications & packaging proteins secretion
  7. Cytoskeleton
    Maintains shape & structure
  8. Smooth ER
    Manufacture and metabolism of lipids
  9. Mitochondria
    Production of energy, synthesis of steroids & heme
  10. Cytosol
    Fluid inside the cell, mostly water and some ions
  11. Vesicles
    Lipid bound "bubbles", eg. lysomes contain proteins that break down waster material
  12. Centrosome
    Organises microtubules to build mitotic spindle
  13. Parts of the prokaryotic cell (9)
    • 1. Nucleoid - circular DNA
    • 2. Flagellum
    • 3. Pili
    • 4. Plasmid
    • 5. Ribosomes
    • 6. Cytoplasm
    • 7. Plasma membrane
    • 8. Cell wall
    • 9. Capsule
  14. Nucleiod
    Circular DNA
  15. Flagellum
    Locomotion & sensory (chemcial & temperature)
  16. Pili
    Conjugation (DNA exchange) between bacteria
  17. Plasmid
    Small, often circular, DNA molecule
  18. Cell wall
    Crossed link peptidoglycan
  19. Capsule
    Polysaccharide coat that can prevent phagocytosis by macrophages
  20. Structure of the linear chromosome
    • Telomere (end)
    • Short arm (p)
    • Centromere
    • Long arm (q)
  21. M
  22. Metacentric
    Centromere close to the middle of the chromatids
  23. Submetacentric
    The centromere around 2/3 of the center
  24. Acrocentric
    The centromere close to an end (telomere) of the chromatids
  25. Allosomes
    • (Sex chromosomes)
    • Define the gender of the organism
  26. Autosomes
    Not the sex chromosomes
  27. SRY gene
    • Sex-deteriming region of the Y chromosome
    • Gonad develop into testis not ovary
    • SRY transcription factor
    • Inhibits another gene, which would inhibit testis development
  28. Cell Cycle and division
    • Interphase: G0 -> resting phase; G1 -> cell increase size; S -> DNA replication; G2 -> cell increase in size
    • M is mitosis/ meiosis
  29. Meiosis
    Process of sperm/ova formation. Each gamete contains one member of each chromosome (haploid). The result is one viable cell and two polar bodies in a female.  The male still produces four haploid cells.
  30. Mitosis
    Cell division in which the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is the same as the parent cells.
  31. Cell division steps
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  32. When division goes wrong two options
    • Abnormal chromosome number
    • Abnormal chromosome structure
  33. Aneuploidy
    • Abnormal Chromosome number
    • @ allosomes:
    • XO females (Turner's syndrome) are sterile
    • XXX females usually normal
  34. Euploidy
    The correct # of chromosomes
  35. Monosomy
    Lacking one chromosome of a pair
  36. Disomy
    Two copies of a chromosome not equal to euploid
  37. Trisomy
    Three copies of a chromosome
  38. Tetrasomy
    Four copies of a chromosome
  39. Abnormal chromosome structure
    • 1. Translocations
    • 2. Deletions
    • 3. Inversion
  40. Chiasma
    Cross overs in cell division between chromatids

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