Zoology Test

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wrestlingmom
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Zoology Test
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2010-06-23 15:27:34
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Zoology Test 1
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  1. Describe Animal Complexity
    • •protoplasmic
    • •cellular
    • •tissue
    • •organ
    • •organ system
  2. What is Histology?
    The study of tissue.
  3. Name the Tissue types
    Endoderm - internalorgans

    mesoderm - muscle, connective

    ectoderm - skin, nervous
  4. How many layers of diploblastic tissue are there?
    two embryonic layers
  5. How many layers of triploblastic tissue are there?
    three embryonic layers
  6. What is animal body Symmetry?
    • *Non-symmetrical or none
    • *Spherical
    • *Radial -
    • *Bilateral
  7. What are some of the Body regions? (mostly applied to bilateral animals)
    • anterior/ posterior top/bottom
    • dorsal/ ventral back/front
    • medial/ lateral inside/outside
    • distal/ proximal tip/joins
  8. What are the different Body cavities? (only triploblastic animals)
    • acoelomate - no coelom (cnidiarians, flatworms)
    • pseudocoelomate - false coelom (roundworms)
    • eucoelomate - true coelom (annelids, all more complex animals)
  9. Segmentation
    Cephalization
  10. Zoology History
    goes back to the 6th Century BC.One of the more famous historical scientists was Aristotle. He was the first zoologist to use the scientific method
  11. What is Zoology
    the scientific study of animals.
  12. five kingdoms
    Plantae, Animaila, Fungi, Monera, Protista
  13. smallest animal
    Rotifer 0.01 inch
  14. largest animal
    Blue whale, 100 feet in length
  15. Animals are _______cellular
    Multi
  16. Animals (also plants, fungi, protozoans) contain __________ cells
    eukaryotic
  17. Homology
    a similarity often attributable to common origin
  18. •Allele
    One member of a pair or series of genes that occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome
  19. •Genotype
    The genetic makeup
  20. Phenotype
    The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism
  21. Gene pool
    The collective genetic information contained within a population of sexually reproducing organisms
  22. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
    the statement that allele frequencies in a population remain constant over time, in the absence of forces to change them
  23. Speciation
    The evolutionary formation of new biological species, usually by the division of a single species into two or more genetically distinct ones.
  24. Genetic drift
    Random fluctuations in the frequency of the appearance of a gene in a small isolated population
  25. What is life?
    • There are seven characteristics
    • Chemical uniqueness
    • Exhibit complex hierarchical organization
    • Reproduction
    • Possession of a genetic program
    • Metabolism
    • Development
    • Environmental interaction
  26. Law of conservation of energy
    • states that energy is neither created nor destroyed but can be
    • transformed from one form to another
  27. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    states that physical systems tend to proceed toward a state of greater disorder (entropy)
  28. scientia
    Latin meaning knowledge.
  29. What is not Science?
    • Science isn’t art
    • Science isn’t “technology” (science doesn’t need technology)
    • Science isn’t truth and it isn’t certainty
    • Science isn’t religion or a religion
    • Scholasticism was more deductive than the induction that modern science uses
  30. Science
    • 1.Science is guided by Natural Law
    • 2.Scientific knowledge is explained based on Natural Law thus Supernatural explanations are not of science
    • 3.Scientific knowledge must be testable by the Scientific Method
    • 4.Conclusions in science are never Final
    • 5.Conclusions are Tentative
    • 6.Scientific knowledge is Falsifiable

    • •Physical, chemical and biological laws developed through Scientific Method
    • •“Nothing is sacred”
  31. Theory
    a well-substantiated explanation that incorporates facts, laws, inferences and tested hypotheses. physical world behaves
  32. Hypothesis
    a testable statement that can be used to build inferences and explanations
  33. Scientific method
    • 1.Make observations
    • 2.State a question about your observations
    • 3.Formulate a hypothesis (or a null hypothesis) to explain observations
    • 4.Test hypothesis
    • 5.Conclusion – if the hypothesis is rejected or accepted will guide conclusions
    • 6.Publish findings for other researchers to continue work
  34. What is Ecology
    Study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment.
  35. Ernst Haeckel
    coined term Ecology in 1866

    Greek word “oikos” means house
  36. Levels of Organization
    • –Species
    • –Population
    • –Community
    • –Ecosystem
    • –Biome
    • –Biosphere
  37. Species
    Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
  38. Population
    •group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area.
  39. Community
    an assemblage of different populations that live together
  40. Ecosystem
    Collection of organisms that live in a place with the nonliving environment
  41. Biome
    Group of ecosystems with the same climate and dominant communities
  42. Biosphere
    The part of the earth where life exists including land, water, air, and atmosphere
  43. Habitat
    Place or set of environmental conditions where a particular organism lives. (= address)
  44. •Ecological Niche
    Role a species plays in a biological community (e.g. large grassland herbivore) [= job]
  45. Generalists
    Broad niche
  46. Specialists
    Narrow niche
  47. •When generalists and specialists collide who wins?
    Generalists usually win
  48. Interspecific
    Competition between members of different species.
  49. Intraspecific
    Competition among members of the same species.
  50. Abiotic
    the nonliving things in an environment (sunlight, weather, climate, fire, soil conditions, etc.)
  51. Biotic
    all the living things or their materials that directly or indirectly affect an organism in its environment (organisms and their biproducts, disease, parasitism, predation, etc.)
  52. Intrinsic rate of increase or “r”
    If one bacterium grew without limit for a month… the colony would weigh as much as the visible universe and would expand at the speed of light
  53. Demography
    • study of birth, death, and movement rates that give rise to population changes
  54. Ecological processes
    • •Succession – community(s) in transition
    • •Edge Effects – effects of habitat boundaries
    • •Climax community – reached stable stage
    • •Carrying capacity or “K” -
  55. Species interactions
    • •Mutualism (+/+)
    • •Commensalism (+/0)
    • •Amensalism(-/0)
    • •Parasitism or predator/prey (+/-)
    • •Competition (-/-)

    •Introduced species
  56. Predator-prey dynamics
    •Changes in the predator population follow that of the prey
  57. Autotrophs
    make their own food so they are called PRODUCERS
  58. Heterotrophs
    get their food from another source so they are called CONSUMERS
  59. Herbivores
    only eat plants
  60. Carnivores
    only eat meat
  61. Omnivores
    Eat plants and meat
  62. Detritivores and Decomposers
    Feeds on plant and animal remains
  63. Food Chain
    steps of organisms transferring energy by eating & being eaten
  64. Food Web
    network of all the food chains in an ecosystem
  65. Pyramid of Numbers
    -relative number of individuals at each trophic level
  66. How does Matter move through an ecosystem?
    • •Biogeochemical Cycles:
    • –Bio –life
    • –Geo – Earth
    • –Chemo – chemical


    1.WATER CYCLE

    • 2.NUTRIENT CYCLES:
    • a)CARBON CYCLE
    • b)NITROGEN CYCLE
    • c)PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
  67. CARBON CYCLE
    • 4 PROCESSES MOVE CARBON THROUGH ITS CYCLE:
    • 1)Biological
    • 2)Geochemical
    • 3)Mixed biochemical
    • 4)Human Activity
  68. NITROGEN CYCLE
    • Nitrogen-containing nutrients in the biosphere include:
    • 1)Ammonia (NH3)
    • 2)Nitrate (NO3-)
    • 3)Nitrite (NO2-)
    • ORGANISMS NEED NITROGEN TO MAKE AMINO ACIDS FOR BUILDING PROTEINS!!!
  69. PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
    PHOSPHORUS FORMS PART OF IMPORTANT LIFE-SUSTAINING MOLECULES (ex. DNA & RNA)
  70. Why give animals names??
    • •There are more than 1.5 million identified species, but there may be 2-50 million total species! There are ~10,000 discovered each year!
    • •We need a naming system to assign a unique and universal name to each organism and to place organisms into groups that have biological meaning.
  71. •Aristotle
  72. 1st to classify animals
    • •Carolus Linnaeus
    • •published the Systema Naturae
  73. Taxonomy
    •study of the principles of scientific classification, systematic ordering and naming of organisms
  74. Nomenclature
    •the assignment of a distinctive name to a species
  75. Binomial nomenclature
    two (often) Latin or Greek names for an organism
  76. classification
    the study of the kinds and diversity of organisms
  77. Aristotle’s system
    He classified animals as:–Land Dwellers –Water Dwellers or –Air Dwellers
  78. The seven major taxonomic categories
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • species
  79. Taxonomic Characters and Phylogeny
    • •Homology
    • •Ancestral
    • •Derived
    • •Phylogeny
  80. What determines a species?
    •Common descent

    •Smallest distinct grouping

    •Reproductive community
  81. Phylogenetic
    “…irreducible (basal) grouping of organisms diagnosably distinct from other such groupings and within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and descent.” (emphasizes common descent)


    A phylogenetic tree is more specific than a cladogram, with added information explaining any evolutionary relationships.
  82. The Five Kingdoms
    • •Kingdom Monera
    • •Kingdom Protista
    • •Kingdom Plantae
    • •Kingdom Fungi
    • •Kingdom Animalia
  83. Protostome
    •blastula has spiral cleavage
  84. The Kingdom Protista is (sometimes) divided into four major groups, not technical divisions but instead grouped by lifestyle:
    • A- the protozoans.
    • B- the unicellular algae.
    • C- the multicellular algae
    • D- the slime molds.. (not mentioned in your text book)
  85. Protista
    • 200,000 to millions of species?
    • Eukaryotic
    • Most are unicellular, some in colonies
    • Most have locomotive structures
    • –flagella, cilia, or pseudopods
    • Vary in shape and size
    • Typically inhabit water or soil
  86. Plant like protista
    are autotrophs – they contain chloroplasts and make their own food.
  87. Animal-like and fungus-like protists and are
    heterotrophs.
  88. All protozoa digest their food in stomach-like compartments called
    vacuoles
  89. Examples of protists
    • •Amoeba
    • •Cilia
    • •Flagella
    • •Apicomplexa
  90. Characteristics of Protista
    • 1.Unicellular – single (usually) eukaryotic cell
    • 2.Mostly microscopic.
    • 3.All symmetries are present (bilateral, radial, spherical or asymmetrical)
    • 4.No germ layer present (no tissues)
    • 5.Contains intracellular specialization or division of labor within the cell involving the organelles.
    • 6.Different lifestyles represented. Free living, mutualism, commensalisms and parasitism all represented.
    • 7.Locomotion by: pseudopodia, flagella, cilia and direct cell movements. Some are sessile. (Know the different types of locomotion.)
    • 8.Most are “naked”, but some have a simple endoskeleton or exoskeleton.
    • 9.Different method for acquiring nutrition: autotrophic, heterotrophic or saprozoic.
    • 10.Occur in aquatic or terrestrial habitats.
    • 11.Asexual reproduction by fission, budding and cysts. Sexual reproduction by conjugation or syngamy.
  91. Trophozoite
    Motile feeding stage
  92. Some are animal parasites
    & can be spread by insect vectors
  93. Zoonosis
    • An infectious disease in animals that can be transmitted to people.
    • The natural reservoir for the infectious agent is an animal.
  94. trophozoite
    active feeding stage
  95. Hemoflagellates
    Spread by blood-sucking insects that serve as intermediate hosts
  96. Trypanosoma brucei
    Spread by tsetse flies
  97. Trypanosoma cruzi
    Kissing bug is the vector
  98. Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis transmitted among mammalian hosts by
    female sand flies that require a blood meal to produce eggs
  99. Entamoeba histolytica
    • Incites dysentery, abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea & weight loss
    • Carried by 10% of world population
  100. Apicomplexan Protozoa
    • All members are parasitic
    • Their apical complex makes them unique
  101. Sponges
    Phylum Porifera
  102. Sponge taxonomy
    Grade Parazoa (includes Sponges)
  103. Sponge taxonomy
    • Class Calcarea
    • Class Hexactinellida
    • Class Demospongiae
  104. Class Calcarea
    Calcium carbonate spicules, 3-4 rays, all chamber types, small
  105. Class Hexactinellida
    Glass sponges, deep sea, small, six rayed siliceous
  106. Class Demospongiae
    80% of all sponges, freshwater, siliceous spicules and/or spongin, all leuconoid
  107. Sponge anatomy
    • Ostia
    • Oscula
    • Choanocytes
  108. Pinacocytes
    (cover exterior surface)
  109. Choanocytes
    (collar cells)
  110. Archaeocytes
    (ameboid cells in mesohyl)
  111. Mesohyl
    gelatinous “connective material"
  112. Canal systems
    • Increases in complexity
    • •Asconoid
    • •Syconoid
    • •Leuconoid
  113. Skeletons/Spicules
    • •Calcareous
    • •Siliceous
    • •Spongin

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