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Describe Animal Complexity
- •organ system
What is Histology?
The study of tissue.
Name the Tissue types
Endoderm - internalorgans
mesoderm - muscle, connective
ectoderm - skin, nervous
How many layers of diploblastic tissue are there?
two embryonic layers
How many layers of triploblastic tissue are there?
three embryonic layers
What is animal body Symmetry?
- *Non-symmetrical or none
- *Radial -
What are some of the Body regions? (mostly applied to bilateral animals)
- anterior/ posterior top/bottom
- dorsal/ ventral back/front
- medial/ lateral inside/outside
- distal/ proximal tip/joins
What are the different Body cavities? (only triploblastic animals)
- acoelomate - no coelom (cnidiarians, flatworms)
- pseudocoelomate - false coelom (roundworms)
- eucoelomate - true coelom (annelids, all more complex animals)
goes back to the 6th Century BC.One of the more famous historical scientists was Aristotle. He was the first zoologist to use the scientific method
What is Zoology
the scientific study of animals.
Plantae, Animaila, Fungi, Monera, Protista
Rotifer 0.01 inch
Blue whale, 100 feet in length
Animals are _______cellular
Animals (also plants, fungi, protozoans) contain __________ cells
a similarity often attributable to common origin
One member of a pair or series of genes that occupy a specific position on a specific chromosome
The genetic makeup
The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism
The collective genetic information contained within a population of sexually reproducing organisms
the statement that allele frequencies in a population remain constant over time, in the absence of forces to change them
The evolutionary formation of new biological species, usually by the division of a single species into two or more genetically distinct ones.
Random fluctuations in the frequency of the appearance of a gene in a small isolated population
What is life?
- There are seven characteristics
- Chemical uniqueness
- Exhibit complex hierarchical organization
- Possession of a genetic program
- Environmental interaction
Law of conservation of energy
- states that energy is neither created nor destroyed but can be
- transformed from one form to another
Second Law of Thermodynamics
states that physical systems tend to proceed toward a state of greater disorder (entropy)
Latin meaning knowledge.
What is not Science?
- Science isn’t art
- Science isn’t “technology” (science doesn’t need technology)
- Science isn’t truth and it isn’t certainty
- Science isn’t religion or a religion
- Scholasticism was more deductive than the induction that modern science uses
- 1.Science is guided by Natural Law
- 2.Scientific knowledge is explained based on Natural Law thus Supernatural explanations are not of science
- 3.Scientific knowledge must be testable by the Scientific Method
- 4.Conclusions in science are never Final
- 5.Conclusions are Tentative
- 6.Scientific knowledge is Falsifiable
- •Physical, chemical and biological laws developed through Scientific Method
- •“Nothing is sacred”
a well-substantiated explanation that incorporates facts, laws, inferences and tested hypotheses. physical world behaves
a testable statement that can be used to build inferences and explanations
- 1.Make observations
- 2.State a question about your observations
- 3.Formulate a hypothesis (or a null hypothesis) to explain observations
- 4.Test hypothesis
- 5.Conclusion – if the hypothesis is rejected or accepted will guide conclusions
- 6.Publish findings for other researchers to continue work
What is Ecology
Study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment.
coined term Ecology in 1866
Greek word “oikos” means house
Levels of Organization
Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
•group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area.
an assemblage of different populations that live together
Collection of organisms that live in a place with the nonliving environment
Group of ecosystems with the same climate and dominant communities
The part of the earth where life exists including land, water, air, and atmosphere
Place or set of environmental conditions where a particular organism lives. (= address)
Role a species plays in a biological community (e.g. large grassland herbivore) [= job]
•When generalists and specialists collide who wins?
Generalists usually win
Competition between members of different species.
Competition among members of the same species.
the nonliving things in an environment (sunlight, weather, climate, fire, soil conditions, etc.)
all the living things or their materials that directly or indirectly affect an organism in its environment (organisms and their biproducts, disease, parasitism, predation, etc.)
Intrinsic rate of increase or “r”
If one bacterium grew without limit for a month… the colony would weigh as much as the visible universe and would expand at the speed of light
- study of birth, death, and movement rates that give rise to population changes
- •Succession – community(s) in transition
- •Edge Effects – effects of habitat boundaries
- •Climax community – reached stable stage
- •Carrying capacity or “K” -
- •Mutualism (+/+)
- •Commensalism (+/0)
- •Parasitism or predator/prey (+/-)
- •Competition (-/-)
•Changes in the predator population follow that of the prey
make their own food so they are called PRODUCERS
get their food from another source so they are called CONSUMERS
Eat plants and meat
Detritivores and Decomposers
Feeds on plant and animal remains
steps of organisms transferring energy by eating & being eaten
network of all the food chains in an ecosystem
Pyramid of Numbers
-relative number of individuals at each trophic level
How does Matter move through an ecosystem?
- •Biogeochemical Cycles:
- –Bio –life
- –Geo – Earth
- –Chemo – chemical
- 2.NUTRIENT CYCLES:
- a)CARBON CYCLE
- b)NITROGEN CYCLE
- c)PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
- 4 PROCESSES MOVE CARBON THROUGH ITS CYCLE:
- 3)Mixed biochemical
- 4)Human Activity
- Nitrogen-containing nutrients in the biosphere include:
- 1)Ammonia (NH3)
- 2)Nitrate (NO3-)
- 3)Nitrite (NO2-)
- ORGANISMS NEED NITROGEN TO MAKE AMINO ACIDS FOR BUILDING PROTEINS!!!
PHOSPHORUS FORMS PART OF IMPORTANT LIFE-SUSTAINING MOLECULES (ex. DNA & RNA)
- •There are more than 1.5 million identified species, but there may be 2-50 million total species! There are ~10,000 discovered each year!
- •We need a naming system to assign a unique and universal name to each organism and to place organisms into groups that have biological meaning.
1st to classify animals
- •Carolus Linnaeus
- •published the Systema Naturae
•study of the principles of scientific classification, systematic ordering and naming of organisms
•the assignment of a distinctive name to a species
two (often) Latin or Greek names for an organism
the study of the kinds and diversity of organisms
He classified animals as:–Land Dwellers –Water Dwellers or –Air Dwellers
The seven major taxonomic categories
Taxonomic Characters and Phylogeny
What determines a species?
•Smallest distinct grouping
“…irreducible (basal) grouping of organisms diagnosably distinct from other such groupings and within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and descent.” (emphasizes common descent)
A phylogenetic tree is more specific than a cladogram, with added information explaining any evolutionary relationships.
- •Kingdom Monera
- •Kingdom Protista
- •Kingdom Plantae
- •Kingdom Fungi
- •Kingdom Animalia
•blastula has spiral cleavage
The Kingdom Protista is (sometimes) divided into four major groups, not technical divisions but instead grouped by lifestyle:
- A- the protozoans.
- B- the unicellular algae.
- C- the multicellular algae
- D- the slime molds.. (not mentioned in your text book)
- 200,000 to millions of species?
- Most are unicellular, some in colonies
- Most have locomotive structures
- –flagella, cilia, or pseudopods
- Vary in shape and size
- Typically inhabit water or soil
Plant like protista
are autotrophs – they contain chloroplasts and make their own food.
Animal-like and fungus-like protists and are
All protozoa digest their food in stomach-like compartments called
Examples of protists
Characteristics of Protista
- 1.Unicellular – single (usually) eukaryotic cell
- 2.Mostly microscopic.
- 3.All symmetries are present (bilateral, radial, spherical or asymmetrical)
- 4.No germ layer present (no tissues)
- 5.Contains intracellular specialization or division of labor within the cell involving the organelles.
- 6.Different lifestyles represented. Free living, mutualism, commensalisms and parasitism all represented.
- 7.Locomotion by: pseudopodia, flagella, cilia and direct cell movements. Some are sessile. (Know the different types of locomotion.)
- 8.Most are “naked”, but some have a simple endoskeleton or exoskeleton.
- 9.Different method for acquiring nutrition: autotrophic, heterotrophic or saprozoic.
- 10.Occur in aquatic or terrestrial habitats.
- 11.Asexual reproduction by fission, budding and cysts. Sexual reproduction by conjugation or syngamy.
Motile feeding stage
Some are animal parasites
& can be spread by insect vectors
- An infectious disease in animals that can be transmitted to people.
- The natural reservoir for the infectious agent is an animal.
active feeding stage
Spread by blood-sucking insects that serve as intermediate hosts
Spread by tsetse flies
Kissing bug is the vector
Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis transmitted among mammalian hosts by
female sand flies that require a blood meal to produce eggs
- Incites dysentery, abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea & weight loss
- Carried by 10% of world population
- All members are parasitic
- Their apical complex makes them unique
Grade Parazoa (includes Sponges)
- Class Calcarea
- Class Hexactinellida
- Class Demospongiae
Calcium carbonate spicules, 3-4 rays, all chamber types, small
Glass sponges, deep sea, small, six rayed siliceous
80% of all sponges, freshwater, siliceous spicules and/or spongin, all leuconoid
(cover exterior surface)
(ameboid cells in mesohyl)
gelatinous “connective material"
- Increases in complexity