Biology Exam 2
Card Set Information
Biology Exam 2
Biology Exam 2
Covers body surface, lines, organs and cavities, and makes most of glands
Binds and supports body parts
Moves body parts
receives stimuli and send messages, stores information
What is structure of connective tissue?
Widely scattered cells in a non-cellular matrix
What is the structure of muscle tissue?
Closely packed, mostly cylindrical cells
What is the structure of Nervous tissue?
What is an example of epithelial tissue?
skin, mucus membranes, glands, lining of digestive system and lungs, coverings for all organs and linings of all cativies
What are some examples of muscle Tissue?
skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle
What are some examples of connective tissue?
supportive-cartilage and bone
What are the five functions of the digestive system?
digestion-breaking down food
movement-moves food along GI tract
absorption-nutrients pass to blood stream
Elimination-indigestible wastes are removed
What is mechanically digestion?
large pieces are broken into smaller pieces
mixing and churning
What is chemical digestion?
enzymes break down polymers into monomers
What is the function of the pharynx?
passageway where food is swallowed
What is the function of the esophagus
passageway where peristalsis pushes food to stomach
What is the function of the stomach?
stores food and aids in digestion
What is the function of the small intestine?
secretes digestive hormones into blood
What is the function of the large intestine?
absorbs water and salt to form feces
What is the function of the rectum?
stores and regulates elimination of feces
What are the important enzymes of digestion?
Amylase, lipase, protease (pepsin, trypsin)
What are the gatekeeper functions of the liver?
destroys old red blood cells
detoxifies blood by removing toxins
makes plasma proteins
stores and releases glucose as needed to maintain blood sugar
produces urea when amino acids are metabolized
helps regulate cholesterol levels
Secretion of the liver temporarily stored and concentrated in the gallbladder before being released into the small intestine, where it emulsifies fat
Chronic, irreversible injury to liver tissue
delayed and difficult defication caused by insufficient water in the feces
Excessively frequent bowel movements
Burning pain in the chest that occurs when part of the stomach contents escape into the esophagus
Inflammation of the liver
Yellowish tint to the skin caused by an abnormal amount of bilirubin in the blood
automatic, involuntary response of an organism to a stumuls
Muscle that surrounds a tube and closes or opens the tube by contracting and relaxing
Wavelike contractions that propel substances along a tubular structure such as the esophagus.
Small, fingerlike projection of the inner small intestinal wall
Malignant tumor whose nondifferentiated cells exhibit loss of contact inhibition, uncontrolled growth, and the ability to invade tissue and metastasize
Alteration in chromosome structure or number and also an alteration in a gene due to a change in DNA composition
Spread of cancer from the place or origin throughout the body
Cells derived from a single mutated cell that has repeatedly undergone cell division
generalized infection of the lining of the abdominal cavity
condition that refers to the inflammation of the brain or spinal cord meninges
Maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an organism by means of self-regulating mechanisms
unstructured semifluid substance that fills the space between cells in connective tissues or inside organelles
What organs are in the reproductive system?
testes, penis, ovaries, uterus, vagina
What is the function of the reproductive system?
produces and transports gametes
nurtures and gives birth to offspring in females
What organ makes up the integumentary system?
What is the function of the integumentary system?
provides temperature homeostasis
synthesizes vitamin D
receives sensory input
What organ make up the cardiovascular system?
What is the function of the cardiovascular system?
transport system for nutrients, waste
provides temperature, pH, and fluid homeostasis
What organs make up the lymphatic and immune systems?
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen
What is the function of the lymphatic and immune system?
Defends against infectious diseases
provides fluid homeostasis
assists in absorption and transport of fats
What organs make up the digestive system?
oral cavities, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
What is the function of the digestive system?
ingests, digests, and processes food
absorbs nutrients and eliminates waste
involved in fluid homeostasis
What organ makes up the respiratory system?
What is the function of the respiratory system?
Exchanges gases at both lungs and tissues
assists in pH homeostasis
What organs make up the urinary system?
Kidneys, urinary bladder
What is the function of the urinary system?
excretes metabolic wastes
provides pH and fluids homeostasis
What organ makes up the skeletal system?
What is the function of the skeletal system?
provides support and protection
assists in movement
produces blood cells
What organ makes up the muscular system?
What is the function of the muscular system?
assists in movement and posture
What organs make up the nervous system?
brain, spinal cord
What is the function of the nervous system
receives, processes, and stores sensory input
provides motor output
coordinates organ systems
What organs make up the endocrine system?
testes, ovaries, adrenal glands, pancreas, thymus, thyroid, pineal gland
What is the function of the endocrine system?
coordinates organ systems and stress responses
involved in fluid and pH homeostasis
A group of similar cells which perform a specific function