School-Intelligence

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School-Intelligence
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  1. Who pioneered the measurement of individual differences more than a century ago?
    Francis Galton
  2. What three things did Francis Galton conclude about intelligence?
    • 1. It is a unitary faculty
    • 2. It is an inherited trait
    • 3. It is normally distributed in the population
  3. Whose research set the state for the nature vs. nurture debate regarding intelligence?
    Francis Galton
  4. Who proposed the Two-Factor Theory of intelligence?
    Charles Spearman
  5. What two factors are included in Spearman's Two Factor theory of intelligence?
    • 1. General ability (g): common to all intellectual tasks
    • 2. Specific ability (s): specific to a given task
  6. Who is associated with the idea of primary mental abilities (a group of independent intellectual factors determined through the use of multiple factor analysis)?
    Louis Thurstone
  7. What are four examples of the primary mental abilities asserted by Thurstone?
    • 1. Word fluency
    • 2. Memory
    • 3. Spatial relationships
    • 4. Reasoning
  8. Who is associated with the structure-of-intellect model, which resulted from factor analysis that isolated a matrix of 120 elements that compromise intelligence?
    JP Guilford
  9. What two dimensions of intelligence, postulated by Guilford's structure-of-intellect model, are most well-known?
    • 1. Divergent thinking
    • 2. Convergent thinking
  10. According to Guilford, what is divergent thinking?
    The ability to generate new, creative, and different ideas using nonlogical processes and flexibility to find multiple solutions
  11. According to Guilford, what is convergent thinking?
    The ability to group divergent ideas and synthesize them into one unifying concept
  12. Who is associated with the Gf-Gc theory of intelligence?
    Raymond Cattell
  13. What two types of intelligence were postulated in Cattell's Gf-Gc theory?
    • 1. Fluid intelligence
    • 2. Crystallized intelligence
  14. According to Cattell's theory, what is fluid intelligence?
    On-the-spot reasoning ability, including the ability to see complex relationships and solve problems; includes inductive and deductive reasoning, is relatively culture free, and is not dependent on formal instruction
  15. According to Cattell, ___________ intelligence is susceptible to the effects of age and/or brain damage while ___________ intelligence remains stable over time.
    Fluid; crystallized
  16. According to Cattell's theory, what is crystallized intelligence?
    Includes areas such as vocabulary, reading, numerical skills, and information knowledge; is almost entirely dependent on acquired cultural and educational experience
  17. According to Cattell, ___________ intelligence is relatively culture-free, while ___________ intelligence is dependent on acquired cultural and educational experience.
    Fluid; crystallized
  18. Who is associated with the Three-Stratum Theory of intelligence?
    John Carroll
  19. What three levels of intelligence are included in Carroll's Three-Stratum Theory?
    • 1. Stratum III: g, or general intelligence
    • 2. Stratum II: consists of eight broad abilities (e.g., crystallized intelligence)
    • 3. Stratum I: specific abilities that are each linked to one of the second stratum abilities (e.g., crystallized intelligence is linked to language development, comprehension, and communication ability)
  20. What is the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities?
    It presently consists of 10 broad cognitive abilities and over 70 narrow-stratum abilities
  21. Which theory of intelligence provides the framework for the KABC-II and Woodcock-Johnson-III?
    The CHC Theory of Cognitive Abilities
  22. What are some examples of the cognitive abilities listed in the CHC theory?
    • 1. Comprehension-knowledge intelligence (Gc)
    • 2. Fluid intelligence/reasoning (Gf)
    • 3. Short-term memory (Gsm)
    • 4. Long-term storage and retrieval (Glr)
    • 5. Processing speed (Gs)
    • 6. Visual processing (Gv)
    • 7. Auditory processing (Ga)
  23. What did David Wechsler assert about intelligence?
    He viewed it in a global way and asserted that high ability on one intellectual task is reasonably predictive of high ability on another; he believed intelligence centered on the ability to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment
  24. The different subtests of the Wechsler scales are _______________________ not ___________________.
    Different measures of intelligence; measures of different kinds of intelligence
  25. Who defined intelligence as "an ability to solve real-life problems, to generate new problems, and to create something meaningful or offer a service that is valued within a person's cultural or local community?"
    Howard Gardner
  26. Which eight intelligences are listed in Gardner's theory of multiple-intelligences?
    • 1. Linguistic
    • 2. Logical-mathematical
    • 3. Musical
    • 4. Bodily-kinesthetic
    • 5. Spatial
    • 6. Interpersonal
    • 7. Intrapersonal
    • 8. Naturalist
  27. According to Gardner, in what way do multiple intelligences operate?
    They are used simultaneously and tend to complement one another; all are needed, are equally important, and each individual possesses all to some extent; they can be developed by exposure to appropriate learning experiences
  28. While Gardner's theory has been debated within academic psychology, in which field has it been accepted?
    Educational; theorists, teachers and policy makers use it to inform pre-K-12 schools, vocational programs, and adult education initiatives
  29. Who is associated with the triarchic model of intelligence?
    Robert Sternberg
  30. What are the three components of Sternberg's triarchic model of intelligence?
    • 1. Componential (analytical): methods that are used to process and analyze information
    • 2. Experiential (creative): how unfamiliar circumstances and tasks are dealt with
    • 3. Practical (contextual): how people respond to their environment
  31. Research on the role of heredity and environment in determining intellectual functioning, as expressed by difference in IQ scores, attributes the influence of each at about _____ percent.
    50
  32. McGue & Bouchard found a heritability estimate range of ___ to ____.
    .60; .80
  33. In general, the greater the genetic similarity between two individuals, the __________ the correlation of their IQ scores.
    Higher
  34. What range of IQ score correlations have been found between monozygotic (identical) twins who are reared together?
    .85-.88
  35. What range of IQ score correlations have been found between monozygotic (identical) twins who are reared apart?
    .67 to .75
  36. What range of IQ score correlations have been found between dizygotic (fraternal) twins who are reared together?
    .53 to .58
  37. What range of IQ score correlations have been found between biological parents and children who are reared together?
    .39 to .50
  38. What range of IQ score correlations have been found between biological parents and children who are reared apart?
    .22
  39. What range of IQ score correlations have been found between biological siblings who are reared together?
    .45-.49
  40. What range of IQ score correlations have been found between biological siblings who are reared apart?
    .24-.46
  41. What IQ score correlation has been found between biologically unrelated parents and children?
    .18
  42. What IQ score correlation has been found between biologically unrelated siblings?
    .17
  43. What were the two primary findings of Skeel's study of orphaned infants with mental retardation?
    • 1. Infants given individual attention by an adoptive caregiver showed significant improvement in IQ scores compared with control infants who remained in the orphanage
    • 2. 20 years later, all the children who were given individualized caretaking were self-supporting, while no children from the control group were independently functioning
  44. Research suggests that the impact of ____________ factors on intelligence decreases with aging and, at least until middle-age, the impact of _________ factors increases.
    Environmental; genetic
  45. The ability of standard infant intelligence tests to predict IQ is _____.
    Low
  46. Infant intelligence tests show better long-term prediction for ___________ infants.
    Very low-scoring
  47. Infant intelligence tests are useful in screening for what?
    Babies who are at high risk for delayed or abnormal development
  48. Recent studies of change and stability in intelligence indicated that heritability of intelligence increases with age from ____ percent in early childhood, to ____ percent in early adulthood, to ____ percent in adulthood.
    30; 50; 80
  49. In a study by Hoekstra et al. of estimates of heritability of intelligence in twins from ages 5 to 18 years, heritability of verbal ability increased from ___ percent to ___ percent.
    48; 84
  50. In a study by Hoekstra et al. of estimates of heritability of intelligence in twins from ages 5 to 18 years, heritability of nonverbal ability increased from ___ percent to ___ percent.
    64; 74
  51. Some evidence suggests stability in nonverbal ability is attributable more to ________ influences, and stability in verbal ability is attributable to both ________ and ________ influences.
    Genetic; genetic; environmental
  52. In recent studies examining sex differences in intelligence, about half have found ________ and the other half have found ________.
    No difference; a small male advantage
  53. What has happened to gender differences in intellectual ability in recent years?
    They have declined
  54. A recent meta-analysis of 26 studies measuring IQ in male and female adults yielded what findings regarding general intelligence (g)?
    A male advantage of about 2 IQ points
  55. What gender differences have been observed on the SAT?
    Males tend to score higher on both the math and verbal sections
  56. While males and females do not differ significantly in terms of performance on general intelligence tests, females have shown advantages in what three areas?
    • 1. Verbal skills
    • 2. Processing speed
    • 3. Less likelihood of having a reading disorder
  57. While males and females do not differ significantly in terms of performance on general intelligence tests, males have shown advantages in what two areas?
    • 1. Math skills
    • 2. Broad visual-spatial ability
  58. The largest gap between genders is observed in which cognitive skill area?
    Spatial ability
  59. What sex differences in the brain have been observed in rats?
    In male rats, the right hemisphere is thicker than the left, with the reverse being true in female rats
  60. What sex differences have been observed in maze learning tasks in rats?
    Male rats tend to perform better than female rats
  61. What did Geschwind and Behan find regarding the effect of testosterone on brain development?
    Greater quantity of circulating testosterone in the brains of prenatal males slows the growth rate of the left hemisphere and results in relatively greater development of the right hemisphere; a lack of testosterone in females results in the reverse pattern
  62. Most researchers agree that _______________ play a more important role than biological factors in cognitive and skill differences between the genders.
    Dissimilar cultural and social experiences
  63. Proposed by Zajonc to explain the findings that first-born children tend to have greater intellectual ability than later-born children, the confluence model includes what three tenets?
    • 1. As the number of children in the family increases, the amount of intellectual stimulation and other important family resources available to each child declines
    • 2. Family size is negatively correlated with the intellectual ability of children
    • 3. Children born closer together in age will suffer more from the adverse effects of a large family
  64. What differences regarding IQ scores have been found between Caucasians and African Americans?
    Caucasians tend to score higher than African Americans on tests of intellectual functioning
  65. What did Hernstein and Murray assert in their 1994 book "The Bell Curve" regarding IQ differences between Caucasians and African Americans?
    These differences are due primarily to innate, genetic differences between Caucasians and African Americans
  66. What reception has Hernstein and Murray's book "The Bell Curve" received regarding their assertions about IQ differences between Caucasians and African Americans?
    It has been criticized for a number of methodological shortcomings, including the failure to consider the effect of environmental factors or the cultural bias of standard intelligence tests
  67. Scarr and Weinberg's 1976 study contradicts the assertion that genetic differences can account for IQ differences between races. What did the study and what were the findings?
    They studied African American children who were adopted by Caucasian parents with above average intelligence and SES. The biological parents of the children had average to below average IQ's, while the children had a mean IQ of 106, which is well above the national mean for African American children
  68. It was once hypothesized that African American children would do better on IQ tests if an examiner of the same race administered the test. What has research found regarding this hypothesis?
    Examiner race is unrelated to performance
  69. What has research found regarding the relationship between examiner rapport and scores on IQ tests?
    It is related to performance for both Caucasian and African American children
  70. Attempts at developing "culture-free" measures of intelligence have largely __________.
    Failed
  71. What is the Flynn effect?
    The continued year-on-year rise of IQ test scores
  72. What did Flynn and others find regarding IQ scores prior to the year 2000?
    IQ test scores consistently increased over the previous 70 years in the US and other industrialized countries; it involved an increase of at least three IQ points per decade
  73. The Flynn effect is apparently due to increases in ________ intelligence.
    Fluid
  74. Because the changes in the Flynn effect occur over only one or two generations, it is believed to be the result of ____________ factors.
    Environmental
  75. What environmental factors are believed to contribute to the Flynn effect?
    Improved nutrition, better education, smaller family size, environmental diversity, heterosis (improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring), and gradual improvement of test-taking skills
  76. What has been found in more recent research regarding the Flynn effect in the US?
    The IQ increase continues for individuals with IQs ranging from 70-109, but has reversed for those with IQs of 110 or higher
  77. Who originally developed intelligence tests and for what purpose were they used?
    Tests of intelligence were originally developed by Alfred Binet, in collaboration with Theodore Simon, and they were used to discriminate mentally retarded from non-mentally retarded Parisian school children
  78. Who adapted the Binet-Simon scales for American use, and when did this occur?
    Terman in 1916
  79. What is the current version of the Stanford-Binet and when was it most recently revised?
    5th edition, revised in 2003
  80. Individuals in what age range can be tested via the SB5?
    2-85+
  81. For what five purposes can the SB5 be used?
    • 1. Diagnosis of developmental abilities and exceptionalities
    • 2. Early childhood assessment
    • 3. Psychoeducational evaluations
    • 4. Abilities and aptitudes research
    • 5. Career, clinical, forensic, and neuropsychological assessment
  82. What are the five content areas of the SB5?
    • 1. Fluid Reasoning (FR)
    • 2. Knowledge (KN)
    • 3. Quantitative Reasoning (QR)
    • 4. Visual-Spatial Processing (VS)
    • 5. Working Memory (WM)
  83. What theory of intelligence is the Stanford-Binet based on?
    The Catell-Horn-Carroll theory
  84. The five content areas of the SB5 can be grouped into which two domains?
    Verbal and nonverbal
  85. Which two subtests of the SB5 are used as routing subtests?
    Vocabulary (verbal) and Object Series/Matrices (nonverbal)
  86. On the SB5, two subtests are used as "routing subtests." What does this mean?
    Performance on these subtests determines the individual's ability level and starting point for continued testing
  87. On the SB5, questions on each routing subtest are divided into age levels and the starting point for these tests is the examinee's ___________ or ______________.
    Chronological age; estimated ability level
  88. On the SB5, after one's ability level is determined through the use of the routing subtests, how does testing proceed?
    Testing on subsequent subtests starts at a level just below the derived ability level and continues until three or four items at two consecutive age levels are failed (this is the ceiling level)
  89. In the early versions of the Stanford-Binet, intelligence was shown by the ratio IQ. How is a ratio IQ derived?
    Mental age divided by chronological age then multiplied by 100 to yield the IQ (For example, for an 8yo passing items for a 6yo, but failing items above 6, the IQ would be 6/8 x 100 =75)
  90. What is a deviation IQ?
    An IQ score derived from standardized scores that have the same mean and standard deviation across all age levels
  91. What is an advantage of a derivation IQ score over a ratio IQ score?
    Using the derivation IQ, scores can be compared across ages
  92. On both the SB5 and WAIS-IV, what is the mean and standard deviation of each subtest?
    Mean is 10, standard deviation is 3
  93. On the SB5, scores on each subtest are combined to form four types of composite scores. What are they?
    • 1. Factor index
    • 2. Domain scores
    • 3. Abbreviated battery IQ
    • 4. Full Scale
  94. On the SB5, what does the Factor Index composite score refer to and how is it derived?
    The Factor Index composite score corresponds to each of the 5 content areas in the SB5 ans is derived from combining one nonverbal subtest with its verbal complement
  95. On the SB5, what does the Domain composite score refer to and how is it derived?
    They represent Verbal and Nonverbal IQ and are based on the subtests of the respective five factor index scales
  96. How many subtests are included in the SB5?
    Ten, two (one verbal and one nonverbal) for each of the five cognitive factors
  97. On the SB5, what is the Abbreviated Battery IQ?
    It is a composite score based on the two routing subtests
  98. On the SB5, how is the Full Scale IQ derived?
    It is a composite score of all 10 subtests
  99. On the SB5, what is the mean and standard deviation of a composite score?
    Mean is 100; SD is 15
  100. When was the WAIS-IV published?
    2008
  101. What is the age range of individuals who can be assessed using the WAIS-IV?
    16 years to 90 years, 11 months
  102. The WAIS-IV and the WISC-IV both measure six of the ___________ cognitive abilities and are developed on ___________ models of information processing.
    Cattell-Horn-Caroll; neurocognitive
  103. The WAIS-IV and WISC-IV are both comprised of ____ core and ___ supplemental subtests.
    10; 5
  104. What is the mean and standard deviation of the full scale IQ (FSIQ) on the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV?
    Mean = 100; SD = 15
  105. What are the four index scores on the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV?
    • 1. Verbal Comprehension (VCI)
    • 2. Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)
    • 3. Working Memory (WMI)
    • 4. Processing Speed (PSI)
  106. What happened to the Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ) in the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV?
    They were removed
  107. What index scores on the WAIS-IV best approximate the Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ) scores that were available on the WAIS-III?
    The VCI and WMI approximate the VIQ; the PSI and PRI approximate the PIQ
  108. Performance on the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV is interpreted by considering what?
    • 1. Considering FSIQ, index scores, subtest scores
    • 2. Comparing pairs of "clinical clusters" which are composed of 2 or 3 subtests
    • 3. Interpreting the index profile
  109. How is the FSIQ derived on the WAIS-IV?
    It is based on all 10 core subtests and is the total combined performance of the 4 index scores
  110. How can the General Ability Index (GAI) be derived in the WAIS-IV and how can it be used?
    It is created from the VCI and PRI and is useful when seeking a summary score that minimizes the impact of working memory and processing speed
  111. What two pieces of information are provided in the Technical Manual for the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Score patterns that characterize specific groups
    • 2. Psychometric improvements, such as increased test floor and ceiling (40 to 160), updated norms, and reduced item bias
  112. What has been found regarding practice effects on the WAIS-IV?
    Practice effects , or increased scores, on retesting have been shown except in a portion of older individuals, ages 70 and older
  113. Which three subtests were added to the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Visual Puzzles
    • 2. Figure Weights
    • 3. Cancellation
  114. What four subtests that were present on the WAIS-III were removed for the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Object Assembly
    • 2. Picture Arrangement
    • 3. Digit Symbol - Copy
    • 4. Digit Symbol - Incidental Learning
  115. What does the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) of the WAIS-IV measure?
    Reasoning, comprehension, and concept formation utilizing verbal abilities
  116. What does it mean when the WAIS-IV Verbal Comprehension tests are referred to as "hold" tests?
    They tend to "hold" well with age and provide a premorbid functioning estimate by assessing areas associated with long-term memory
  117. What four subtests (including one that is supplemental) comprise the Verbal Comprehension Index of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Similarities
    • 2. Vocabulary
    • 3. Information
    • 4. Comprehension (supplemental)
  118. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Similarities subtest?
    Participants are asked to indicate similarities between two things
  119. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Similarities subtest measure?
    Abstract and verbal concept formation reasoning and logical thinking; it involves crystallized intelligence, auditory comprehension, and memory
  120. What four conditions/problems are associated with poor performance on the Similarities subtest of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Severe brain dysfunction
    • 2. Schizophrenia
    • 3. Depression
    • 4. Long-term deterioration
  121. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Vocabulary subtest?
    Participants are asked to provide definitions for words
  122. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Vocabulary subtest measure?
    Learning ability, fund of knowledge, concept formation, long-term memory, and language development
  123. Which subtest on the WAIS-IV is considered the most accurate measure of "g" and the most resistant to aging, mental deterioration, and emotional disturbance?
    Vocabulary
  124. What four conditions/problems are associated with poor performance on the Vocabulary subtest of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Poor education
    • 2. Low intelligence
    • 3. Alternate cultural background
    • 4. Early brain injury
  125. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Information subtest?
    Participants are asked to answer general knowledge questions
  126. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Information subtest measure?
    Long-term memory and available crystallized intelligence resulting from an interaction of ability and cultural experience
  127. Which WAIS-IV subtest is least affect by organic disorder or brain injury?
    Information
  128. What three problems/conditions are associated with poor performance on the Information subtest of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Poor education
    • 2. Low intelligence
    • 3. Alternate cultural background
  129. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Comprehension subtest?
    Participants are asked to solve practical problems and explain the meaning of proverbs
  130. Which WAIS-IV subtest is a supplemental test in the Verbal Comprehension Index?
    Comprehension
  131. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Comprehension subtest measure?
    Judgment, insight, and common sense
  132. What three problems/conditions are associated with poor performance on the Comprehension subtest of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Impaired judgment
    • 2. Brain damage
    • 3. Psychosis
  133. What does the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) of the WAIS-IV measure?
    Fluid reasoning in the perceptual domain, assessing visual perception and organization, nonverbal concept formation, simultaneous processing, visual-motor coordination, learning, and the ability to separate figure and ground in visual stimuli
  134. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Block Design subtest?
    Participants are asked to manipulate identical blocks to form a design
  135. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Block Design subtest measure?
    Visual-motor coordination, nonverbal concept formation, and visual-spatial comprehension
  136. Which subest of the WAIS-IV is considered a culture-fair measure of intelligence?
    Block Design
  137. What four problems/conditions are associated with poor performance on the Block Design subtest of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Hyperactivity
    • 2. Anxiety
    • 3. Paranoia
    • 4. Brain Damage
  138. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Matrix Reasoning subtest?
    Participants are asked to respond regarding which item comes next in a series of matrices
  139. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Matrix Reasoning subtest measure?
    Non-verbal reasoning such as analogy and serial reasoning, visual information, simultaneous processing, fluid intelligence, classification and spatial ability, knowledge of part-whole relationships, and perceptual organization
  140. Of the performance subtests on the WAIS-IV, which is considered the best measure of "g"?
    Matrix Reasoning
  141. Which WAIS-IV subtest is similar to the Raven Progressive Matrices?
    Matrix Reasoning
  142. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Visual Puzzles subtest?
    Participants are asked to view a completed puzzle and identify the 3 pieces that were used to create it
  143. What five subtests (including two that are supplemental) make up the Perceptual Reasoning Index of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Block Design
    • 2. Matrix Reasoning
    • 3. Visual Puzzles
    • 4. Picture Completion (supplemental)
    • 5. Figure Weights (supplemental)
  144. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Visual Puzzles subtest measure?
    Visual spatial reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, whole part integration, and mental rotation
  145. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Picture Completion subtest?
    Participants are asked to complete pictures with missing elements
  146. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Picture Completion subtest measure?
    Visual perception, visual organization, long-term visual memory, concentration, and reasoning
  147. On the WAIS-IV, which subtest is relatively unaffected by brain damage?
    Picture Completion
  148. What five problems/conditions are associated with poor performance on the Picture Completion subtest of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Alternate cultural background
    • 2. Poor concentration
    • 3. Poor perceptual-conceptual integration
    • 4. Psychotic depression
    • 5. Schizophrenia
  149. Which two WAIS-IV subtests are supplemental tests in the Perceptual Reasoning Index?
    • 1. Picture Completion
    • 2. Figure Weights
  150. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Figure Weights subtest measure?
    Quantitative and analogical reasoning using pictures
  151. What does the Working Memory Index (WMI) of the WAIS-IV measure?
    Working memory, which is related to learning and is an essential component of fluid reasoning and other higher order skills; includes the ability to sustain attention, concentration, exert mental control, make mental shifts, and involves short-term memory, initial registration, and mental maintenance
  152. What five conditions/problems are associated with poor performance on the Working Memory Index of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Transient anxiety
    • 2. Brain injury
    • 3. Mental retardation
    • 4. Impaired concentration
    • 5. Antisocial tendencies
  153. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Arithmetic subtest?
    Participants are asked to solve arithmetic problems
  154. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Arithmetic subtest measure?
    Reasoning ability, concentration, mental arithmetic, and memory
  155. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Digit Span subtest?
    Participants are asked to repeat a string of digits, first forward and then backward
  156. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Digit Span subtest measure?
    Attention, short-term memory, and immediate auditory recall
  157. What five problems/conditions are associated with poor performance on the Digit Span subtest of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Mental retardation
    • 2. Distractibility
    • 3. Anxiety
    • 4. Hearing impairment
    • 5. Brain damage
  158. What three subtests (including one that is supplemental) comprise the Working Memory Index (WMI) of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Arithmetic
    • 2. Digit Span
    • 3. Letter-Number Sequencing (supplemental)
  159. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Letter-Number Sequencing subtest?
    Participants are asked to order numbers and letters that are presented in an unordered sequence
  160. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Letter-Number Sequencing subtest measure?
    Concentration, attention, tracking, and sequencing ability
  161. What five problems/conditions are associated with poor performance on the Letter-Number Sequencing subtest of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Dyslexia
    • 2. Illiteracy
    • 3. Inattention
    • 4. Anxiety
    • 5. Lack of concentration
  162. Which WAIS-IV verbal subtest is most sensitive to the effects of aging?
    Letter-Number Sequencing
  163. What WAIS-IV subtest is a supplemental test in the Working Memory Index?
    Letter-Number Sequencing
  164. What does the Processing Speed Index (PSI) of the WAIS-IV measure?
    Processing speed, which involves mental capacity and is related to concentration, hand-eye coordination, visual analysis, and reading development and performance
  165. What four problems/conditions is the Processing Speed Index of the WAIS-IV responsive to?
    • 1. Traumatic brain injury
    • 2. ADHD
    • 3. Epilepsy
    • 4. Other neurological issues
  166. What three subtest (including one that is supplemental) comprise the Processing Speed Index (PSI) of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Symbol Search
    • 2. Digit Symbol - Coding
    • 3. Cancellation (supplemental)
  167. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Symbol Search subtest?
    Participants are asked to respond "yes" or "no" regarding whether certain symbols are included in an array
  168. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Symbol Search subtest measure?
    Processing speed, visual short-term memory, planning, and perceptual organization
  169. What four problems/conditions are associated with poor performance on the Symbol Search subtest of the WAIS-IV?
    • 1. Learning disability
    • 2. Distractibility
    • 3. Anxiety
    • 4. Visual-perceptual problems
  170. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Digit Symbol - Coding subtest?
    Participants are asked to mark symbols with different symbols using a key
  171. On the WAIS-IV, what does the Digit Symbol - Coding subtest measure?
    Visual-motor coordination, speed of mental operations, psychomotor speed, and short-term memory
  172. Which WAIS-IV subtest is the most sensitive to aging and is affected by lesions in many areas of the brain?
    Digit Symbol - Coding
  173. On the WAIS-IV, what is the Cancellation subtest?
    Participants are asked to draw a line through a presented sequence of objects
  174. Which WAIS-IV subtest contains an embedded Stoop Effect and provides scores for omission and comission?
    Cancellation
  175. What WAIS-IV subtest is a supplemental test in the Processing Speed Index?
    Cancellation
  176. What has generally been found regarding the reliability of the Wechsler scales?
    It is high
  177. What has been found regarding the reliability of the WAIS-IV vs. the WAIS-III?
    The WAIS-IV has higher reliability coefficients than the WAIS-III did
  178. The WAIS-IV (as opposed to the WAIS-III) is considered to be more sensitive to IQ scores in what range?
    Below 40 and above 160
  179. When testing individuals with profound mental retardation or one who is extremely gifted, which intelligence test is most useful?
    The Stanford-Binet
  180. When was the current version of the WISC, the WISC-IV, published?
    2003
  181. Children in what age range can be assessed using the WISC-IV?
    Between the ages of 6 years and 16 years, 11 months
  182. On the WISC-IV, children with ADHD tend to score highest on which four subtests?
    • 1. Picture Concepts
    • 2. Picture Completion
    • 3. Word Reasoning
    • 4. Similarities
  183. On the WISC-IV, children with ADHD tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Cancellation
    • 2. Arithmetic
    • 3. Coding
  184. On the WISC-IV, children with Autism tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Block Design
    • 2. Matrix Reasoning
    • 3. Picture Concepts
  185. On the WISC-IV, children with Autism tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Comprehension
    • 2. Symbol Search
    • 3. Coding
  186. When was the WPPSI first published?
    1967
  187. The original WISC was developed as a downward extension of the ____________.
    Adult scales, WAIS
  188. When was the WPPSI-III published?
    2002
  189. When was the WPPSI-IV published?
    2012
  190. The WPPSI-III can assess the cognitive functioning of children in what age range?
    Ages 2 years, 6 months to 7 years three months
  191. The WPPSI-III is divided into two age bands, what are the age ranges in each one?
    • 1. Ages 2 years, 6 months to 3 years, 11 months
    • 2. Age 4 to 7 years, 3 months
  192. What is the difference between the types of subtests required in the different age bands of the WPPSI-III?
    The younger age range take fewer subtests designed to measure verbal comprehension and perceptual organization abilities while the older take more subtests to measure the same abilities and processing speed
  193. The WPPSI-III added a _______________ to both age groups and, for the older range, a ______________.
    General Language Composite (GLC); Processing Speed Quotient (PSQ)
  194. The WPPSI-III overlaps with the ________ at the upper ages, allowing flexibility in selecting the most appropriate assessment tool for the transition ages of 6 and 7.
    WISC-IV
  195. What three steps are included in Groth-Marnat's multi-level approach to interpretation of the Wechsler scales?
    • 1. Consider the examinee's FSIQ
    • 2. Then, the Index and subtest scores
    • 3. Followed by intrasubtest variability and qualitative analysis
  196. On the Wechsler scales, what does "scatter" refer to and what can it be used for?
    Subtest variability; to gain information about cognitive strengths and weaknesses
  197. On the WISC-IV, verbal subtest scatter of __ points or more and performance subtest scatter of __ points or more may be significant.
    7; 9
  198. Many experts caution against scatter analysis on the Wechsler scales for diagnostic purposes due to the tendency to produce ___________.
    False positives
  199. In interpreting the Wechsler scales, what is profile analysis?
    Comparing each subtest score to the mean full-scale, verbal, or performance subtest score and then the differences to the values in the Technical Manual. This alsoo provides information on strengths and weaknesses
  200. The Wechsler subtests are useful only for ________ for relative strengths and weaknesses and should not be used as the sole method for making a decision/diagnosis.
    Screening
  201. What two patterns of behavior may a great deal of intrasubtest variability on the Wechsler scales indicate?
    Attention deficits or deliberate faking
  202. On the Wechsler tests, what is intrasubtest variability?
    Variability within a subtest
  203. Qualitative analysis of responses on the Wechsler scales can provide what types of information?
    Intellectual and personality functioning
  204. Although an examinee's behavior surrounding the test and the content of responses may be useful to generate personality-related or clinical hypotheses, what caution needs to be considered?
    The Wechsler scales were not developed or validated for this purpose
  205. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with intellectual giftedness tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Vocabulary
    • 2. Digit Span
    • 3. Information
  206. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with intellectual giftedness tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Picture Completion
    • 2. Symbol Search
    • 3. Cancellation
  207. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with ADHD tend to score highest on which four subtests?
    • 1. Picture Completion
    • 2. Vocabulary
    • 3. Information
    • 4. Comprehension
  208. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with ADHD tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Matrix Reasoning
    • 2. Arithmetic
    • 3. Coding
  209. What Index score patterns have been observed for individuals with ADHD on the WAIS-IV?
    Higher VCI and PRI; lower WMI and PSI
  210. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with major depression tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Vocabulary
    • 2. Matrix Reasoning
    • 3. Information
  211. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with major depression tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Visual Puzzles
    • 2. Figure Weights
    • 3. Coding
  212. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with Autism tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Matrix Reasoning
    • 2. Visual Puzzles
    • 3. Block Design
  213. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with Autism tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Comprehension
    • 2. Symbol Search
    • 3. Coding
  214. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with Asperger's Disorder tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Information
    • 2. Vocabulary
    • 3. Block Design
  215. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with Asperger's Disorder tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Symbol Search
    • 2. Cancellation
    • 3. Coding
  216. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with mild cognitive impairment tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Vocabulary
    • 2. Similarities
    • 3. Information
  217. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with mild cognitive impairment tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Block Design
    • 2. Visual Puzzles
    • 3. Picture Completion
  218. On the WAIS-IV, individuals ages 70 or older with mild cognitive impairment score lowest on which two subtests?
    • 1. Cancellation
    • 2. Letter-Number Sequencing
  219. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with traumatic brain injury tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Vocabulary
    • 2. Information
    • 3. Picture Completion
  220. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with traumatic brain injury tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Cancellation
    • 2. Matrix Reasoning
    • 3. Symbol Search
  221. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with borderline intellectual functioning tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Symbol Search
    • 2. Cancellation
    • 3. Picture Completion
  222. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with borderline intellectual functioning tend to score lowest on which five subtests?
    • 1. Vocabulary
    • 2. Matrix Reasoning
    • 3. Block Design
    • 4. Figure Weights
    • 5. Arithmetic
  223. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with mathematics learning disorder tend to score highest on which four subtests?
    • 1. Symbol Search
    • 2. Picture Completion
    • 3. Similarities
    • 4. Comprehension
  224. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with mathematics learning disorder tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Visual Puzzles
    • 2. Figure Weights
    • 3. Arithmetic
  225. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with reading learning disorder tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Symbol Search
    • 2. Picture Completion
    • 3. Figure Weights
  226. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with reading learning disorder tend to score lowest on which four subtests?
    • 1. Coding
    • 2. Comprehension
    • 3. Arithmetic
    • 4. Vocabulary
  227. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with mild intellectual disability tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Matrix Reasoning
    • 2. Visual Puzzles
    • 3. Block Design
  228. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with mild intellectual disability tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Comprehension
    • 2. Symbol Search
    • 3. Coding
  229. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with moderate intellectual disability tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Information
    • 2. Vocabulary
    • 3. Block Design
  230. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with moderate intellectual disability tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Symbol Search
    • 2. Cancellation
    • 3. Coding
  231. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with probable Alzheimer's tend to score highest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Vocabulary
    • 2. Comprehension
    • 3. Block Design
  232. On the WAIS-IV, individuals with probable Alzheimer's tend to score lowest on which three subtests?
    • 1. Information
    • 2. Symbol Search
    • 3. Coding
  233. What WAIS-III score patterns have been observed amongst individuals with hearing impairments?
    They generally obtain lower scores on the verbal subtests, with Digit Span generally being the lowest; on performance subtests, they do about as well as others on Object Assembly and Block Design, have some difficulty on Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, and Coding and score the lowest on Picture Arrangement
  234. What WAIS-IV score patterns have been observed amongst individuals with intermediate-stage alcoholism?
    Higher verbal than performance scores, with verbal score being in the normal range; higher VCI than PRI
  235. Regarding the WAIS-IV, what must you consider when administering the test to individuals who are not Caucasian?
    You should likely supplement the test with another test of non-verbal intelligence, such as the Raven Progressive Matrices because the WAIS has been deemed to be culturally biased (minority groups generally perform more poorly than Caucasians)
  236. Why is it especially important to supplement the WAIS-IV with other intelligence tests when the examinee's first language is not English?
    Both cultural and linguistic factors are likely to affect performance
  237. What does it mean to say that the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children - II (K-ABC-II) and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT-II) are co-normed?
    They share the same normative sample
  238. On which two models is the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children - II based?
    • 1. Luria's neuropsychological model
    • 2. Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities
  239. What is the main assertion of Luria's neuropsychological model?
    The brain's basic functions are represented by 3 blocks
  240. According to Luria's neuropsychological model, what is the function of Block 1?
    It is responsible for attention and arousal
  241. According to Luria's neuropsychological model, what is the function of Block 2?
    It is responsible for the use of one’s senses to analyze, code, and store information
  242. According to Luria's neuropsychological model, what is the function of Block 3?
    The application of executive functions for formulating plans and programming behavior
  243. What does the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children - II (K-ABC-II) measure?
    Cognitive ability
  244. What steps were taken in order to design the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children - II (K-ABC-II) as a culture free test?
    Verbal instructions and responses were minimized
  245. For what age ranges is the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children - II (K-ABC-II) appropriate?
    Ages 3 through 18
  246. On what five scales are Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children - II (K-ABC-II) scores provided?
    • 1. Simultaneous (Gv)
    • 2. Sequential (Gsm)
    • 3. Planning (Gf)
    • 4. Learning (Gf)
    • 5. Knowledge (Gc)
  247. What does the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT-II) measure?
    Verbal (crystallized) and nonverbal (fluid) ability
  248. For what age ranges is the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT-II) appropriate?
    Ages 4 through 90
  249. What does the Kuhlmann-Anderson (KA) Test - Eighth Edition assess?
    It is a multilevel measure that assesses learning ability in school children
  250. For what age range is the Kuhlmann-Anderson Test appropriate?
    Children in grades K - 12
  251. What three scores are provided by the Kuhlmann-Anderson Test?
    • 1. Verbal
    • 2. Quantitative
    • 3. Total
  252. The Kuhlmann-Anderson Test is less reliant on ___________ than other measures of cognitive ability.
    Language
  253. What does the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) measure and what is it used for?
    The cognitive abilities of children from diverse backgrounds to help practitioners distinguish between children with different conditions, such as learning disability and ADHD and to design interventions to improve learning.
  254. For what age range is the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) appropriate?
    Ages 5 through 17 years, 11 months
  255. What does the Slosson Intelligence Test - Primary (SIT-P-1) measure and what is it used for?
    It provides a quick estimate of cognitive ability; it assists in the quick identification of children at risk for education failure or those who my need additional testing
  256. For what age range is the Slosson Intelligence Test - Primary (SIT-P-1) appropriate?
    Children ages 2 years through 7 years, 11 months whose IQs range from 10 to 170+
  257. What three scores are provided by the Slosson Intelligence Test - Primary (SIT-P-1)?
    • 1. Verbal standard score
    • 2. Performance standard score
    • 3. Total Standard Score (TSS; combination of Verbal and Performance scores)
  258. For what purpose is the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults (SIT-R3) used?
    It is a brief individual screening test of crystallized verbal intelligence
  259. For what age and IQ ranges is the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults (SIT-R3) appropriate?
    Ages 4-65 with IQs ranging from 36 to 164
  260. For what special population is the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults (SIT-R3) appropriate?
    Individuals who are visually impaired or blind
  261. In what time period can the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults (SIT-R3) be administered?
    10-20 minutes
  262. For what purpose is the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults (SIT-R3) generally used?
    It is used as a complement to educational evaluations (in schools, clinics, and industry) targeting learning ability or achievement
  263. On the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults (SIT-R3), test items come from what six cognitive domains?
    • 1. Information
    • 2. Comprehension
    • 3. Quantitative
    • 4. Similarities and Differences
    • 5. Vocabulary
    • 6. Auditory Memory
  264. What is the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), and what do they measure?
    It is an individually administered battery of cognitive and achievement tests
  265. For what ages (including age ranges) is the Differential Ability Scales (DAS) appropriate for?
    • Children ages 2 years, 6 months to 17 years, 11 months, with the following divisions:
    • 1. Lower preschool (2 years, 6 months through 3 years, 5 months)
    • 2. Upper preschool (3 years, 6 months through 5 years, 11 months)
    • 3. School-Age (6 years to 17 years, 11 months)
  266. The Differential Ability Scales (DAS) was designed to measure _____________ and provide profiles of ___________ and _____________.
    Specific abilities; strengths; weaknesses
  267. The Differential Ability Scales (DAS) includes how many subtests?
    20 (e.g., nonverbal reasoning, spatial ability, verbal ability, short-term memory, speed of information processing)
  268. What composite score is provided by the cognitive battery of the Differential Ability Scales (DAS)?
    General Conceptual Ability (GAC), defined as "the general ability of an individual to perform complex mental processing that involves conceptualization and transformation of information"
  269. What information is provided by the achievement battery of the Differential Ability Scales (DAS)?
    It yields information for ability-achievement discrepancy analysis
  270. For what purpose is the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) used?
    Career and personnel assessment in organizational settings for the purpose of hiring, training, and career development
  271. For what age range is the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) appropriate?
    Individuals from 7th grade to adulthood
  272. What eight areas (which include cognitive, perceptual, and clerical/language skills) are assessed by the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT)?
    • 1. Verbal Reasoning
    • 2. Numerical Ability
    • 3. Abstract Reasoning
    • 4. Mechanical Reasoning
    • 5. Space Relations
    • 6. Spelling
    • 7. Language Usage
    • 8. Perceptual Speed and Accuracy
  273. On which theory of cognitive abilities is the Woodcock-Johnson based?
    Cattell-Horn-Carroll three-stratum theory
  274. What two co-normed batteries are included in the Woodcock-Johnson?
    • 1. Tests of Achievement (WJ III)
    • 2. Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG)
  275. What do the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement (WJ III) measure?
    Scholastic aptitude and oral language
  276. What do the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG) measure?
    General intellectual ability (g) and specific cognitive abilities
  277. For what ages are the Woodcock-Johnson tests appropriate?
    Ages 2 to 90+
  278. What information can be obtained by administering both batteries of the Woodcock-Johnson?
    Ability/achievement discrepancies, which is the most commonly used method of evaluating an individual's eligibility for special programs
  279. What do developmental scales measure and when are they typically used?
    They measure motor, social, perceptual, sensory, and cognitive skills (once language begins after about 18 months) and are typically used in infancy and early childhood to test intelligence
  280. What are the Gesell Developmental Schedules and what do they assess?
    Empirically-derived standardized measures of infant and early childhood development in the areas of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social functions
  281. For what ages are the Gesell Developmental Schedules appropriate?
    Ages 4 weeks through 6 years
  282. How is information derived on the Gesell Developmental Schedules?
    Observations of the child's activities plus information given by the mother or caretaker; this information is then compared to established norms
  283. For what are the Gesell Developmental Schedules most useful?
    As a part of an examination for suspected neurological or organic disorders
  284. What is the primary purpose of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III)?
    It is used to identify developmental delays and plan intervention strategies
  285. How many subtests are included in the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III)?
    Five
  286. For what ages is the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III) appropriate?
    Children ages 1 to 42 months
  287. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III) is considered by many to be the best assessment measure of what?
    Infant development; it provides valuable information about patterns of early development
  288. What data was collected for the latest revision of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III)?
    Data on children with high-incidence clinical diagnoses (e.g., Down syndrome, prematurity, prenatal drug exposure); norms were also updated based on the 2000 US census
  289. What six scales (including one that is optional) are included in the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III)?
    • 1. Social-emotional scale
    • 2. Adaptive behavior scale
    • 3. Cognitive scale
    • 4. Language scale
    • 5. Motor scale
    • 6. Behavior rating scale (optional; assesses behavior during testing and is used in interpretation of the cognitive and language scales)
  290. What is the purpose of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (Denver II)?
    It is used to screen for developmental delays
  291. For what age range is the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (Denver II) appropriate?
    Children from birth to six years old
  292. How is a developmental delay scored on the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (Denver II)?
    If a child fails an item that 90% of children pass at a younger age
  293. In what settings and by whom is the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (Denver II) generally administered?
    It is often used in medical settings, by pediatricians or other medical practitioners. It can be administered by paraprofessionals with a few hours of training
  294. How is the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (Denver II) administered?
    Through direct observation of a child's performance
  295. What four developmental domains are assessed by the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (Denver II)?
    • 1. Personal-social
    • 2. Language
    • 3. Fine motor adaptive
    • 4. Gross motor
  296. What is the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) used for?
    To identify mental retardation or other cognitive impairment in infants
  297. For what age range is the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) appropriate?
    Infants 3-12 months of age
  298. What does the score on the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) reflect?
    The amount of time an infant looks at pictures of new versus familiar faces
  299. What does the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) assess?
    An infant's selective attention to novel stimuli, presumed to reflect an ability to abstract and retain information
  300. Research has found that _______________ measures, given during infancy, are good predictors of IQ during childhood.
    Information processing
  301. What is defined as "the ability and competency of an individual to meet expected standards of personal independence and social responsibility in relation to his or her age and cultural group"?
    Adaptive behavior
  302. What two things are needed for a diagnosis of mental retardation?
    • 1. Subaverage intelligence
    • 2. Significantly below average social adaptation
  303. In addition to assessing for mental retardation, measures of adaptive behavior are also useful for assessing those with what disorder?
    Autism
  304. What is the purpose of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales?
    To assess an individual's personal and social sufficiency, such as the person's capacity to care for him or herself; it can be used to assist in developing education and treatment plans
  305. For what age and diagnoses can the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales be used?
    Individuals from birth to age 90 with mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, brain injury, ADHD, and dementia
  306. What scores can be obtained from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales?
    It yields an Adaptive Behavior Composite score and scores for the adaptive functioning domains of communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills; there is also an optional Maladaptive Behavior Index
  307. By whom was the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) developed?
    The American Association of Mental Deficiency (AAMD)
  308. For what ages is the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) appropriate?
    Children ages 3 and older
  309. How is information for the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) obtained?
    It is based on observations of the individual's social, personal hygiene, language, and maladaptive behaviors
  310. What is the Adaptive Behavior Scale School (ABS-S:2) used for?
    To assist in evaluating individuals for mental retardation, autism, and/or behavior disorders
  311. What are the two parts of the Adaptive Behavior Scale School (ABS-S:2)?
    • 1. Nine behavior domains that evaluate key behaviors to personal responsibility and independent living
    • 2. Four sections for social adaptations and maladaptive behavior
  312. For what ages is the Adaptive Behavior Scale School (ABS-S:2) appropriate?
    Children ages 3 to 18
  313. The Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC) was developed by Mercer and Lewis as a part of what other measure?
    System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)
  314. What is the purpose of the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC)?
    It was designed as a more sensitive measure of adaptive behavior for racial minority children
  315. In what languages can the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC) be administered?
    English and Spanish
  316. How is the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC) administered?
    It consists of 242 interview questions, with a parent of caregiver providing the answers
  317. The Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC) measures adaptive behavior along what 6 dimesions?
    • 1. Family
    • 2. Community
    • 3. Peer relations
    • 4. Non-academic school roles
    • 5. Earner/consumer
    • 6. Self-maintenance
  318. What is the purpose of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II)?
    It measures adaptive behavior and related skills
  319. For what ages is the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II) appropriate?
    0-89 years
  320. What format of assessment is used by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II)?
    It utilizes a behavior rating format using information provided by parents, teachers, significant others, care providers, supervisors, and/or the individual being assessed
  321. On the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II), adaptive skills are divided into what three broad domains?
    • 1. Conceptual
    • 2. Social
    • 3. Practical
  322. On the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II), what does the conceptual domain consist of?
    Self-direction, communication, and functional academics skill areas
  323. On the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II), what does the social domain consist of?
    Social and leisure skill areas
  324. On the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II), what does the practical domain consist of?
    Self-care, home living, community use, health and safety, and work skills
  325. On the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II), under what conditions is the motor skills area assessment utilized?
    It is required for children ages 0-5 and supplemental for ages 5-89
  326. What is the purpose of the Scales of Independent Behavior - Revised (SIB-R)?
    It is designed for evaluation, program planning, selection, placement, and individual service needs
  327. How is the Scales of Independent Behavior - Revised (SIB-R) administered?
    It is individually administered as a structured interview or checklist assessment
  328. For what ages is the Scales of Independent Behavior - Revised (SIB-R) appropriate?
    Infancy to age 80
  329. What dimensions of functioning are measured by the Scales of Independent Behavior - Revised (SIB-R)?
    Adaptive functioning and functional independence across home, school, community, and employment settings
  330. What two scale scores are provided by the Scales of Independent Behavior - Revised (SIB-R) and what information do they convey?
    • 1. Adaptive Behavior Full Scale Score - the rating is determined by the extent to which the individual performs a task completely and independently
    • 2. Problem Behavior Scale - rated based on the frequency and severity of each behavior
  331. On the Scales of Independent Behavior - Revised (SIB-R), what is the Support Scale?
    A scale derived by information from the Adaptive Behavior Full Scale Score and the Problem Behavior Scale that reflects the amount of support necessary for an individual to be independent in various areas
  332. The Scales of Independent Behavior - Revised (SIB-R) has a form specifically for individuals who are ________.
    Blind
  333. The Scales of Independent Behavior - Revised (SIB-R) specifically lists _________ origin in its standardization review.
    Hispanic
  334. For which populations are nonverbal assessments or standardized intelligence tests that do not depend on verbal ability most important?
    Individuals with expressive speech dysfunctions, motor dysfunctions, or whose primary language is not English
  335. Why do tests attempting to reduce the effects of cultural factors on IQ often employ a nonverbal format?
    To reduce the culture loading associated with language
  336. Many efforts at "culture-free" tests have been ___________.
    Unsuccessful
  337. What does the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test (PPVT-4) measure?
    It provides a nonverbal estimate of intelligence
  338. How is the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test (PPVT-4) administered?
    It consists of a series of 228 cards with four pictures on each. The examiner shows the pictures on a card and gives a stimulus word. The examinee indicates which of the pictures best represents the word given. This can be done verbally or by pointing or nodding the head
  339. For whom is the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test (PPVT-4) appropriate?
    Individuals ages 2 1/2 to 90+ years of age who can see the pictures, hear the stimulus word, and communicate a reply
  340. What is the purpose of the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS)?
    It is a general reasoning test that provides an IQ score
  341. How is the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) administered?
    There are 92 cards that contain 3, 4, or 5 pictures and the examinee is asked to indicate which one doesn't fit with others
  342. For whom is the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) appropriate?
    Children ages 3 years, 6 months through 9 years, 11 months. It is useful for children with sensorimotor disorders (e.g., cerebral palsy), difficulties speaking or reading, limited English proficiency, mental retardation, or brain damage as it does not require fine motor skills or verbal responses
  343. For whom is the Haptic Intelligence Scale appropriate?
    Individuals aged 16 or older who are partially-sighted or blind
  344. What six subtests are included in the Haptic Intelligence Scale?
    • 1. Block Design
    • 2. Object Completion
    • 3. Pattern Board
    • 4. Digit Symbol
    • 5. Object Assembly
    • 6. Bead Arithmetic
  345. The Haptic Intelligence Scale uses _________ stimuli.
    Tactile
  346. The Haptic Intelligence Scale can be administered alone or along with the ______.
    WAIS
  347. For whom is the Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude appropriate?
    Children ages 3 to 17 years, 6 months who are deaf of have a hearing or language impairment
  348. The Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude consists of ______ non-verbal subtests.
    12
  349. The Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude can be administered in which two ways?
    Verbally of using pantomime
  350. The Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter-R) can be administered without _________________.
    Verbal instruction
  351. For whom is the Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter-R) appropriate?
    Individuals ages 2 through 21 who have language or reading problems or are hearing impaired
  352. How is the Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter-R) administered?
    The test requires the examinee to match picture response cards to the same pictures on an easel
  353. The Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter-R) is culture-fair assessment of cognitive abilities and emphasizes _________ intelligence.
    Fluid
  354. Which four aspects of cognitive functioning are measured by the Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter-R)?
    • 1. Visualization
    • 2. Reasoning
    • 3. Memory
    • 4. Attention
  355. Given its non-verbal instructions, the Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter-R) would be particularly useful for which populations?
    Children newly arriving from a non-English speaking country, with autism, or selective mutism
  356. Who developed the Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT)?
    Raymond Cattell
  357. What is the purpose of the Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT)?
    It is a nonverbal test of fluid intelligence
  358. For whom is the Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) appropriate?
    Ages 4 through adult
  359. How is the Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) structured?
    It has three scales containing two equivalent forms (A and B) and each form consists of four subtests: series, classification, matrices, and conditions
  360. Tasks on each version of the Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) requires what types of responses?
    Responses to picture and pattern stimuli testing such nonverbal skills as seriation, matrices, and classification (i.e., an examinee must pick out two odd items in each row of figures for each question)
  361. What three versions are present on the Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT)?
    • 1. Scale 1: Ages 4 to 8 and adults with mental retardation
    • 2. Scale 2: Ages 8 to 13 and average adults
    • 3. Scale 3: High-school and college students (grades 10 to 16) and high-ability adults
  362. The Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) is a valid, nonverbal measure of general intelligence with scores correlating in the mid-_____ with the general factor of intelligence and the ________ with other intelligence measures (e.g., WAIS, WISC, Stanford-Binet, Otis, Ravens, General Aptitude Battery)
    .80s; .70s and .80s
  363. What was the Raven's Progressive Matrices originally designed for and what is it used for currently?
    It was originally designed as a nonverbal test of general intelligence, but is currently used more as an assessment of perceptual ability and, at the more advanced levels, of spatial logic
  364. The Raven's Progressive Matrices is often included in ______________ batteries.
    Neuropsychological
  365. How is the Raven's Progressive Matrices administered?
    The examinee is given a series of designs (matrices) and is asked to indicate from a group of alternatives what the next matrix should be in order to complete the overall set
  366. What is the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM)?
    It is the most commonly used version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices that contains 60 matrices that require the examinee to choose the missing section from 6 alternatives
  367. For what ages is the Standard Progressive Matrices appropriate?
    Individuals ages 6 to 80
  368. What is the Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM)?
    A shorter, easier version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices
  369. For what ages/populations is the Colored Progressive Matrices appropriate?
    Ages 5 or 11, individuals with mental or physical impairments, and elderly adults
  370. For whom is the Advanced Progressive Matrices appropriate?
    Adolescents and adults with above-average intelligence
  371. Why is the Raven's Progressive Matrices considered a "culture-fair" intelligence test?
    It is relatively independent of the effects of cultural learning and specific education
  372. Based on what findings did questions surface about the validity of standard IQ tests for assessing others besides White, middle-class backgrounds?
    IQ discrepancies between cultural, ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups
  373. What modifications are included in culture-fair intelligence tests?
    Reduced cultural content, nonverbal formats, instructions that are simple and could be pantomimed (allows for testing of non-English speakers, individuals with hearing impairments, those with physical disabilities, or individuals with aphasia)
  374. What is the current consensus regarding culture-free and/or culture-fair tests?
    It is not possible to design them because even nonverbal tests rely on logic, which is itself associated with a cultural mode of perceiving, analyzing, and thinking
  375. Children from non-White middle-class backgrounds have been found to do ________ on nonverbal (culture-fair) tests of intelligence than they do on standard measures of intelligence.
    No better
  376. What speculations have been made regarding IQ discrepancies (on both verbal and non-verbal measures) for non-White middle class children?
    Differences in problem-solving approaches, cognitive styles, test-taking interest, motivation, and attitudes toward standardized tests
  377. Recognizing the inherent cultural influence in IQ tests, experts emphasize the need to engage in ________________ rather than relying on just one measure of formal cognitive processing.
    Broad-based assessment
  378. Who developed the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)?
    Mercer and Lewis
  379. What is the purpose of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)?
    To estimate the academic potential of children from diverse backgrounds by considering a number of aspects of his/her experience, including sensorimotor skills, cognitive abilities, and adaptive behavior
  380. For what ages is the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA) appropriate?
    Children ages 5 to 11
  381. What two parts is the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA) divided into?
    One part for the child and one for the parents or primary caregiver
  382. What three components are included in the Parent Interview of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)?
    • 1. Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC)
    • 2. Sociocultural scales
    • 3. Health history inventories
  383. What three components are included in the Student Assessment of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)?
    • 1. Wechsler Scales (either WISC or WPPSI)
    • 2. Bender Gestalt
    • 3. A set of physical dexterity tasks; weight by height, visual acuity, and auditory acuity
  384. How long does the Parent Interview of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA) usually take?
    20 minutes
  385. How long does the Student Assessment of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA) usually take?
    One hour
  386. For what populations are standardization scales available for the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)?
    Caucasian, Latino, and African-American groups
  387. What is the name of the index derived from the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)?
    Estimated Learning Potential Scale
  388. Who developed two group intelligence tests during World War I to help the army determine placement for recruits?
    Robert Yerkes
  389. Why are group intelligence tests preferred over individual intelligence tests in some settings?
    Individual testing is time-consuming and expensive
  390. What is the name of the group intelligence test currently used by the armed forces?
    Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT)
  391. Other than the military, in what types of settings might group intelligence tests be used?
    Industries, schools, and any other setting that requires testing of a large group of individuals
  392. Group intelligence tests are frequently multiple-choice and use either of what two approaches?
    • 1. Organize questions by content with each area separately time-tested
    • 2. Combine various content questions and organize the questions in order of increasing difficulty
  393. What is the purpose of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT8)?
    It is used to assess students' reasoning skills and strengths and weaknesses in performing a variety of reasoning tasks
  394. What five types of items are used for assessment on the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT8)?
    • 1. Verbal comprehension
    • 2. Verbal reasoning
    • 3. Pictorial reasoning
    • 4. Figural reasoning
    • 5. Quantitative reasoning
  395. For what ages is the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) appropriate?
    Children in kindergarten through grade 12
  396. What does the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) measure?
    Patterns and levels of abilities in reasoning in problem-solving
  397. What scores are derived from the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT)?
    Verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal reasoning abilities, as well as a composite score
  398. What is the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT-R)?
    It is a 12-minute paper-and-pencil test of cognitive ability for adults consisting of 50 numerical, verbal, and spatial items
  399. Despite its wide usage, the Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT-R) has been found to have what problem?
    It unfairly discriminates against individuals of culturally-diverse groups for various jobs
  400. What is the Wonderlic Basic Skills Test (WBST)?
    A 40-minute test that assesses job-related verbal and math skills
  401. Who generally uses the Wonderlic Basic Skills Test (WBST)?
    Educational institutions and employers
  402. The Wonderlic Basic Skills Test (WBST) includes several _______.
    Forms
  403. For what purpose is the Wonderlic Basic Skills Test (WBST) primarily used?
    To evaluate an individual's employability for an entry-level career position
  404. _________ tests measure limited, defined, and homogeneous groups of abilities.
    Aptitude
  405. Aptitude tests are often designed as ________ of future behavior.
    Predictors
  406. General measures of aptitude correlate strongly with _______________.
    Educational achievement
  407. The GRE is an example of a(n) ___________ test.
    Aptitude
  408. ____________ tests measure the end result of a learning program, assess retention of content, and are typically used in educational settings.
    Achievement
  409. Although it was once proposed that aptitude tests measure innate abilities, while achievement tests measure learning experiences, what has research shown regarding this?
    Innate ability and environmental factors account for the same amount of variability in both achievement and aptitude tests
  410. What is the currently accepted distinction between aptitude and achievement tests?
    While aptitude tests supposedly measure a person’s potential capacity for future learning, achievement tests measure what a person has already learned, or his/her developed capacity
  411. Some authors recommend that the term ______ be used to refer to both aptitude and achievement tests.
    Ability test
  412. What has research found regarding the general effects of coaching on standardized tests?
    Scores on these tests improve minimally (10-20 points) with intensive, short-term coaching
  413. What was found in a meta-analysis of the coachability of the SAT?
    A mean coaching effect of 9 points on the Verbal and 16 on the Math section; similar results were found in a large-scale study by Educational Testing Service  for the SAT and on other admissions tests
  414. Increases in scores beyond minimal changes due to coaching would require study time approaching _____________.
    Full-time study
  415. Recent studies show about __ percent of examinees improved by 100 or more points on retesting select sections of a standardized test.
    15
  416. Effects of coaching tend to be _______ if a pretest is used (versus a posttest-only design).
    Larger
  417. What is a pretest sensitization effect?
    The potential or actuality of a pretest assessment’s effect on subjects
  418. Effects of coaching are larger if there are __________ practice tests.
    Multiple
  419. Effects of coaching are larger if the practice and criterion tests are _______ or, in the best of cases, _________.
    Similar; identical
  420. The higher the person's ________________, the more benefit the person will get from a coaching program.
    Initial ability
  421. The more ______ the item type, the more advantage the test-taker will obtain from being coached for it.
    Complex
  422. What is test wiseness?
    The ability to improve one's test score by recognizing and utilizing cues in the test items, format, or testing situation without necessarily knowing the content or skill that is being measured
  423. Name four examples of test wiseness strategies.
    • 1. Similar option
    • 2. Grammatical cue
    • 3. Item giveaway
    • 4. Stem option
  424. What type of test is more susceptible to test wiseness cues? Why?
    Multiple-choice tests; multiple choice items contain several components where cues may occur
  425. A ___________ relationship between test-taking skills and multiple-choice test performance exists than with constructed response test performance.
    Stronger
  426. Test wiseness can be a source of test ___________ on multiple-choice questions.
    Invalidity
  427. Test wiseness may contribute significantly to the score variance on ____________ measures, but test wiseness cues account for less than three percent of the variance on _____________ tests.
    Job selection; standardized
  428. Test wiseness cues are meant to help students display what they know and analyze novel material not ____________ scores.
    Falsely inflate
  429. A meta-analysis conducted by Hausknecht and colleagues found that on cognitive ability tests, retesting effects were as follows: applicants in the 50th percentile on the first administration would improve to the ______ percentile on the second and ______ percentile on the third administration.
    60th; 71st
  430. Gifted children achieve slightly higher scores on measures of ___________, especially in areas related to academics, than do non-gifted children.
    Self-concept
  431. What did Sternberg find regarding gifted children?
    Gifted children tend to process information more efficiently, especially on novel tasks that require insight
  432. What does it mean when the assertion is made that gifted children have better meta-cognitive skills?
    They are more aware of their cognitive processes and better at selecting, applying, and evaluating cognitive strategies
  433. What is test anxiety?
    A stable characteristic of a person believed to be related to a fear of failure in a situation in which the person is to be evaluated
  434. People high in test anxiety have consistently ____________ achievement scores and ____________ educational attainment across the board.
    Lower; decreased
  435. What types of teaching environments are most helpful for individuals with high test anxiety?
    Nonstressful and highly structured
  436. What is the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests?
    An APA publication that covers the construction, publication, dissemination, interpretation, and use of standardized tests; it includes standardized personnel selection, school admissions, and achievement tests
  437. What is the Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY)?
    Buros' guide to English-language psychological, educational, and vocational tests including critical reviews of tests, information on reliability and validity, and references to other reviews of the tests
  438. What is Tests in Print?
    Buros' guide of references to most tests published in English-speaking countries and cross-indexes to reviews of the tests found in the Mental Measurements Yearbook
  439. What have Linney & Siedman found to be the six components of effective schools?
    • 1. Strong leadership, active and energetic principals
    • 2. An orderly and structured atmosphere
    • 3. Teachers participating in decision-making
    • 4. Educational staff having high expectations children will learn
    • 5. An emphasis on academics
    • 6. Frequent monitoring of students' performance
  440. In general, smaller schools have been shown to be ____________ than larger schools.
    More effective
  441. What did Barker & Gump find in one of the first studies conducted on the benefits of school size?
    Even though large schools tended to offer more activities, students in small schools were more likely to participate in school-sponsored activities
  442. Most recent problems of public education, such as low achievement and high dropout rates have been linked to what factor?
    Large schools, especially large high schools
  443. ____________ schools are thought to offer too few opportunities for most students to participant in or to assume roles, leading to easy alienation.
    Large
  444. What did Lee find regarding school size in a 2001 study based on seniors from public, Catholic, and elite private schools?
    The optimal size for a high school is between 601 and 900 students; achievement gains were lowest for students in schools over 2100 students and nearly as low for students enrolled in schools under 300
  445. What four reasons for the effectiveness of smaller schools or learning communities were identified by Wasley and colleagues?
    • 1. Allows students to be well known, challenged, and encouraged by adults who care
    • 2. Reduces the isolation that can seed alienation and violence
    • 3. Reduces the achievement gap for poorer students or children of color
    • 4. Encourages teachers to use intelligence and experience to help students succeed
  446. In addition to the reasons defined by Wasley and colleagues, what other four reasons have been found to explain the increased effectiveness of smaller schools?
    • 1. Improved school safety and security
    • 2. Reduced negative effects of poverty
    • 3. Students in general view subjects and school more positively
    • 4. Better coordination among school staff
  447. What three disadvantages are associated with smaller school size?
    • 1. Higher costs of education per student
    • 2. Initially fewer electives
    • 3. Fewer special education specialists
  448. Who developed the Montessori teaching method and from what experience was it developed?
    Maria Montessori, the first female Italian physician, developed this method from her work with children with emotional disturbances and mental retardation
  449. On what belief is the Montessori method based?
    Cognitive development is the product of interaction between the individual and the environment and motor, sensory, and language development are viewed as prerequisites to academic learning
  450. In the Montessori teaching method, what is meant by the assertion that the child is viewed as an "active learner"?
    That children have a drive for self-development that can be aided by an orderly, but stimulating environment
  451. What six characteristics are associated with the Montessori teaching method?
    • 1. Individual and small group academic and social skills instruction
    • 2. Multi-age classrooms
    • 3. Student mentors in collaborative environments
    • 4. Student-chosen work in long time blocks
    • 5. Educational materials
    • 6. Absence of grades and tests
  452. Over ____________ public and private schools in the US utilize the Montessori method.
    5000
  453. Using the Montesssori method, why is external reinforcement of learning unnecessary?
    Children will be naturally motivated to interact with objects that are self-chosen in a constructive way
  454. What is meant when it is said that the Montessori method focuses on a "prepared environment"?
    Children are free to do what they want, within limits, and are encouraged to exercise self-discipline; teacher observes the children and assists them when they truly need help
  455. When utilizing the Montessori method, at what age does academic training begin?
    Age 4
  456. In the Montessori teaching method, there is very little didactic group teaching with the exception of what?
    Demonstrations of the use of teaching materials to small groups of children
  457. What three criticisms have been made regarding the Montessori teaching method?
    • 1. It doesn't provide enough opportunity for small-group interaction
    • 2. It doesn't provide enough cooperative opportunities
    • 3. Children are limited in terms of interaction with peers and teachers
  458. The literature has established that which two factors regarding teacher-student relationships are important?
    • 1. The need for quality teacher-student relationships
    • 2. Teacher relational variables
  459. Regarding teacher-student relationships, learning has been found to be enhanced by what three factors?
    • 1. Supportive relationships
    • 2. Safe, trusting learning environments to learn with and from each other
    • 3. Perceived ownership and control over the learning proces
  460. Which three teacher relational practices have been found to facilitate student and learning variables outcomes?
    • 1. Considering individual and cultural differences
    • 2. Encouraging thinking
    • 3. Learner-centered beliefs
  461. What is the Learner-Centered Model of education?
    It is a teaching approach based on the APA's learner-centered principles and combines a focus on individual learners and a focus on learning
  462. What is the purpose of the APA's 14 learner-centered principles (LCP)?
    To define what is presently known about learning and learners; they reflect the psychological principles with the greatest positive effect on learning and learnings
  463. Into what four categories are the APA's 14 learner-centered principles organized?
    • 1. Cognitive and metacognitive
    • 2. Motivational and affective
    • 3. Developmental and social
    • 4. Individual differences
  464. What is addressed in the Cognitive and Metacognitive domain of the learner-centered principles and what six principles are included within it?
    • It addresses intellectual capacities of learners and how they facilitate the learning process
    • 1. Nature of the learning process
    • 2. Goals of the learning process
    • 3. Construction of knowledge
    • 4. Strategic thinking
    • 5. Thinking about thinking
    • 6. Context
  465. What is addressed in the Motivational and Affective domain of the learner-centered principles and what three principles are included within it?
    • It addresses the role of motivation, curiosity, and emotion in learning
    • 1. Motivational and emotional influences
    • 2. Intrinsic motivation
    • 3. Effects of motivation on effort
  466. What is addressed in the Developmental and Social domain of the learner-centered principles and what two principles are included within it?
    • It addresses the influence of diverse aspects of learner development and the importance of interpersonal interactions in learning and change
    • 1. Developmental influences
    • 2. Social influences
  467. What is addressed in the Individual differences domain of the learner-centered principles and what three principles are included within it?
    • It addresses how individual differences influence learning; how students, teachers, and administrators adapt to learning diversity; and how standards and assessment can best support individual differences
    • 1. Individual differences in learning
    • 2. Learning and diversity
    • 3. Standards and assessment
  468. What five learner-centered teacher variables have been shown to have above-average associations with positive outcomes?
    • 1. Empathy
    • 2. Positive relationships
    • 3. Warmth
    • 4. Nondirectivity
    • 5. Encouraging thinking and learning
  469. Learner-centered teacher variables have been found to have positive outcomes for students in which areas?
    Student participation, satisfaction, drop-out prevention, critical thinking, self-esteem, positive motivation, math and verbal achievement, grades, IQ, social connection, improved attendance and perceived achievement, reduction in disruptive behaviors
  470. The educational reform literature advocates a shift in focus from a __________ approach to a ___________ approach.
    Teacher-centered; learner-centered approach
  471. The educational reform movement strongly influences what professions?
    School psychology/counseling
  472. School psychologists usually specialize in _____________ rather than _____________.
    Assessment; treatment
  473. Few schools can afford to provide _______ for individual students or their families.
    Therapy
  474. Who strives "to impact the school system on an organization level, focusing on a problem-solving model and the demonstration of student progress through outcome-based measures?"
    School psychologists
  475. What are the three models of school consultation identified by Dustin and Ehly?
    • 1. Mental health model
    • 2. Behavioral model
    • 3. Adlerian model
  476. According to Dustin and Ehly, what is the mental health model of school consultation?
    The consultant interacts with consultee (parents, teachers, or principal) in order to help that person resolved a problem involving a child
  477. According to Dustin and Ehly, what is the behavioral model of school consultation?
    The consultant focuses directly on the presenting problem of the consultee (e.g., teacher's style of teaching)
  478. According to Dustin and Ehly, what is the Adlerian model of school consultation?
    Consultants educate parents and teachers, applying the assumptions and content of Adlerian theory, emphasizing preventative interventions
  479. In consultation in schools, why do psychologists generally focus their attention on parents, teachers, and the school setting rather than with children directly?
    Research suggests that psychological interventions aimed directly at students (e.g., teaching social skills, assertiveness programs to resist substance use)have limited value; therefore, keeping the focus on others is viewed as a more efficient use of the consultant's time since the gains in consultee insight can be generalized to other situations
  480. What is curriculum-based assessment?
    A type of educational assessment that is closely linked to a particular curriculum
  481. In addition to providing information about a student's performance level, curriculum-based assessment also provides what other type of information?
    Feedback about the instruction itself, so that necessary changes can be made to better fit the student's ability and current knowledge; it is not designed to bring about changes in the curriculum itself, though; rather, its purpose is to help identify progress in terms of the existing curriculum and any change in instruction (e.g., pace, sequencing of topics) that would aid the student's progress in completing the curriculum
  482. When and by whom was the Head Start program developed?
    By the federal government in 1965
  483. What is the Head Start program?
    The most widespread and well-known early intervention program for children of poverty
  484. What does the Head Start program typically involve?
    A year of preschool education, nutritional and medical services, and parent involvement in education and program administration
  485. What was found in the first widely reported study of the effectiveness of Head Start?
    A year of Head Start had only marginal effects on intelligence and school achievement; this student threatened the existence of the program, but it has been criticized as being flawed
  486. What have more recent longitudinal students found regarding the effect of cognitive enrichment programs (i.e., Head Start) on IQ and school achievement?
    Among low income children in early elementary school, increases in IQ scores and school achievement have been found, but score decline is observed thereafter
  487. Which three indicators of adjustment have been found to be positively influenced by Head Start?
    • 1. Placement in special education classes
    • 2. Pride in academic achievement
    • 3. Vocational aspirations
  488. Teenagers who participated in cognitive enrichment programs, such as Head Start, are more likely to _______________ and less likely to _____________ than matched controls.
    Graduate high school; engage in delinquent behavior
  489. What is transitional bilingual education (TBE)?
    A method in which children are taught partially or entirely in their native language and then transitioned to English-only instruction at some point during the elementary school grades
  490. What is structured English immersion (SEI)?
    A method in which children are taught using texts and instructions overwhelmingly, if not entirely, English-only
  491. Findings indicate that immigrants in all-English programs typically take _____ years to achieve grade level on tests of academic language, and children in bilingual programs typically take _____ years.
    5 to 8; 6
  492. Whether taught through bilingual education or English-only instruction, students retain Spanish language and reading skills and speak and read English and Spanish equally well by the _________ grade.
    Fourth
  493. The ___________ of instruction, rather than the language of instruction, is most important in the education of English language learners.
    Quality
  494. What variable is considered a strong predictor of ultimate English reading performance in immigrant children?
    Native language reading proficiency
  495. How does bilingualism effect performance in the native language and English?
    It does not interfere with performance

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