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A series of relatively abstract/general statements which explain why something is or predict what will happen next.
- Conclusions are reached by drawing from general laws to a particular case.
- Ex: "This law states...so that means..."
- General laws are obtained from a particular case.
- Ex: "From this case, it is obvious that..."
Theories of human behavior help us to...
- Organize knowledge
- Understand human behavior in its context (physical, psychological, transpersonal, and social)
System of interest; the client or group you are working with.
Systems outside of the focal system. Ex: hospitals, schools, jobs ,etc.
- Systems within the focal system.
- Ex: for an individual this would be behavior, or interpersonal skills. For a family this would be the individual family members,
Evidence Based Practice
- Started at George Mason University
- Formed to help practitioners help diverse clients with diverse problems and know what works for different circumstances.
Why is evidence based practice important?
- Allows us to replicate knowledge
- Allows us to get the client the best treatment in a timely manner
- give us a framework
- allows us to guide the client toward successful intervention.
- Tells you the cost and benefits of the intervention
- Can see how a particular demographic(s) is impacted by the intervention.
- Independent organizations that are dedicated to creating knowledge in a specific area.
- Ex: NIMH or other credible research organizations
When researchers are focused on a certain answer and only focus on answers which confirm your answer.
Issues with evidence based practice
- time consuming
- Based on inductive reasoning (building knowledge from observation up)
- May not be enough research about the intervention you need
- Knowledge you gain from experience which is used to help clients.
- More experienced social workers- like supervisors- are more likely to have this.
Issues with practice wisdom
- Difficult to measure and replicate
- Not scientifically based
- more likely to be set in their ways and make errors.
3 requirements for practice wisdom
- Credible and valuable knowledge.
- Distinct knowledge -productive process.
- Being able to reason why something is effective.
Parenting- Nature Vs. Nurture
- Both nature and nurture are important
- studies of separated twins shows striking similarities despite differences in upbringing.
- nature and nurture interact
How do nature and nurture interact?
- environment + genes
- environment X genes
Other factors that influence nature and nurture (PSSE)
- Social environment
- Socioeconomic status
- Environmental Factors
Ways of understanding theories
- People experience similar things differently.
- Different theories can explain similar things (equafinalty)
Individual behavior is not overt, it is impacted by underlying social and personal values.
- The structures that exist in society directly impact human behavior.
- Located in the bottom right of the graph.
- causes and outcomes of behavior can be examined.
- Behavioral theories and Learning theory.
- Helped bring social science closer to hard science by focusing on quantitative, observable data.
- located in the top right of the graph.
Symbolic interaction theories
- Society assigns meaning to symbols and people act based on those symbols.
- Role Theory, looking glass self, labeling theory, and self-fulfilling prophecy.
- Ex: gender
- located in the top left corner.
- Everyone has to create their own meaning for existence.
- the meaning we create based on a certain experience --> certain outcomes.
- Ex: Traumatic events
Psychological theories of personality
- Neo- Freudian
- Feminist Theory
- Model of personality develpoment based on conflict between different levels of needs/wants.
- early childhood experiences
- used in SWOK with individuals and groups
- pathological or adaptive functioning
What category of theories does Psychodynamic theory belong in?
Structural Determinism b/c early childhood experiences determine personality development.
4 ideological trends found in Freud's work
- Victorian Morality
- Darwin's vision of human evolution
- People are generally good (Rousseau)
- Primacy of science
Beliefs, drives, desires we are not aware of
Drives, beliefs, desires, or knowledge we can conjurer when needed.
Part of the mind that is aware.
- instinctual drives you are born with.
- Unconscious and present at birth
- Conscious and precocious develops from the Id to control it's impulses.
- Helps distinguish self from others.
- Judgement. Determines and analyzes between right and wrong.
- Arises fomr the ego based on internalization of society's/parent's values.
- sometimes referred to as internal conscious.
Freud's stages of development.
- Latency stage
- Genital stage
- Birth-12 or 18 months
- Primary activities focused around the mouth and on taking or receiving.
- 18m-3 yrs
- Potty Training
- Attention focused on expulsion and retention of waste
- Those stuck in this stage either very messy or very clean
- 3-5 yrs
- Activity/stimulation is focused around the genitals (men).
- Desire to love and be loved.
- Oedipus complex.
- Electra complex.
- Occurs for boys in the Phallic stage
- Is the desire to possess the mother.
- Is key to normal psychosexual development.
- Unresolved issues in this stage could lead to homosexuality or neurosis.
- Occurs for girls in the phallic stage.
- Is the desire to possess the father
- Introduced my Carl Jung
- 5-6 yrs
- Sexual instinct repressed
- Identification with same sex parent
- superego strenghtens
- Puberty +
- Libedo directed at opposite sex partner.
Repressed traumatic experiences manifest themselves in physical/somatic symptoms.
- Reaction Formation
Clients unconsciously project repressed emotions and desires onto the analyst or other professional
- Type of Transference
- Struggling to make up for inferiority or weakness in other areas.
- Ex: Guys with ridiculously large trucks with the testicles on the back...