Chapter 6: Intervention for Children with Language impairments: General Principles and Strategies

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Chapter 6: Intervention for Children with Language impairments: General Principles and Strategies
2013-10-12 13:55:07

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  1. What is the purpose of intervention?
    • Develop as normal communication skills as possible
    •    Not 100% able to produce about 80% of the time, don't really need to be in therapy anymore
    • Change or eliminate the underlying problem
    •     children rarely outgrow the problem if it is a disorder
    •     may involve counseling
  2. what are the 5 different models of therapy?
    • classroom (push in)
    • consulatation
    • collaborative-consultation
    • inclusion
    • direct (pull out)
  3. models of therapy
    • Benefits:
    •   -clinician experiences a child's language difficulties as they happen 
    •   -it is the natural environment
    • Drawbacks:
    •   -may be distracting to other students or the teacher
    •   -may be stigmatizing to the child to be observed receiving special assistance 
    •   -may not be intense enough
  4. models of therapy
    • Benefits:
    •   -Intervention strategies taught to the teacher by the clinician
    •   -teacher is primary intervention agent
    •   -student recevies intervention across the curriculum throughout the day from the teacher
    •   -SLP learns about core curriculum
    • Drawbacks:
    •   -teacher may perceive clinician language expert who needs to deliver intervention services
    •   -teacher may perceive self as too busy to provide interventions
    •   -may not be direct enough or delivered properly
    •   -could impact classroom routine
  5. models of therapy
    • Benefits:
    •   -teacher and clinician share mutual respect and mutual responsibility for the child's program
    • Drawbacks:
    •   -teacher may perceive clinician as language expert who needs to deliver intervention services
    •   -teacher may perceive self as too busy to provide interventions
    •   -may not be direct enough or delivered properly
  6. models of therapy
    • Benefits:
    •   -child is partially responsible for making adjustments to learning
    •   -child has typical role models for speech and language
    •   -student is not singled out
    •   -teacher learns to intervene with other students
    • Drawbacks:
    •   -teacher doesn't have the expertise to analyze on going progress and to modify what is needed
    •   -may not meet the needs of the student
  7. models of therapy
    • PULL OUT
    • Benefits:
    •   -can be as intensive as needed
    •   -allows "privacy for student"
    •   -build confidence
    • Drawbacks:
    •   -done in isolation/no carry-over
    •   -could draw attention to student
    •   -missing classroom curriculum
    •   -scheduling conflicts (field trips etc)
  8. using reinforcement in language therapy:
    primary positive reinforcers
    biological in nature (like food or water)
  9. using reinforcement in language therapy:
    secondary positive reinforcers
    • events or actions that increase the occurrence of a behavior
    • have cultural or social benefits
    • depend on past learning and conditioning
    • once the subject begins to give the response, may decrease the amount of reinforcers
  10. using reinforcement in language therapy:
    social reinforcers
    • verbal praise, touch, eye contact, smile
    • conditioned generalized reinforcers
  11. using reinforcement in language therapy:
    token ecconomy
    • giving chips
    • allowance as a reinforcer
  12. using reinforcement in language therapy:
    informative feedback
    information on performance
  13. parallel talk
    • play with child an talking about what they are doing as they do it
    • can be effective with CLD to provide modeling of vocabulary
  14. working with classroom teacher
    • help teachers learn to call on silent students who do not volunteer
    • teacher need to learn to use expansion and promote continued talking rather than "y/n
    • help teacher arrange classroom setting that promotes interaction and  talking (circles for talking, small groups)
    • help teacher learn to provide opportunities to use newly acquired language skills 
    • help teachers understand importance of giving all students opportunities to practice language skills
  15. what is the difference between drill, drill play and play
    • drill-structured responses
    • drill play-motivational and fun event for child (game and work therapy in)
    • play-occurs naturally
  16. how do you get the teacher to help
    • have them do what they already do, but with everyone
    • make sure the tasks you ask them to do are easy
    • explain why you are asking them to do it
    • show them how they can help raise students standardized tests (language improves reading and math)
    • show them how they can also help their whole class with these changes
    • demonstrate in the class what you want the teacher to do
    • invite the teacher to watch you providing therapy
    •    -offer to help teacher with in call lesson pull aside so they can stay in the class while they watch you
  17. primary positive reinforcers are vulnerable to the ________ effect, which occurs when the child gets full and stops working for the reinforcers.
  18. In the approach of _______ talk, the clinician describes the child's activities and comments on what the child is doing.
  19. in the treatment technique of ________, the clinician elicits a response from the child (eg "Joey, say, "I have a red marker")
    mand model or elicited imitation
  20. When teaching vocabulary to CLD students with LI, it is best to start with  _________ activities.
  21. If a clinical reinforced a child once after every four responses, this would be a ________ ratio schedule of reinforcement.
  22. a child says doggy brown! and the clinician says, yes that is a brown doggy with a red collar on. the clinician has just used the technique of ...
  23. clinician working with a child to learn the names of classroom items. in the therapy session, she sits with him and says, okay-every time you see a a new card, i want you to tell me what it is. what's this (answer) good. what's this (answer) nice job. etc. she uses nothing but the stack of cards. this could be called...
  24. working with child adopted from eastern europe. he has undergone trauma in his past, and american parents what him to have therapy focusing on lang stim. the boy is quiet and does not like to talk. he does love computers, so use reinforcement program where the computer shows him each time he has answered a question correctly. computer creates chart so he can see progress. what sort of reinforcement is this
    informative feedback
  25. which one of theses is not a way that we might recommend for modifying linguistic input to enhance the comprehension of LI students
    a. use sentences with reduced length and complexity.
    b. enunciate words clearly
    c. use pauses
    d. say every word in a very slow exaggerated manner
    e. rephrase and restate infor
  26. a child says the police chased the bad guy and the slp says yes the bad guy was chased by the police. this is an example of...